Questionnaire Survey (questionnaire + survey)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Questionnaire Survey

  • cross-sectional questionnaire survey
  • postal questionnaire survey

  • Selected Abstracts

    Patients' attitudes to medicines and expectations for prescriptions

    Nicky Britten MA MSc PhD
    Abstract Background, Recent research has shown that patients' expectations for prescriptions influence doctors' prescribing decisions, but little is known of the antecedents of these expectations. Objectives, To test earlier qualitative research about patients' views of medicines; to describe the demographic characteristics of those holding orthodox and unorthodox views of medicines; to investigate the relationship between patients' ideal and predicted expectations for prescriptions; and to determine the relative effects of attitudinal, demographic, organizational and illness variables on these expectations. Design, Questionnaire survey of patients consulting general practitioners. Setting and participants, A total of 544 patients and 15 doctors in four general practices. Main variables studied, Patients' attitudes to medicines; patients' demographic characteristics; organizational variables; aspects of patients' presenting problems. Outcome measures, Patients' ideal and predicted expectations for prescriptions. Results, Orthodox and unorthodox attitudes to medicines can be measured quantitatively, and ethnicity was the only demographic variable associated with both. Ideal and predicted expectations for prescriptions were closely related to each other but differed in their antecedents. Both types of expectations were associated with attitudinal, demographic, organizational and illness variables. Ideal expectations were influenced by orthodox and unorthodox attitudes to medicines, while predicted expectations were only influenced by orthodox attitudes. Conclusions, Future studies of patients' expectations for health services should distinguish between ideal and predicted expectations, and should consider the range of possible influences on these expectations. In particular, the effect of the organization and context of health services should be investigated. [source]

    Mode of delivery and risk of fecal incontinence in women with or without inflammatory bowel disease: Questionnaire survey,

    J.P.L. Ong MRCP
    Abstract Background: Elective cesarean section (CS) may be recommended for patients with Crohn's disease and perineal involvement. Little is known about CS rates in parous women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), nor the possible long-term impact of vaginal delivery and episiotomy on continence in women with IBD. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to all 777 regional members of a Colitis and Crohn's Disease patient association. Male members were asked to request their unaffected female spouse/partner to complete the forms in order to give a "control" group for comparison. Results: Forms were returned by 491 members (response rate 63%). CS had been undertaken for 37 of the 229 parous women with IBD (16%) versus 15 of the 116 without IBD (13%) (,2 = 0.62, P = NS). Only 2 women had undergone CS due to IBD. Of the parous women with IBD, 75 (33%) had persisting problems with fecal incontinence, of whom 21 (28%) dated this back to the time of vaginal delivery. By contrast, only 2 (2%) of the parous control group had suffered persisting fecal incontinence following vaginal delivery (,2 = 8.27, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Persisting fecal incontinence is reported by a significant minority of parous women with IBD, of whom over one-quarter date this back to vaginal delivery. CS is rarely recommended due to IBD alone. If our findings are confirmed in prospective studies, the threshold for recommending CS may need to be lowered for patients with IBD. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

    Questionnaire survey on the use of rotary nickel,titanium endodontic instruments by Australian dentists

    P. Parashos
    Abstract Aim, To ascertain the extent of the adoption and use of rotary nickel,titanium (NiTi) instruments and techniques in general dental practice and specialist endodontic practice in Australia in 2001. Methodology, A questionnaire survey comprising 43 questions was developed by first creating questions, then pilot testing with 10 postgraduate students in endodontics, followed by a final revision. The final series of questions covered demographics, patterns of rotary NiTi usage, issues associated with NiTi usage and training in NiTi use. The sampling frame was 908, comprising 64 endodontists and 844 general dentists. Results, The overall response rate was 87%. Rotary NiTi instruments were used by 22% of general dentists and 64% of endodontists. The two main reasons for not using rotary NiTi were ,no perceived advantage' and ,too fragile'. Instrument fracture had been experienced by 74% of respondents, and 72% of these had fractured one to five files for the two main perceived reasons of ,excessive pressure on the file' and ,over-usage'. The next two most common problems encountered were ,binding' (53%) and ,ledging' (45%). Very high proportions of positive experiences were noted. Most respondents (73%) had attended one or more continuing education courses, most of which were provided by dental supply companies (64%). Conclusions, The results indicate a sensible and responsible approach to the incorporation of rotary NiTi instruments and techniques into root canal treatment. Dentists were aware of the limitations of the new technology, but were taking steps to become familiar with the properties and behaviour of the instruments. Instrument fracture was common, but it was of low frequency and did not deter dentists from using the technology. [source]

    A multidisciplinary guideline for the acute phase of stroke: barriers perceived by Dutch neurologists

    Trudy Van Der Weijden PhD MD
    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives, Guidelines for stroke management should improve quality of care. Dissemination of guidelines, however, does not guarantee guideline adherence. The aim of this paper is to investigate barriers for guideline adherence to bring about suggestions for possible implementation strategies. Method, Questionnaire survey among all Dutch neurologists working on neurology wards in general hospitals during the year 2000 in The Netherlands. Results, The neurologists expressed a high degree of agreement with the diagnostic and preventive recommendations, but expressed doubts with regard to the therapeutic recommendations, especially for the recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy. In general, barriers at the organizational and the multidisciplinary team level were most prominent. Conclusions, Active implementation of the guidelines seems necessary. Implementation strategies should be focused on the different sources of barriers: the caregiver, the patient and the organization of care. [source]

    Surgeons' participation in continuing medical education: is it evidence-based?

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 5 2006
    J M Young
    Background, Interactive forms of continuing medical education (CME) are more likely to improve clinical practice than traditional, passive approaches. This study investigated CME participation and preferences among surgeons. Method, Questionnaire survey of surgeons in New South Wales, Australia. Results, On average, respondents (n = 418, 77% response rate) committed 364 hours (interquartile range 228,512 hours) to CME per year. Surgeons working at tertiary referral teaching hospitals were twice as likely as those working in other types of hospital to report spending more than 12 hours per month on CME (OR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4,3.1). Overall, reading accounted for 17% of CME time and attending conferences a further 12%. Clinical audit accounted for significantly less CME time (3.5%) (both P < 0.001). Conferences were considered the single most useful form of CME by 28% (95% CI: 24,33%). Over half (55%, 95% CI: 50,59%) ranked reading as 1 of the 3 most useful types of CME, whereas significantly fewer so ranked clinical audit (6%, 95% CI: 4,9%) (,2 = 230.8, 1 d.f., P < 0.001). Conclusion, Australian surgeons commit a considerable amount of time to CME, but much of this time is spent in passive educational activities. Development of acceptable and effective CME programmes will benefit both surgeons and their patients. [source]

    Evidence based guidelines and current practice for physiotherapy management of knee osteoarthritis

    Nicola E. Walsh MSc MCSP
    Abstract Objectives:,To document physiotherapy provision for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in relation to the United Kingdom (UK) recently published National Institute of health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for osteoarthritis. Design:,Questionnaire survey of chartered physiotherapists. Method:,300 postal questionnaires were distributed to Physiotherapy Departments requesting information regarding source of referrals, treatment aims, preferred methods of treatment and service delivery. Results:,Responses were received from 83 physiotherapists (28 %), predominantly working in the UK National Health Service. Approximately equal numbers of referrals came from primary and secondary care. Aims of physiotherapy management were to; encourage self-management; increase strength and range of movement; reduce pain; and improve function. To achieve these, exercise was utilised by 100% of practitioners, often supplemented with electrotherapeutic modalities (66%), manual therapy (64%) and acupuncture (60%). The majority of patients received individual treatment for a total contact time of 1,2 hours, whilst most group interventions lasted 5,6 hours. Approximately half (54%) of respondents reported using outcome measures to determine treatment efficacy. Conclusions:,Although knee OA is usually managed in primary care, the similar number of referrals from primary and secondary care may suggest a deviation from evidence-based management guidelines. The guidelines' recommendations of exercise, patient education and self-management are observed by physiotherapists, but other modalities are often used despite poor or no research evidence supporting their efficacy. Whether any of these interventions are clinically beneficial is speculative as treatment outcomes were frequently under-evaluated. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Questionnaire survey on the understanding of epilepsy among non-medical persons

    Akihisa Okumura
    Abstract Background: A questionnaire survey was conducted on the understanding of epilepsy and febrile seizures in preschool teachers, public health nurses, and parents or caregivers of children with epilepsy. Methods: The survey was performed in three different sites at different dates. The participants were 16 preschool teachers, 25 public health nurses, and 34 parents or caregivers of children with epilepsy. Results: Seventy-seven percent of the participants thought that epilepsy was not always untreatable. Sixty-seven percent of the participants thought that epilepsy was not a hereditary disease. Sixty-one percent of the participants considered that repetitive seizures cause brain damage, and 93% of them thought that patients with epilepsy must be treated. Seventy-six percent of the participants thought that febrile seizures evolve into epilepsy if left untreated. Seventy-seven percent of the participants considered that vaccination can be performed in patients with epilepsy or febrile seizures, and 89% of them thought that swimming should not be forbidden in patients with epilepsy or febrile seizures. There was no significant difference in the answers with regard to the positions of the participants except in one question. Conclusions: The present questionnaire survey provided some information on the understanding of epilepsy among non-medical persons. A nationwide public survey is needed to clarify the problems in the public understanding of epilepsy. [source]

    New postnatal urinary incontinence: obstetric and other risk factors in primiparae

    CMA Glazener
    Objective, To identify obstetric and other risk factors for urinary incontinence that occurs during pregnancy or after childbirth. Design, Questionnaire survey of women. Setting, Maternity units in Aberdeen (Scotland), Birmingham (England) and Dunedin (New Zealand). Population, A total of 3405 primiparous women with singleton births delivered during 1 year. Methods, Questionnaire responses and obstetric case note data were analysed using multivariate analysis to identify associations with urinary incontinence. Main outcome measures, Urinary incontinence at 3 months after delivery first starting in pregnancy or after birth. Results, The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 29%. New incontinence first beginning after delivery was associated with older maternal age (oldest versus youngest group, OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.35,3.02) and method of delivery (caesarean section versus spontaneous vaginal delivery, OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.19,0.41). There were no significant associations with forceps delivery (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.92,1.51) or vacuum delivery (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.83,1.63). Incontinence first occurring during pregnancy and still present at 3 months was associated with higher maternal body mass index (BMI > 25, OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.16,2.43) and heavier babies (birthweight in top quartile, OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.12,2.19). In these women, caesarean section was associated with less incontinence (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.27,0.58) but incontinence was not associated with age. Conclusions, Women have less urinary incontinence after a first delivery by caesarean section whether or not that first starts during pregnancy. Older maternal age was associated with new postnatal incontinence, and higher BMI and heavier babies with incontinence first starting during pregnancy. The effect of further deliveries may modify these findings. [source]

    What do they know?: a content analysis of women's perceptions of trial information

    Sara Kenyon
    Objective To examine interpretations of study information by women participating in ORACLE, a trial of antibiotics in preterm labour. Design Questionnaire survey sent to women recruited to the ORACLE trial. Setting United Kingdom. Population A questionnaire was sent to 3074 ORACLE participants in a purposively selected sample of 55 collaborating maternity units, chosen to reflect a range of regions and of district general and teaching hospitals. Methods Content analysis was applied to verbatim text provided in response to an open question. Responses were also compared with a framework based on key points about the purpose of ORACLE. Closed questions were analysed using descriptive statistics. Main outcome measures Participants' interpretations of the purpose of the study. Results A response rate of 61% was achieved, and 1462 participants provided written answers to a specific question on why the study was being carried out. Content analysis suggested that the information leaflet was highly valued as a source of information about the trial. There was evidence that women's interpretations of the purpose of the trial were not identical to those that the investigators intended. Of the five key points about the trial described in the information leaflet, 400 (27%) participants reported one key point, 550 (38%) two key points, 229 (16%) three key points and 23 (1.5%) four key points. None reported five key points and it was not possible to classify 46 responses (3%). Vague, confused understanding or poor recall were evident in 204 (14%) of responses. Conclusion Although the ORACLE trial was run as a model of good practice at the time, this study suggests that it may not be possible to demonstrate full understanding of trial purpose and design by all participants. Emphasis should be on the provision of full information that involves consumers in its design and evaluation. [source]

    The prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women

    J.K. Johnson
    Objective To determine the prevalence of domestic violence in a population of pregnant women. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting Antenatal booking clinic in a north of England hospital. Population Five hundred consecutive women were included. Methods Anonymous confidential questionnaire to women who were not accompanied by their partners. Main outcome measures Disclosure of a past history of physical, emotional or sexual abuse. Results Four hundred and seventy-five questionnaires were returned (95% response rate). The prevalence of domestic violence was 17%. Domestic violence was highest in the age group 26,30 years and boyfriends were the main perpetrators. Punching and slapping were the most common pattern of violence, and 10% of women experiencing domestic violence had had forced sexual activity. Conclusion The prevalence of domestic violence in a cohort of pregnant women in the north of England was 17%. Consideration should be given for routine screening for domestic violence in pregnancy to institute effective intervention strategies. [source]

    Capturing Global Youth: Mobile Gaming in the U.S., Spain, and the Czech Republic

    Shintaro Okazaki Ph.D.
    We adapt the technology acceptance model (TAM) to examine the factors influencing mobile gaming adoption among "global youth." Our model replaces usefulness with convenience, incorporating visual appeal and escapism as antecedents of fun, and perceived novelty and economic value as antecedents of convenience. Questionnaire surveys were conducted in the U.S., Spain, and the Czech Republic, producing 432 usable responses. In the structural model assessment with the pooled sample, convenience exercises greater effects on attitude toward mobile games than fun, suggesting that the most important driver is probably the capability of being used flexibly at any time and in any place, rather than mere enjoyment. Tests of latent means suggest that most dimensions are perceived more strongly in the Czech Republic. [source]

    A pedagogical Web service-based interactive learning environment for a digital filter design course: An evolutionary approach

    Wen-Hsiung Wu
    Abstract The course of digital filter design in electronic/electrical engineering involves complicated mathematical equations and dynamic waveform variations. It is a consensus among educators that using simulation tools assist in improving students' learning experiences. Previous studies on system simulation seemed to lack an appropriate approach to design such a course. Few emphasized the design of an interactive learning environment by using an evolutionary approach. This study integrated the design concept of an evolutionary approach and Web service-based technology into a simulation system entitled Pedagogical Web Service-Based Interactive Learning Environment (PEWSILE) was introduced. The PEWSILE system contained two interactive learning environments,a simple system and an advanced system. It offered a total of six pedagogical Web services. The simple interactive learning environment included text/color-based services, and text/color/diagram-based services. The advanced interactive learning environment included batch-based, interval change-based, comparison-based, and scroll bar-based services. The study also assessed the students' performance in six pedagogical Web services covering interaction and overall use, usefulness, and intention to use through a questionnaire survey and subsequent interviews. Three significant findings were reported. For example, in the advanced interactive learning environment, the designs of interval change-based and comparison-based services make it easier to observe differences in the outcome of parameter change, while batch-based services lacks the element of waveform comparison. In sum, the findings in this study provide helpful implications in designing engineering educational software. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 18: 423,433, 2010; View this article online at; DOI 10.1002/cae.20163 [source]

    Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002): a new tool for surveying occupational skin diseases and exposure

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 2 2003
    P Susitaival
    Occupational skin diseases are among the most frequent work-related diseases in industrialized countries. Good occupational skin disease statistics exist in few countries. Questionnaire studies are needed to get more data on the epidemiology of occupational skin diseases. The Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire Group has developed a new questionnaire tool , Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002) , for surveys on work-related skin disease and exposures to environmental factors. The 2 NOSQ-2002 questionnaires have been compiled by using existing questionnaires and experience. NOSQ-2002/SHORT is a ready-to-use 4-page questionnaire for screening and monitoring occupational skin diseases, e.g. in a population or workplace. All the questions in the short questionnaire (NOSQ-2002/SHORT) are included in the long version, NOSQ-2002/LONG, which contains a pool of questions to be chosen according to research needs and tailored to specific populations. The NOSQ-2002 report includes, in addition to the questionnaires, a comprehensive manual for researchers on planning and conducting a questionnaire survey on hand eczema and relevant exposures. NOSQ-2002 questionnaires have been compiled in English and translated into Danish, Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic. The use of NOSQ-2002 will benefit research on occupational skin diseases by providing more standardized data, which can be compared between studies and countries. [source]

    Behavioural Biases of Japanese Institutional Investors: fund management and corporate governance

    Megumi Suto
    This study examines the behavioural biases of Japanese institutional investors and discusses implications for their role in corporate governance, based on the findings of a questionnaire survey of fund managers carried out in 2003. Statistical analysis of the survey results reveals a short-term bias in fund managers' investment time horizons, herding and self-marketing to improve the appearance of portfolio performance under the pressure either of customers or of institutional restraints. We conclude that institutional investors' behaviour contradicts their role as shareholders. [source]

    An exploration of corporate attitudes to the significance of environmental information for stakeholders

    David Collison
    This paper reports on a questionnaire survey sent to environmental managers in quoted UK firms from environmentally sensitive sectors. A total of 58 usable responses was received, with most but not all being returned by environmental managers. While contextual information regarding perceptions of their companies' environmental sensitivity and management systems was sought, the main focus of the questionnaire was on respondents' views about stakeholder concerns. There was broad agreement that external stakeholders attached importance to environmental communications. The results indicate that respondents' perceptions of these issues were associated with the formality of their internal management systems and with the role of the respondents within their firms. It was also found that shareholders were thought to be the least interested stakeholder group. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Ergonomics in Office-Based Surgery: A Survey-Guided Observational Study

    BACKGROUND The practice of office-based surgery is increasing in many specialties. OBJECTIVE Using Mohs surgery as a model, we investigated the role of ergonomics in office-based surgery to limit work-related musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS All Mayo Clinic surgeons currently performing Mohs surgery and Mohs surgeons trained at Mayo Clinic between 1990 and 2004 received a questionnaire survey between May 2003 and September 2004. A sample of respondents were videotaped during surgery. The main outcome measures were survey responses and an ergonomist's identification of potential causes of musculoskeletal disorders. RESULTS All 17 surgeons surveyed responded. Those surveyed spend a mean of 24 hours per week in surgery. Sixteen said they had symptoms caused by or made worse by performing surgery. Symptom onset occurred on average at age 35.4 years. The most common complaints were pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulders, and lower back and headaches. Videotapes of 6 surgeons revealed problems with operating room setup, awkward posture, forceful exertion, poor positioning, lighting, and duration of procedures. CONCLUSION Symptoms of musculoskeletal injuries are common and may begin early in a physician's career. Modifying footwear, flooring, table height, operating position, lighting, and surgical instruments may improve the ergonomics of office-based surgery. [source]

    Long-term review of driving potential following bilateral panretinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2009
    S. A. Vernon
    Abstract Aim To determine the necessity for repeated Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) visual field testing in people with diabetes who have had bilateral panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted of driving history in a cohort of people with diabetes who had been treated with bilateral PRP for proliferative retinopathy between 1988 and 1990. In addition, all similarly eligible subjects attending the diabetic retinal review clinic over a 12-month period who had had laser between 1991 and 2000 were questioned as to their driving status. Results Forty-five surviving patients from the 1988,1990 cohort were eligible and 25 returned the questionnaire (55%). Eight had never driven and 15 (13 with Type 1 diabetes) still held a valid licence, having passed the DVLA field test on a number of occasions. Neither of the two patients who had stopped driving reported failing the DVLA field test as the reason for stopping. All 12 of the patients directly questioned in the clinic were still driving and had passed at least one repeat DVLA test. Conclusions People with Type 1 diabetes who have no further laser treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy can expect to retain their UK driving licence for at least 15 years following small-burn PRP, provided they maintain sufficient acuity. [source]

    Near patient testing for glycated haemoglobin in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus managed in primary care: acceptability and satisfaction

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2007
    M. A. Stone
    Abstract Aims To assess the acceptability of and satisfaction with near patient testing for glycated haemoglobin in primary care in patients and health professionals. Methods A questionnaire survey and qualitative study were nested within a randomized controlled trial conducted in eight general practices in Leicester-shire, UK. Satisfaction with diabetes care was compared in the intervention group (near patient test) and in the control subjects (usual laboratory test), using the Diabetes Clinic Satisfaction Questionnaire. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of patients and healthcare professionals and analysed using thematic coding and framework charting. Results Questionnaire data for 344 patients were analysed and interviews were conducted with 15 patients and 11 health professionals. Interviews indicated that the near patient test was highly acceptable to patients and staff and confirmed that there may be potential benefits such as time saving, reduced anxiety and impact on patient management and job satisfaction. However, both the survey and the interviews identified high pre-existing levels of satisfaction with diabetes care in both intervention and control group patients and survey results failed to confirm increased patient satisfaction as a result of rapid testing. Limited patient understanding of glycated haemoglobin testing was noted. Conclusions We were unable to confirm actual rather than potential advantages of the near patient test. Widespread adoption in primary care cannot be recommended without further evidence of benefit. [source]


    Shiro Oka
    Bleeding, perforation, and residual/local recurrence are the main complications associated with colonoscopic treatment of colorectal tumor. However, current status regarding the average incidence of these complications in Japan is not available. We conducted a questionnaire survey, prepared by the Colorectal Endoscopic Resection Standardization Implementation Working Group, Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR), to clarify the incidence of postoperative bleeding, perforation, and residual/local recurrence associated with colonoscopic treatment. The total incidence of postoperative bleeding was 1.2% and the incidence was 0.26% with hot biopsy, 1.3% with polypectomy, 1.4% with endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), and 1.7% with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The total incidence of perforation was 0.74% (0.01% with the hot biopsy, 0.17% with polypectomy, 0.91% with EMR, and 3.3% with ESD). The total incidence of residual/local recurrence was 0.73% (0.007% with hot biopsy, 0.34% with polypectomy, 1.4% with EMR, and 2.3% with ESD). Colonoscopic examination was used as a surveillance method for detecting residual/local recurrence in all hospitals. The surveillance period differed among the hospitals; however, most of the hospitals reported a surveillance period of 3,6 months with mainly transabdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography in combination with the colonoscopic examination. [source]


    Hiroshi Imaizumi
    Oblique-viewing curved linear array (OV-CLA) echoendoscopes have been widely used to perform endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration and interventional endoscopic ultrasonography. Recently a prototype forward-viewing curved liner array (FV-CLA) echoendoscope was developed. In the present trial, 11 endoscopists participated in a hands-on trial and a questionnaire survey to evaluate the operation performance and visualization performance of a prototype FV-CLA scope in a phantom model designed for training of endoscopic ultrasonography. The results of our trial suggested that the FV-CLA scope is slightly inferior or equivalent to the conventional OV-CLA scope in operation performance, and that the FV-CLA scope is equivalent to the OV-CLA scope with regard to the visualization performance in a phantom model. [source]


    Miyako Niki
    Background:, Endoscopic examination influences cardiovascular hemodynamics. Upper gastrointestinal examinations are currently performed with a thin endoscope. In the present study, respiratory and circulatory dynamics and autonomic nervous activity using a thin endoscope (XP260) or a standard endoscope (XQ240) were investigated. Methods:, The subjects were 25 healthy adults aged less than 60 years (middle-aged group) and 15 healthy adults aged 60 years or older (advanced-age group). Percutaneous oxygen saturation, tonometric blood pressure, heart rate, and autonomic nervous activity were evaluated before the examination. After the endoscopic procedure, a questionnaire survey regarding examination-related stress was conducted. Results:, In the questionnaire survey, the proportion of subjects who answered ,very stress free' in the thin endoscope group was significantly higher than that in the standard endoscope group. The low frequency power of blood pressure variability (LFBP), an indicator of sympathetic nervous activity, was significantly lower during the thin endoscopic procedure than during the standard endoscopic procedure. Moreover, the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency power of heart rate variability (LFRR/HFRR), an indicator of sympathetic nervous activity, was significantly lower during thin endoscopic procedure than during the standard endoscopic procedure. The maximum rates of change in the LFBP and HFRR powers in the advanced-age group using thin and standard endoscopic procedures were significantly lower than in the middle-aged group. Conclusions:, The findings, although not in cross-over study, suggest that a thin endoscope has a less marked influence on circulatory kinetics. Gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations using a thin endoscope might reduce complications related to endoscopic screening examinations in advanced-age subjects. [source]

    Urban earthquake hazard: perceived seismic risk and preparedness in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    DISASTERS, Issue 2 2010
    Bimal Kanti Paul
    Bangladesh is vulnerable to seismic events. Experts suspect that if an earthquake with a 7.0 magnitude occurred in large cities of Bangladesh, there would be a major human tragedy due to the structural failure of many buildings. The primary objectives of this paper are to examine seismic risk perception among residents of Dhaka City and investigate their levels of earthquake preparedness. A questionnaire survey conducted among 444 residents of the city provided the major source of data for the paper. The survey results suggest that an overwhelming majority of the respondents were not prepared for a major earthquake, which is anticipated to occur in Dhaka. Multivariate analysis of survey data reveals that value of residential unit and respondent educational levels appear as the most significant determinants of preparedness status of the respondents. This study recommends increasing earthquake awareness and preparedness among residents of Dhaka City. [source]

    Long-term survivors of advanced esophageal cancer without surgical treatment: a multicenter questionnaire survey in Kyushu, Japan

    S. Natsugoe
    SUMMARY Since the introduction of recent improvements in adjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer, some patients have demonstrated good prognosis. In the present study, we analyzed 3- and 5-year survivors of advanced esophageal cancer who did not undergo any surgical treatment. Between 1990 and 1998, 831 patients were admitted to 14 university hospitals and one cancer center associated with the membership of the Kyushu study group for adjuvant therapy of esophageal cancer. Twelve (1.4%) of the patients were 3-year survivors and 13 (1.6%) were 5-year survivors. The reasons for non-operation were refusal (eight patients), tumor-related factors (11 patients), and host-related factors (six patients). With a single exception, all patients had locally advanced tumors. Almost all long-term survivors had fewer than five lymph node metastases, in regions limited to the neck and/or mediastinum. Radiation therapy was combined with chemotherapy for 16 of the 25 patients, and chemotherapy-based cisplatin was used for 15 of these 16 patients. Fifteen of the patients remain alive; 10 died seven of them from esophageal cancer. Chemoradiation therapy was effective for some patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer, particularly in the absence of or with few lymph node metastases. To improve the prognosis of patients with advanced esophageal cancer who, for various causes, cannot undergo surgical treatment, a new protocol for adjuvant therapy is required. [source]

    Implementation of brief alcohol intervention in primary health care: do nurses' and general practitioners' attitudes, skills and knowledge change?

    Abstract Brief alcohol intervention reduces heavy drinking, but its implementation has been challenging. The purpose was to evaluate self-reported changes in attitudes, skills and knowledge regarding brief intervention among nurses and general practitioners (GPs) during an implementation project. A questionnaire survey was used before and after the implementation to all nurses and GPs working at the time in the seven primary health-care centres of the city of Tampere, Finland. Several positive changes indicate an increased amount of knowledge regarding brief intervention among the professionals during the implementation. This was found especially among the nurses. The success in increasing the knowledge can also be seen in a decrease of training needs. Instead, attitudes and skills among the professionals did not seem to develop positively. Increasing motivational skills especially seems to be the future challenge. [source]

    Smoking cessation patterns and predictors of quitting smoking among the Japanese general population: a 1-year follow-up study

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
    Akiko Hagimoto
    ABSTRACT Aim To examine the percentage of Japanese adult smokers who make quit attempts and succeed in smoking cessation over a 1-year period, and to identify predictors of attempts to stop and successful smoking cessation. Design and setting This study used Ipsos JSR Company's access panel, whose sampling framework is based on the Basic Resident Register in Japan. We tracked and monitored a selected sample of smokers who were at least 20 years of age through a baseline postal questionnaire survey in 2005 and a follow-up survey 1 year later. Participants The original response rate was 72.1% (1874 of 2600 smokers). There were 1627 current smokers in the baseline survey, and of those, 1358 were followed-up 1 year later. Findings Among the current smokers, 23.0% reported that they had attempted to quit smoking at least once in the past year. Of those who made quit attempts, 25.6% had achieved 1-week abstinence successfully and 13.5% reported having achieved sustained 6-month abstinence successfully at the time of the follow-up survey. The predictors associated with quit attempts were non-daily smoker, higher motivation to quit and previous attempts to stop smoking. Among smokers who made quit attempts, only 13.5% used nicotine replacement therapy. Higher nicotine dependence was associated with lower probability of success in quitting. Conclusions Japanese smokers attempt to quit at a lower rate than smokers in the United Kingdom and United States, but factors that predict attempts (primarily markers of motivation) and success of attempts (primarily dependence) are similar to those found in western samples. [source]

    Unplanned attempts to quit smoking: missed opportunities for health promotion?

    ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
    Rachael L. Murray
    ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate the occurrence, determinants and reported success of unplanned and planned attempts to quit smoking, and sources of support used in these attempts. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 3512 current and ex-smokers. Setting Twenty-four general practices in Nottinghamshire, UK. Participants Individuals who reported making a quit attempt within the last 6 months. Measurements Occurrence, triggers for, support used and success of planned and unplanned quit attempts. Results A total of 1805 (51.4%) participants returned completed questionnaires, reporting 394 quit attempts made within the previous 6 months of which 37% were unplanned. Males were significantly more likely to make an unplanned quit attempt [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04,2.46], but the occurrence of unplanned quit attempts did not differ significantly by socio-economic group or amount smoked. The most common triggers for unplanned quit attempts were advice from a general practitioner or health professional (27.9%) and health problems (24.5%). 5.4% and 4.1% of unplanned quit attempts used National Health Service cessation services on a one to one and group basis, respectively, and more than half (51.7%) were made without any support. Nevertheless, unplanned attempts were more likely to be reported to be successful (adjusted OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.23,3.27, P < 0.01). Conclusions Unplanned quit attempts are common among smokers in all socio-demographic groups, are triggered commonly by advice from a health professional and are more likely to succeed; however, the majority of these unplanned attempts are unsupported. It is important to develop methods of providing behavioural and/or pharmacological support for these attempts, and determine whether these increase cessation rates still further. [source]

    Dieting and desire for weight loss among adolescents in Denmark: a questionnaire survey

    Mette Waaddegaard
    Abstract Objective: To report on the first study in Denmark of the prevalence of dieting and other weight-loss behaviours among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional study of 2094 pupils from grade 8,12, aged 14,21 years, throughout Denmark. The pupils responded to a self-administered 49-item questionnaire, which was constructed by an Expert Committee in the Danish National Board of Health. Results: The prevalence of dieting and other weight-loss behaviours were comparable to results from other countries, particularly from the Nordic countries. Dieting was dependent on BMI and sex and did not increase with age. However, the desire for weight loss increased with age for both sexes and body dissatisfaction became more extreme with age. Many boys desired a weight gain instead of a weight loss. Discussion: Dieting and other weight control behaviours increased with increasing BMI. However, most dieting and wish for weight loss was not justified by obesity but seemed to depend on a perception of being overweight. The need for identifying adolescents with at-risk behaviour related to eating disorders is emphasized. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    What women want: convenient appointment times for cervical screening tests

    B. OLOWOKURE phd, mfphm
    Little is known about women's preferred appointment times for cervical screening tests. Data from a postal questionnaire survey were used to compare preferred appointment times with those given. Although 33.4%[95% confidence intervals (CI) 31.8%,35.0%] of respondents received appointments between 10h00 and 11h55, only 17.0% (95% CI 15.3%,18.7%) wanted an appointment at that time. Nineteen per cent (95% CI 17.4%,21.0%) of respondents wanted appointments between 18h00 and 20h00, but only 4.4% (95% CI 3.7%,5.1%) received them. Saturday appointments for cervical screening are not given; however, overall approximately 13% of those surveyed would have preferred a Saturday appointment. Preferred times also varied significantly with age and deprivation category. Further research is required to determine whether appointment times for cervical screening can be tailored to meet these expressed needs, and the impact this has on service provision and uptake. [source]

    Implementation and evaluation of existing guidelines on the use of neurophysiological tests in non-acute migraine patients: a questionnaire survey of neurologists and primary care physicians

    P. Rossi
    Background and purpose:, The main aims of this study were to evaluate: the diffusion, use and perception of the usefulness of the 2004 EFNS guidelines on neurophysiological testing in non-acute headache patients; the frequency with which the different neurophysiological tests were recommended in non-acute migraine patients by physicians aware or unaware of the guidelines; and the appropriateness of the reasons given for recommending neurophysiological tests. Methods:, One hundred and fifty physicians selected amongst the members of the Italian societies of general practitioner (GPs), neurologists and headache specialists were contacted via e-mail and invited to fill in a questionnaire specially created for the study. Results:, Ninety-two percent of the headache specialists, 8.6% of the neurologists and 0% of the GPs were already aware of the EFNS guidelines. A significantly higher proportion of headache specialists had not recommended any neurophysiological tests to the migraine patients they had seen in the previous 3 months, whereas these tests had frequently been prescribed by the GPs and neurologists. Overall, 80%, 42% and 42.6% of the reasons given by headache specialists, neurologists and GPs, respectively, for recommending neurophysiological testing in their migraine patients were appropriate (P < 0.01). Conclusions:, The diffusion of the EFNS guidelines on neurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures was found to be very limited amongst neurologists and GPs. The physicians aware of the EFNS guidelines recommended neurophysiological tests to migraine patients less frequently and more appropriately than physicians who were not aware of them. The most frequent misconceptions regarding neurophysiological tests concerned their perceived capacity to discriminate between migraine and secondary headaches or between migraine and other primary headaches. [source]

    Epidemiological study of acute encephalitis in Tottori Prefecture, Japan

    K. Wada-Isoe
    Background and purpose:, To conduct an epidemiological survey of acute encephalitis focusing on non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis (NHALE) in Tottori Prefecture, western area of Japan. Methods:, A questionnaire survey on the annual number of patients aged 16 years or more with acute encephalitis from 2001 to 2005 was undertaken in 2006. Results:, During the study period, 49 patients were diagnosed with acute encephalitis. The subtype of acute encephalitis was as follows: 10 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), 12 patients with NHALE, 4 patients with paraneoplastic encephalitis, 2 patients with encephalitis associated with collagen disease, one patient with viral encephalitis other than HSE, 20 patients with encephalitis with unknown causes. The service-based incidence rate of acute encephalitis was 19.0 per million person-years. The incidence rate of NHALE subtype was 4.7 per million person-years. Conclusions:, Our epidemiological survey indicated an estimated 550 patients would develop NHALE per year in Japan, suggesting that NHALE may not be a rare disorder. [source]