Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Quercetin

  • flavonol quercetin

  • Terms modified by Quercetin

  • quercetin glycoside
  • quercetin treatment

  • Selected Abstracts

    Electrochemical Oxidation of Quercetin

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 22 2003
    Maria, Oliveira Brett
    Abstract The mechanism of electrochemical oxidation of quercetin on a glassy carbon electrode has been studied using cyclic, differential pulse and square-wave voltammetry at different pH. It proceeds in a cascade mechanism, related with the two catechol hydroxyl groups and the other three hydroxyl groups which all present electroactivity, and the oxidation is pH dependent. Quercetin also adsorbs strongly on the electrode surface; and the final oxidation product is not electroactive and blocks the electrode surface. The oxidation of the catechol 3,,4,-dihydroxyl electron-donating groups, occurs first, at very low positive potentials, and is a two electron two proton reversible reaction. The hydroxyl group oxidized next was shown to undergo an irreversible oxidation reaction, and this hydroxyl group can form a intermolecular hydrogen bond with the neighboring oxygen. The other two hydroxyl groups also have an electron donating effect and their oxidation is reversible. [source]

    Comparative mutagenic effects of structurally similar flavonoids quercetin and taxifolin on tester strains Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and Escherichia coli WP-2 uvrA

    Patrudu S. Makena
    Abstract Quercetin (QT) and Taxifolin (TF) are structurally similar plant polyphenols. Both have been reported to have therapeutic potential as anti-cancer drugs and antioxidants. Mutagenic effects of QT and TF were evaluated using Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and Escherichia coli WP-2 uvrA tester strains. Either in the presence or absence of S9 mix, QT was mutagenic to TA102 and WP2 uvrA. However, the mutagenicity of QT was significantly enhanced in the presence of S9 mix. Likewise, in the presence of Iron (Fe2+) and NADPH generating system (NGS) and absence of S9 mix, QT induced significantly high mutations in both TA102 and WP-2 uvrA. Mutagenicity of QT decreased in both strains in the presence of Iron (Fe2+) or NGS alone. TF was not mutagenic in the presence or absence of S9 mix in both TA102 and WP-2 uvrA 2, regardless of the presence of iron or NGS. Incorporation of antioxidants (ascorbate, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)) and/or iron chelators (desferroxamine (DF) and ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA)) in the test systems markedly decreased QT-induced mutations in both tester strains. These results suggest that QT but not TF, could induce mutations in the presence or absence of rat liver S9 or Iron (Fe2+) and NGS in both tester strains by redox cycling and Fenton reactions to produce oxygen free radicals. Our results indicate that a minor structural variation between the two plant polyphenols could elicit a marked difference in their genotoxicities. These results provide a basis for further study into the potential use of QT in combination with iron supplements. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Secretory Response of the Rat Colon to the Flavonol Quercetin is Dependent on Ca2+ -Calmodulin

    R. Cermak
    The dietary flavonol quercetin induces chloride secretion in rat intestine. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, experiments were performed in Ussing chambers with tissue from rat proximal and distal colon. Quercetin induced an increase in short-circuit current (Isc), which was largely independent of submucosal neurons, as it was not affected by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin. The effect of quercetin was blocked by the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine and ophiobolin A and was diminished by a blocker of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores (TMB-8), whereas the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine was ineffective. The quercetin-induced Isc was abolished in Ca2+ -free solution. The flavonol was able to further increase Isc after maximal stimulation of the cAMP pathway by forskolin. The Isc increase by the flavonol was differently affected by two analogous phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Whereas 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) antagonized the effect of quercetin, 8-methoxymethyl-IBMX had no effect. Both phosphodiesterase inhibitors similarly influenced the Isc increase induced by forskolin. These results indicate that the chloride secretion induced by quercetin in rat colon depends on Ca2+ and calmodulin. The cAMP pathway and inhibition of phosphodiesterase appear not to be responsible for the secretory activity of the flavonol. [source]

    Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of quercetin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles

    Yuying Zhang
    Abstract Quercetin is an abundant flavonoid in food plants with numerous biological activities and widely used as a potent antioxidant. Being sparingly soluble in water and subject to degradation in aqueous intestinal fluids, the absorption of quercetin is limited upon oral administration. In the present study, chitosan nanoparticles and quercetin-loaded nanoparticles were prepared based on the ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions. The encapsulation of quercetin in the chitosan nanoparticles were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrum, and fluorescence spectrum. The morphology of the nanoparticles was characterized by atomic force microscopy. The antioxidant activity of the quercetin-nanoparticles was also evaluated in vitro by two different methods (free radical scavenging activity test and reducing power test), which indicates that inclusion of quercetin in chitosan nanopaticles may be useful in improving the bioavailabilty of quercetin. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2008 [source]

    Protective effects of quercetin on ultraviolet A light-induced oxidative stress in the blood of rat

    Ahmet Kahraman
    Abstract The oxidative effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) light (320,400 nm) and the antioxidant effects of quercetin were examined in rat blood. For this purpose, rats were divided into three groups: control, ultraviolet (UV) and ultraviolet + quercetin (UV + Q). The UV and UV + Q groups were irradiated for 4 h a day with UVA light (1.25 mW cm2) during periods of 3, 6 and 9 days. Quercetin (50 mg kg,1 body wt.) was administered intraperitoneally in the UV + Q group rats before irradiation periods. Blood was taken 3, 6 and 9 days post-treatment. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly increased after 9 days of daily exposure to UVA. Whole blood glutathione (GSH) levels significantly declined after 3,9 days of irradiation. Glutathione peroxidase activity on days 6 and 9 and glutathione reductase activities on days 3, 6 and 9 post-irradiation were diminished significantly. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities decreased significantly 3,9 days post-irradiation. The administration of quercetin before the 9-day period of irradiation significantly reduced the increase in plasma MDA value. Whole blood GSH levels significantly decreased with the administration of quercetin on all days. Quercetin significantly increased antioxidant enzymes diminished by UVA irradiation. Exposure of rats to UVA light leads to oxidative stress, reflected by increased MDA and reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The administration of quercetin appears to be a useful approach to reduce the damage produced by UVA radiation. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effects of quercetin on antioxidant defense in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Ruth A. Sanders
    Abstract In light of evidence that some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by oxidative damage, we investigated the effects of subacute treatment with the antioxidant quercetin on tissue antioxidant defense systems in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats (30 days after streptozotocin induction). Quercetin, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, was administered at a dose of 10mg/kg/day, ip for 14 days, after which liver, kidney, brain, and heart were assayed for degree of lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione content, and activities of the free-radical detoxifying enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. Treatment of normal rats with quercetin increased serum AST and increased hepatic concentration of oxidized glutathione. All tissues from diabetic animals exhibited disturbances in antioxidant defense when compared with normal controls. Quercetin treatment of diabetic rats reversed only the diabetic effects on brain oxidized glutathione concentration and on hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity. By contrast, a 20% increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation, a 40% decline in hepatic glutathione concentration, an increase in renal (23%) and cardiac (40%) glutathione peroxidase activities, and a 65% increase in cardiac catalase activity reflect intensified diabetic effects after treatment with quercetin. These results call into question the ability of therapy with the antioxidant quercetin to reverse diabetic oxidative stress in an overall sense. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 15:143,149, 2001 [source]

    Quercetin suppresses hypoxia-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1, (HIF-1,) through inhibiting protein synthesis

    Dae-Hee Lee
    Abstract Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive plant flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and induce the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1, (HIF-1,) in normoxia. In this study, under hypoxic conditions (1% O2), we examined the effect of quercetin on the intracellular level of HIF-1, and extracellular level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a variety of human cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed that quercetin suppressed the HIF-1, accumulation during hypoxia in human prostate cancer LNCaP, colon cancer CX-1, and breast cancer SkBr3 cells. Quercetin treatment also significantly reduced hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF. Suppression of HIF-1, accumulation during treatment with quercetin in hypoxia was not prevented by treatment with 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Interestingly, hypoxia (1% O2) in the presence of 100 µM quercetin inhibited protein synthesis by 94% during incubation for 8 h. Significant quercetin concentration-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and suppression of HIF-1, accumulation were observed under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with 100 µM cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, replicated the effect of quercetin by inhibiting HIF-1, accumulation during hypoxia. These results suggest that suppression of HIF-1, accumulation during treatment with quercetin under hypoxic conditions is due to inhibition of protein synthesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 105: 546,553, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Amelioration of Cadmium-Induced Oxidative Stress, Impairment in Lipids and Plasma Lipoproteins by the Combined Treatment with Quercetin and ,-Tocopherol in Rats

    S. Milton Prabu
    Abstract:, Cadmium (Cd) exposure results in numerous pathological consequences including oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of combined treatment with quercetin (QE) and ,-tocopherol (AT) against Cd-induced oxidative stress and alterations in lipids and lipoproteins in the plasma and liver of rats. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg bw/d) for 4 wk has shown a significant (P < 0.05) increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydro peroxides (LOOH), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), free fatty acids (FFA), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TGs), and the activity of hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in plasma with a significant (P > 0.05) reduction in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and the activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) in plasma. In addition, the levels of hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), LOOH, conjugated dienes (CD), protein carbonyls (PC), and the activity of HMG-CoA reductase, levels of cholesterol, FFA, and TGs were significantly (P > 0.05) increased and the level of PL is significantly (P > 0.05) decreased along with the decreased activity of LCAT in the liver of Cd-treated rats. Oral supplementation with QE (50 mg/kg bw/d) and AT (50 mg/kg bw/d) for 4 wk in Cd intoxicated rats significantly (P > 0.05) has reduced the plasma levels of TBARS, LOOH, GSH, cholesterol, FFA, TGs, VLDL-C, LDL-C, and the activity of HMG-CoA and significantly (P > 0.05) has increased the activity of LCAT and the plasma levels of HDL-C. The oral supplementation also significantly (P > 0.05) has reduced the hepatic oxidative stress markers, cholesterol, TGs, FFA, and significantly (P > 0.05) has increased the LCAT activity and the PL in liver. Our results indicate that the combined treatment with QE and AT has normalized all the previously mentioned biochemical parameters in Cd-intoxicated rats than the individual treatments. The combined treatment has provided remarkable protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress and alterations in lipid metabolism and, thereby, reduced the Cd-mediated cardiovascular diseases. [source]

    Effect of Pectin Enhancement on Plasma Quercetin and Fecal Flora in Rutin-Supplemented Mice

    M. Tamura
    ABSTRACT:, Few reports have considered the effects of dietary fiber on plasma quercetin and the intestinal flora. We investigated the effects of pectin on the plasma and fecal flora of mice fed a diet supplemented with the quercetin glycoside rutin. Male mice were randomly divided into 2 groups, which were fed a pectin,rutin (PR) or cellulose,rutin (CR) diet for 14 d. Plasma quercetin and isorhamnetin metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Feces were immediately processed with bacteriological procedures. The fecal flora was investigated. Plasma quercetin and isorhamnetin concentrations were significantly higher in the PR diet group, as was the plasma isorhamnetin/quercetin ratio. The composition of the intestinal flora differed between the 2 dietary groups. The total number of fecal bacteria was significantly larger in the PR group, in which most types of bacteria were more abundant, with the exceptions of bifidobacteria, fusiform-shaped bacteria, and staphylococci. The lower gut seemed to be the major absorption site for rutin. Pectin might thus enhance the bioavailability of quercetin from rutin by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal flora and/or gut physiological function. [source]

    Study of the reaction products of flavonols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl using liquid chromatography coupled with negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Erlend Hvattum
    Abstract The products obtained after the reaction between flavonols and the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH,) in both methanol and acetonitrile were characterized using liquid chromatography coupled with negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) and NMR spectroscopy. The flavonols studied were quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin. In methanol, two reaction products of oxidized quercetin were identified using LC/ESI-MS/MS and NMR. Quercetin was oxidized through a transfer of two H-atoms to DPPH, and subsequently incorporated either two CH3OH molecules or one CH3OH- and one H2O molecule giving the products 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one and 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5,7-tetrahydroxy-2-methoxy-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one, respectively. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis revealed that in methanol, kaempferol and myricetin also gave rise to methoxylated oxidation products similar to that identified for quercetin. Kaempferol, in addition, also exhibited products where a kaempferol radical, obtained by a transfer of one H-atom to DPPH,, reacted with CH3OH through the addition of CH3O,, yielding two isomeric products. When the reaction took place in acetonitrile, LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis showed that both quercetin and myricetin formed stable isomeric quinone products obtained by a transfer of two H-atoms to DPPH,. In contrast, kaempferol formed two isomeric products where a kaempferol radical reacted with H2O through the addition of OH,, i.e. similar to the reaction of kaempferol radicals with CH3OH. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mechanisms of cytoprotective effect of amino acids on local toxicity caused by sodium laurate, a drug absorption enhancer, in intestinal epithelium

    Yoko Endo
    Abstract Several amino acids, including L -glutamine (L -Gln), were found to protect the intestinal epithelial cells from the local toxicity caused by a drug absorption enhancer, sodium laurate (C12), in our previous study. To develop more efficient and safer formulations for enhancing drug absorption, the mechanisms of cytoprotection by amino acids were studied using rats and Caco-2 cells. Four amino acids, including L -Gln, could generally maintain the absorption-promoting action of C12, although taurine tended to attenuate it. Three amino acids, except for L -Gln, significantly suppressed the decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance caused by C12. Quercetin, an inhibitor for biosynthesis of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), masked only the protective effect of L -Gln in both rat large intestine and Caco-2 cells. Western blot analysis indicated clearly that HSP70 is induced extensively only by the addition of L -Gln in both rat large-intestinal cells and Caco-2 cells. C12 was found to increase the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) remarkably, and amino acids, especially L -arginine, L -methionine, and taurine, significantly attenuated the increase in [Ca2+]i caused by C12. Furthermore, although C12 stimulated the release of histamine, an inflammatory mediator, from rat large-intestinal tissue, amino acids were also found to suppress the release of histamine enhanced by C12. The results in the present study showed that an induction of HSP70, a decrease in [Ca2+]i elevated by C12, and a suppression of histamine release stimulated by C12 should be involved in the mechanisms behind the cytoprotective action of amino acids against the local toxicity caused by C12. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 91:730,743, 2002 [source]

    Quercetin and Ethanol Attenuate the Progression of Atherosclerotic Plaques With Concomitant Up Regulation of Paraoxonase1 (PON1) Gene Expression and PON1 Activity in LDLR,/, Mice

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2010
    Leslie C. Leckey
    Background:, As moderate wine drinking is atheroprotective, it is clinically relevant to elucidate its possible mechanism/s of action/s. Our objective is to demonstrate the potential benefits of the wine components, quercetin and ethanol, on the development of aortic plaques with parallel changes in antiatherogenic factors. Methods and Results:, The effects of quercetin and ethanol on the development of aortic atherosclerotic lesions, liver PON1 gene expression, and serum PON1 activity were measured in LDLR,/, mice on an atherogenic diet for 4 and 8 weeks. Depending on the duration and dosage of these modulators, 12.5 to 25 mg/dl quercetin (12.5Q to 25Q) and 18 to 25% ethanol, the magnitude of decreases in aortic lesions caused by moderate ethanol and quercetin ranged from 20 to 70% (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) based on ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) analyses, and from 18 to 61% (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) based on morphometric analyses. The composite plot of all the UBM and morphometric data showed significant correlation between these 2 methods (p = 0.0001, Pearson r = 0.79 for 4-week treatment; p = 0.000004, Pearson r = 0.84 for 8-week treatment). Concomitantly, 4-week treatments with 12.5Q and 18% ethanol up regulated liver PON1 mRNA by 41% (p < 0.05) and 37% (p < 0.05), respectively, accompanied by 92% (p < 0.001) and 61% (p < 0.001) increases in serum PON1 activity, respectively. The corresponding values after 8-week treatment with 12.5Q and 18% ethanol were 23% (p < 0.05) and 40% (p < 0.02) with respect to the up regulation of liver PON1 mRNA expression, while the stimulations of serum PON1 activity were 75% (p < 0.001) and 90% (p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions:, Based on these findings, we conclude that quercetin and moderate ethanol significantly inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis by up regulating the hepatic expression of the antiatherogenic gene, PON1, with concomitant increased serum PON1 activity. [source]

    Raman and pulse radiolysis studies of the antioxidant properties of quercetin: Cu(II) chelation and oxidizing radical scavenging

    Armida Torreggiani
    Abstract Quercetin (Querc), a pentahydroxyflavonol, is suggested to give protection to living organisms by both direct scavenging of free radicals and metal chelation. The scavenging ability of Querc towards oxidizing radicals, such as ,OH, N3, and NO2,, was evaluated by pulse radiolysis studies in aqueous solutions at different pH. Phenoxyl radicals are the final transient products and are formed either by water elimination from ,OH-adducts or by one-electron transfer from the deprotonated OH groups. Their formation rate is strongly affected by pH and reaches the maximum values in alkaline medium. The Raman and IR spectra were useful to assess the relevant interaction of Querc with Cu(II) ions, which play an important role in the metal-catalysed generation of reactive oxygen species. Depending on pH and the metal-to-ligand ratio, the different chelating sites of Querc change their ability to complex copper ions. Under neutral conditions, the 5-OH group of ring A and CO-4 of ring C have a chelating power superior to that of the catechol group (ring B), whereas the complexation in alkaline medium occurs in the reverse order. In addition, experiments with Querc and Zn(II) ions, carried out at basic pH in order to verify the possible Cu(II)-catalysed oxidation of the ligand, indicated the absence of the above process. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Phenolic compounds, lycopene and antioxidant activity in commercial varieties of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum)

    Isabel Martínez-Valverde
    Abstract Nine commercial varieties of tomato (Rambo, Senior, Ramillete, Liso, Pera, Canario, Durina, Daniella and Remate) produced in Spain were analysed for their lycopene content, content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The phenolic compounds were characterised as flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and naringenin) and hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and p -coumaric acids). Antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH and ABTS assays. The concentrations of lycopene and the various phenolic compounds as well as the antioxidant activity were significantly influenced by the tomato variety. Quercetin, the most abundant flavonoid, was found in concentrations ranging between 7.19 and 43.59,mg,kg,1 fresh weight, while naringenin levels were lower than 12.55,mg,kg,1. The most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid was chlorogenic acid, with values ranging from 14 to 32,mg,kg,1 fresh weight, followed by caffeic acid, while p -coumaric and ferulic acids showed similar concentrations lower than 5,mg,kg,1. The highest content of lycopene was found in Ramillete, Pera and Durina (>50,mg,kg,1 fresh weight), while the concentration in the other varieties was between 50 and 30,mg,kg,1, with the exception of Liso (less than 20,mg,kg,1). The antioxidant activity of tomato extracts varied with the tomato variety and the assay method used. Individual compounds found to be significantly related to antioxidant capacity were lycopene and ferulic and caffeic acids, but not quercetin and chlorogenic acid. © 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Quercetin inhibited murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo and promoted immune response

    Chun-Shu Yu
    Abstract Enhanced flavonoid consumption is closely related with a reduced cancer incidence as shown in epidemiological studies. Quercetin (3,5,7,3,,4,-pentahydroxylflavone) is one of the active components of flavonoids which exist in natural plants, particularly in onions and fruits. It was reported that quercetin induced apoptosis in human cancer cell lines, including human leukemia HL-60 cells, but there is no available information as to its effects on leukemia cells in vivo. The purpose of the present studies was to focus on the in vivo effects of quercetin on leukemia WEHI-3 cells. The effects of quercetin on WEHI-3 cells injected into BALB/c mice were examined. Quercetin decreased the percentage of Mac-3 and CD11b markers, suggesting that the differentiation of the precursors of macrophages and T cells was inhibited. There was no effect on CD3 levels but increased CD19 levels. Quercetin decreased the weight of the spleen and liver compared with the olive oil treated animals. Quercetin stimulated macrophage phagocytosis of cells isolated from peritoneum. Quercetin also promoted natural killer cell activity. Based on pathological examination, an effect of quercetin was observed in the spleen of mice previously injected with WEHI-3 cells. Apparently, quercetin affects WEHI-3 cells in vivo. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effect of Flavonoids on Daunorubicin-induced Toxicity in H9c2 Cardiomyoblasts

    Gabriela Moj
    Abstract Daunorubicin (DNR) is one of the most important antitumor agents belonging to the anthracycline group. However, its use is seriously limited by the development of cardiac toxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of quercetin, pycnogenol and naringenin on daunorubicin-induced cytoxicity in H9c2 cells. Protection of H9c2 cardiomyocyte cells was concentration/dose dependent for quercetin > naringenin > pycnogenol = trolox. Quercetin (10,4,10,5 mol/L) after 24 h of co-incubation with DNR significantly increased the cardiomyocyte survival (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). A protective effect of other compounds was observed only in the highest concentration/dose used (p < 0.01). After 48 h of incubation quercetin and naringenin significantly decreased daunorubicin-induced cell death at concentrations of 10,4,10,5 mol/L (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The protective effect of pycnogenol and trolox was weaker but significant in the two highest concentrations/doses (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). This study also investigated DNR-induced apoptosis and it was shown that both quercetin and naringenin inhibit apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes cells in vitro. The findings provide evidence that quercetin and naringenin may act as survival factors. The protective effect of flavonoids was compared with that of trolox, a known cardioprotective antioxidant. These results are consistent with the notion that the use of flavonoids may be beneficial in modulating or preventing the cardiotoxicity associated with DNR therapy. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effect of quercetin on tachykinin-induced plasma extravasation in rat urinary bladder

    Paulo R. Wille
    Abstract The effect of quercetin on substance P-induced plasma extravasation in rat urinary bladder and its modulation by endogenous peptidases in conscious rats was studied. Plasma protein extravasation (PE) was assayed by measurement of extravasated Evans blue dye (,g/g dry tissue). Intravenous injection of substance P (SP, 10 nmol/kg) significantly increased PE in the urinary bladder. PE evoked by SP was increased significantly by quercetin (20,mg/kg, p.o.) pretreatment in the urinary bladder (73.5 ± 4.9 to 152.2,±,9.9). Pretreatment with captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (10 nmol/kg, i.v.), or with phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor (2.5,,mol/kg, i.v.) also potentiated the SP-induced PE in urinary bladder, 286.2,±,20.4 and 323.3,±,34.0, respectively. Quercetin did not show any effect on neurokinin-A (NKA, 10 nmol/kg, i.v.) -induced plasma extravasation. The present study demonstrates that quercetin potentiates the PE induced by substance P in the urinary bladder. These effects suggest that this flavonoid might cause inhibition of NEP and/or ACE. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Quercetin Enhances Melanogenesis By Increasing the Activity and Synthesis of Tyrosinase in Human Melanoma Cells and in Normal Human Melanocytes

    Hidetaka Nagata
    Quercetin (3,3,,4,,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a diphenyl propanoid widely distributed in edible plants. In this study, we examined the effect of quercetin on melanogenesis in human HMVII melanoma cells and in normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) in the absence of ultraviolet radiation. Upon the addition of quercetin to the culture medium, the melanin content in melanoma cells (HMVII) increased remarkably in time- and dose-dependent manners. In addition, quercetin induced melanogenesis in cultured NHEM. As compared with controls, melanin content was increased about sevenfold by treatment with 20 ,M (HMVII) or 1 ,M (NHEM) quercetin for 7 d. Tyrosinase activity was also increased, to 61.8-fold higher than the control. The expression of tyrosinase protein was slightly increased by the addition of quercetin. However, quercetin did not affect the expression of tyrosinase mRNA. Tyrosinase activation by quercetin was blocked by actinomycin-D or by cycloheximide demonstrating that its actions in stimulating melanogenesis may involve both transcriptional and translational events. Tyrosinase activity was increased dramatically whereas the level of melanogenic inhibitor was remarkably decreased following quercetin treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in human melanoma cells and in NHEM, quercetin stimulates melanogenesis by increasing tyrosinase activity and decreasing other factors such as melanogenic inhibitors. [source]

    Quercetin protects hamster spermatogenic cells from oxidative damage induced by diethylstilboestrol

    ANDROLOGIA, Issue 5 2010
    G. Li
    Summary Quercetin has been reported to be an efficient antioxidant which protects chicken spermatogonial cells from oxidative damage through increasing intracellular antioxidants and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Exposure to diethylstilboestrol (DES) could cause reproductive damage in males, which is associated with oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of quercetin on DES-induced oxidative damage in cultured hamster spermatogenic cells. The cells were treated with different concentrations of DES, and their growth status was observed under inverted microscope. The viability of spermatogenic cells was detected by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in supernatants and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in cells were detected with spectrophotography. The results showed that quercetin significantly inhibited the DES-induced damage on spermatogenic cells, with the exception of the low-dose group in which no significant difference was observed. The cell survival rate increased significantly in the middle- and high-dose groups. The contents of SOD and GSH-Px were significantly elevated after medication with quercetin (P < 0.01). It can be concluded that quercetin protects spermatogenic cells against DES-induced oxidative damage through increasing intracellular antioxidants and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Quercetin plays a very important role in ameliorating reproductive toxicity induced by environmental oestrogens. [source]

    Comparison of IY81149 with omeprazole in rat reflux oesophagitis

    B. J. Kil
    1 This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of IY81149{2-[[(4methoxy-3-methyl)-2-pyridinyl]methylsulfinyl]-5-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1H-benzimidazole}, a new proton pump inhibitor, on the development of the surgically induced reflux oesophagitis, on gastric secretion and on lipid peroxidation which is a marker of oxidative stress. Omeprazole was used as a reference drug. We furthermore investigated the influence of quercetin and desferrioxamine (DFO) on the development of the surgically induced reflux oesophagitis in rats on gastric secretion and on lipid peroxidation. 2 IY81149 and omeprazole significantly prevented the development of reflux oesophagitis and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 values of IY81149 for inhibition of oesophagitis and volume of gastric secretion were lower than of omeprazole (5.7 vs. 14.2 ,mol, 15.3 vs. 24.0 ,mol, respectively). IY81149 was also more potent in the acid output inhibition with an ED50 of 6.8 ,mol compared with 20.8 ,mol of omeprazole. 3 Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content, the end product of lipid peroxidation, increased significantly in the oesophageal mucosa after the induction of reflux oesophagitis. IY81149 and omeprazole significantly and dose-dependently prevented lipid peroxidation. Quercetin (200 mg kg,1, p.o.) and DFO (800 mg kg,1, i.d.) significantly prevented the development of reflux oesophagitis and inhibited the lipid peroxidation independent of their actions on gastric secretion. 4 This result suggests that IY81149 is comparable with omeprazole in the treatment of reflux oesophagitis. [source]

    Preventive Effects of Quercetin against Benzo[a]pyrene-Induced DNA Damages and Pulmonary Precancerous Pathologic Changes in Mice

    Nian-zu Jin
    In this study, mice in quercetin-treated groups were given quercetin for 90 days. After one week of treatment, mice in the quercetin-treated groups and the positive control group received a single intraperitoneal dose of benzo[a]pyrene (100 mg/kg body weight). The results of single cell gel electrophoresis assay showed that the average lengths of the comet cell tail and DNA damage in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice induced by benzo[a]pyrene decreased significantly as a result of quercetin treatment dose-dependently. Light microscopic examination showed that the degrees of pulmonary precancerous pathologic changes in the quercetin-treated groups decreased significantly compared with those in the positive control group. Meanwhile, the cytochrome P4501A1-linked 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activities in lung microsomes of mice decreased as the dose of quercetin increased. The results of this in vivo study revealed that quercetin had a significant preventive effect on benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA damage, and had a potential chemopreventive effect on the carcinogenesis of lung cancer induced by benzo[a]pyrene. The mechanism of these effects of quercetin could be related to the inhibition of cytochrome P4501A1 activity. [source]

    Metabolism of Repaglinide by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in vitro: Effect of Fibrates and Rifampicin

    Lauri I. Kajosaari
    To clarify the mechanisms of observed repaglinide drug interactions, we determined the contribution of the two enzymes to repaglinide metabolism at different substrate concentrations, and examined the effect of fibrates and rifampicin on CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and repaglinide metabolism in vitro. We studied repaglinide metabolism using pooled human liver microsomes, recombinant CYP2C8 and recombinant CYP3A4 enzymes. The effect of quercetin and itraconazole on repaglinide metabolism, and of gemfibrozil, bezafibrate, fenofibrate and rifampicin on CYP2C8 (paclitaxel 6,-hydroxylation) and CYP3A4 (midazolam 1-hydroxylation) activities and repaglinide metabolism were studied using human liver microsomes. At therapeutic repaglinide concentrations (<0.4 ,M), CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 metabolised repaglinide at similar rates. Quercetin (25 ,M) and itraconazole (3 ,M) inhibited the metabolism of 0.2 ,M repaglinide by 58% and 71%, and that of 2 ,M repaglinide by 56% and 59%, respectively. The three fibrates inhibited CYP2C8 (Ki: bezafibrate 9.7 ,M, gemfibrozil 30.4 ,M and fenofibrate 92.6 ,M) and repaglinide metabolism (IC50: bezafibrate 37.7 ,M, gemfibrozil 111 ,M and fenofibrate 164 ,M), but had no effect on CYP3A4. Rifampicin inhibited CYP2C8 (Ki 30.2 ,M), CYP3A4 (Ki 18.5 ,M) and repaglinide metabolism (IC50 13.7 ,M). In conclusion, both CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 are important in the metabolism of therapeutic concentrations of repaglinide in vitro, but their predicted contributions in vivo are highly dependent on the scaling factor used. Gemfibrozil is only a moderate inhibitor of CYP2C8 and does not inhibit CYP3A4; inhibition of CYP-enzymes by parent gemfibrozil alone does not explain its interaction with repaglinide in vivo. Rifampicin competitively inhibits both CYP2C8 and CYP3A4, which can counteract its inducing effect in humans. [source]

    Activity of NADPH-Cytochrome P-450 Reductase of the Human Heart, Liver and Lungs in the Presence of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate, Quercetin and Resveratrol: An in vitro Study

    Jaroslaw Dudka
    The enzyme is also involved in the toxicity of some clinically important antitumour drugs (doxorubicin) and pesticides (paraquat). P-450 reductase activates them to their more toxic metabolites via one electron reduction which triggers free radical cascade. In some cases however, such transformation is essential to produce therapeutic effect in anticancer drugs. The main purpose of the paper was to evaluate the effect of three natural compounds found in human diet: (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), quercetin and resveratrol on P-450 reductase activity. The activity of the enzyme was determined spectrophotometrically by measurement of the rate of cytochrome c reduction at 550 nm, in vitro, using human heart, liver and lung microsomes. It was found that quercetin increased the P-450 reductase activity in human organs at all tested doses. The activity of microcosms in all organs was enhanced according to the concentrations of quercetin, which increased the activity in the order lung>heart>liver. Addition of EGCG to the reaction mixture enhanced the P-450 reductase activity in the following order: liver>heart>lung. However, no significant effect of resveratrol on P-450 reductase activity was observed. It seems that the presence of quercetin and EGCG in the diet may increase P-450 reductase activity during doxorubicin therapy with subsequent increased risk of toxicity. A beneficial effect may be obtained in anticancer therapy with bioreductive agents like tirapazamine. [source]

    Effect of quercetin on oxidative nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage

    BIOFACTORS, Issue 1 2008
    Lucia Potenza
    Abstract Quercetin is a well-investigated antioxidant known to protect cells against oxidative nuclear DNA damage. There is no knowledge regarding its effect on oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage. In this study we investigated the effect of quercetin on oxidatively-injured DNA. Cell-free and cell studies were performed. Cell-free analyses carried out on plasmidic DNA showed that quercetin protects from all oxidative challenges used. Cellular studies were carried out on NCTC 2544 cells which were insulted with hydrogen peroxide and UVC radiations. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNAs were analysed by measuring DNA damage with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Quercetin supplementation showed significant genoprotective activity on mitochondrial DNA when hydroperoxide was used. The evidence of the protection afforded by quercetin suggests that this flavonoid may play an important role on mitochondrial genome stability. [source]

    Mechanisms involved in the chemoprevention of flavonoids

    BIOFACTORS, Issue 1-4 2000
    Marie-HÉLÉNe Siess
    Flavonoids, widespread in edible plants, have been studied extensively for their anticarcinogenic properties. However, only few studies have been done with these constituents being administered by the dietary route. In our research, the effects of feeding rats with flavone, flavanone, tangeretin, and quercetin were investigated on two steps of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis (initiation and promotion). Nonpolar flavonoids such as flavone, flavanone and tangeretin administered through the initiation period, decreased the number of ,-glutamyl transpeptidase-preneoplastic foci. In the same conditions of administration, quercetin, a polyhydroxylated flavonoid, showed no protective effect. Moreover, feeding rats with flavanone during the phenobarbital-induced promotion step significantly reduced the areas of placental glutathione S-transferase preneoplastic foci. Quercetin, flavone, and tangeretin, administered in the same conditions, caused no significant effect. Therefore flavanone act as an anti-initiator as well as an anti-promotor. Several mechanisms were involved in the anti-initiating effects of flavone, flavanone, and tangeretin: enhancement of enzymes involved in the detoxication of AFB1 (glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyl transferase), increase of the formation of AFB1 -glutathione conjugates and inhibition of the binding of AFB1 to DNA. Although the relevance of these data to the human situation remains to be demonstrated, they confirm that several flavonoids administered by the dietary route possess promising chemoprotective effects. [source]

    Determination of two metabolites of calycosin-7- O-, - d -glucopyranoside in rat urine by HPLC

    Yan-Ling Yang
    Abstract A simple and specific analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the two metabolites of calycosin-7- O-, - d -glucopyranoside, calycosin-7- O-, - d -glucuronic acid methyl ester (M-1) and calycosin (M-2), in rat urine was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Quercetin was employed as an internal standard. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were higher than 0.999; both intra- and inter-day precisions of two metabolites were determined and their RSD did not exceed 10%. The accuracy and linear range were investigated in detail. The cumulative urinary excretions of two metabolites were measured. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Binding of quercetin with human serum albumin: A critical spectroscopic study

    BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 6 2003
    Bidisa Sengupta
    Abstract Flavonols are plant pigments that are ubiquitous in nature. Quercetin (3,3,,4,,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) and other related plant flavonols have come into recent prominence because of their usefulness as anticancer, antitumor, anti-AIDS, and other important therapeutic activities of significant potency and low systemic toxicity. Quercetin is intrinsically weakly fluorescent in aqueous solution, showing an emission maximum at ,538 nm. Upon binding to human serum albumin (HSA), quercetin undergoes dramatic enhancement in its fluorescence emission intensity, along with the appearance of dual emission behavior, consisting of normal and excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) fluorescence. In addition, the occurrence of a third emitting species has been noted for the first time. This is attributed to a electronic ground-state complex formed in the protein environment. High values of the fluorescence anisotropy (r) are obtained in the presence of HSA for the ESPT tautomer (r = 0.18), as well as the complex species (r = 0.37) of quercetin, indicating that the precursor ground-state molecules for both these emitting species of quercetin molecules are located in the motionally constrained sites of HSA. The steady-state emission data suggest that quercetin binds to two distinct sites in HSA from which the emissions from the normal tautomer and complex species take place. The preliminary results of studies on emission decay kinetics are also reported herein. Studies by far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy reveal that binding of quercetin induces no significant perturbation in the secondary structure of HSA. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Biospectroscopy), 2003 [source]

    Quercetin as a novel activator of L-type Ca2+ channels in rat tail artery smooth muscle cells

    Simona Saponara
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quercetin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid, on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of smooth muscle cells freshly isolated from the rat tail artery, using either the conventional or the amphotericin B-perforated whole-cell patch-clamp method. Quercetin increased L-type Ca2+ current [ICa(L)] in a concentration- (pEC50=5.09±0.05) and voltage-dependent manner and shifted the maximum of the current-voltage relationship by 10 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction, without, however, modifying the threshold and the equilibrium potential for Ca2+. Quercetin-induced ICa(L) stimulation was reversible upon wash-out. T-type Ca2+ current was not affected by quercetin. Quercetin shifted the voltage dependence of the steady-state inactivation and activation curves to more negative potentials by about 5.5 and 7.5 mV respectively, in the mid-potential of the curves as well as increasing the slope of activation. Quercetin slowed both the activation and the deactivation kinetics of the ICa(L). The inactivation time course was also slowed but only at voltages higher than 10 mV. Moreover quercetin slowed the rate of recovery from inactivation. These results prove quercetin to be a naturally-occurring L-type Ca2+ channel activator. British Journal of Pharmacology (2002) 135, 1819,1827; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704631 [source]

    Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Inhibition of Human Erythrocyte Isozymes I and II with a Series of Phenolic Acids

    S. Beyza Öztürk Sar, kaya
    The inhibitory effects of some phenolic acids on the cytosolic human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC isozymes hCA I and hCA II were investigated. Ellagic acid, gallic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, p -coumaric acid, p -hydroxybenzoic acid, and syringic acid showed KI values in the range of 99,1061 ,m for hCA I and of 105,758 ,m against hCA II, respectively. Quercetin (for hCA I), p -coumaric acid (for hCA II), and gallic acid (for hCA II) exhibited competitive inhibitory effects with 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. All of the other phenolic acids were found as non-competitive inhibitors with 4-nitrophenylacetate as substrate for hCA I and hCA II. The phenolic acids investigated here showed thus interesting hCA I and hCA II inhibitory effects and might be used as leads for generating enzyme inhibitors possibly targeting other CA isoforms which have not been yet assayed for their interactions with such agents. [source]

    Oxygenolysis of Flavonoid Compounds: DFT Description of the Mechanism for Quercetin

    CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 11 2004
    Sébastien Fiorucci
    Abstract Flavonoids are naturally occurring phenol derivatives present in substantial amounts in a large variety of plants, fruits and vegetables daily eaten by humans. Most of these compounds exhibit several interesting biological activities, such as antiradical and antioxidant actions. Indeed, by complexation with specific enzymes, flavonoids are notably liable to metabolize molecular dioxygen. On the basis of experimental results describing oxygenolysis of the flavonoid quercetin, activated by the enzyme quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (2,3-QD), our attention has focused on the role of metal center in the activation of the substrate quercetin. Thus, in the present study, by means of DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31(+)G* level on model molecular systems, we describe different mechanisms for dioxygen metabolization by quercetin. Stationary points are described, and energetic and structural analyses along the reaction paths are reported. Our calculations show that the copper cation must act as an oxidant towards the substrate and that the reaction proceeds through a 1,3-cycloaddition. [source]