Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Much of the research focusing on conventional occupations concludes that mentored individuals are more successful in their careers than those who are not mentored. Early research in criminology made a similar claim. Yet contemporary criminology has all but ignored mentors. We investigate this oversight, drawing on Sutherland's insights on tutelage and criminal maturation and incorporating ideas on human and social capital. We argue that mentors play a key role in their protégés' criminal achievements and examine this hypothesis with data from a recent survey of incarcerated adult male offenders in the Canadian province of Quebec. In this sample, a substantial proportion of respondents reported the presence of an influential individual in their lives who introduced them to a criminal milieu and whom they explicitly regarded as a mentor. After studying the attributes of offenders and their mentors, we develop a causal framework that positions criminal mentor presence within a pathway that leads to greater benefits and lower costs from crime. [source]

Smaller and more numerous harvesting gaps emulate natural forest disturbances: a biodiversity test case using rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

Jan Klimaszewski
ABSTRACT Aim To evaluate changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in response to three configurations of experimental gap cuts and to the effects of ground scarification in early succession yellow birch-dominated boreal forest. In each experimental treatment, total forest removed was held constant (35% removal by partial cutting with a concomitant decrease in gap size) but the total number of gaps was increased (two, four and eight gaps, respectively), resulting in an experimental increase in the total amount of ,edge' within each stand. Location Early succession yellow birch-dominated forests, Quebec, Canada. Methods Pitfall traps, ANOVA, MIXED procedure in sas®, post hoc Tukey's adjustment, rarefaction estimates, sum-of-squares and distance-based multivariate regression trees (ssMRT, dbMRT). Results Estimates of species richness using rarefaction were highest in clearcut and two-gap treatments, decreased in smaller and more numerous gaps and were significantly higher in scarified areas than in unscarified areas. ANOVA indicated a significant impact of harvesting on the overall standardized catch. Post hoc Tukey's tests indicated that the total catch of all rove beetles was significantly higher in uncut forests than in the treated areas. Both sum-of-squares and distance-based multivariate regression trees indicated that community structure of rove beetles differed among treatments. Assemblages were grouped into (a) control plots, (b) four- and eight-gap treatments and (c) two-gap and clearcut treatments. Main conclusions Rove beetle composition responded significantly to increasing gap size. Composition among intermediate and small-sized gap treatments (four- and eight-gap treatments) was more similar to uncut control forests than were larger gap treatments (two-gap) and clearcuts. Effects of scarification were nested within the harvested treatments. When the total area of forest removed is held constant, smaller, more numerous gaps are more similar to uncut control stands than to larger gaps and falls more closely within the natural forest heterogeneity. [source]

Nation to Nation: Defining New Structures of Development in Northern Quebec

Caroline Desbiens
Abstract: In February 2002, the Crees of Quebec and the Quebec government signed a new agreement that was designed to implement new structures of economic development in northern Quebec. The document, known as "La Paix des Braves" (Peace of the Braves), was characterized as a "nation-to-nation" agreement and promises greater participation by the Crees in the management and exploitation of natural resources on the territory. Starting from the premise that the Crees and the Québécois do not simply compete for the resources of James Bay but can be said to define and firm up the boundaries of their respective nation in and through the use of these resources, this article explores the close intertwining of colonialism, culture, and the economy in James Bay, as well as its potential impact on the new agreement. First, it analyzes how the Crees and the Québécois have articulated nationhood in relation to land and resources, particularly over the past three decades. Second, it examines how these discourses are informed by a third national scale, that of Canada. The intersection among nature, nation, and economic development in northern Quebec is a key example of how resources are embedded in complex national geographies that are shaped across a broad historical span. Although sustainability is often defined in terms of the needs of future generations, this article calls for greater attention to past colonial and political relations in defining structures of development that ensure the renewal of resources. [source]

Biomarker study of a municipal effluent dispersion plume in two species of freshwater mussels

F. Gagné
Abstract The toxicological effects of a primary-treated municipal effluent plume were investigated in two species of freshwater mussels, Elliptio complanata and Dreissena polymorpha, exposed for 62 days at sites upstream and downstream of an effluent outfall in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Levels of metallothioneins (MT), cytochrome P4501A1 activity, DNA damage, total lipids, relative levels of vitellins, and phagocytic activity (in E. complanata hemocytes) were determined after the exposure period. A parallel analysis measured heavy metals and coprostanol in mussel tissues. The results show that significant levels of coprostanol and some metals (specifically, Cu, Hg, Sb, Se, and Zn) had accumulated in mussels caged 5 km downstream of the effluent plume. Mixed-function oxidase activity, MT in gills, total lipids, DNA damage (in D. polymorpha only), and total hemolymph bacteria (in E. complanata only) had increased in these mussels, while levels of total cadmium (Cd), MT in digestive glands or whole soft tissues, phagocytic activity, and DNA damage in the digestive gland (in E. complanata only) were diminished. The exposure of mussels to surface waters contaminated by a municipal effluent led to many stress responses, depending on both the tissues and the species being examined. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 17: 149,159, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/tox.10046 [source]

Immunocompetence of bivalve hemocytes as evaluated by a miniaturized phagocytosis assay

C. Blaise
Abstract Immune function in bivalves can be adversely affected by long-term exposure to environmental contaminants. Investigating alterations in immunity can therefore yield relevant information about the relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and susceptibility to infectious diseases. We have developed a rapid, cost-effective, and miniaturized immunocompetence assay to evaluate the phagocytic activity, viability, and concentration of hemocytes in freshwater and marine bivalves. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize various aspects of the assay including 1) the time required for adherence of hemocytes to polystyrene microplate wells, 2) the time required for internalization of fluorescent bacteria, 3) the ratio of hemocytes to fluorescent bacteria in relation to phagocytosis, 4) hemolymph plasma requirements, and 5) the elimination of fluorescence from (noninternalized) bacteria adhering to the external surface of hemocytes. The results of these experiments showed the optimal adherence time for hemocytes in microplate wells to be 1 h, that phagocytosis required at least 2 h of contact with fluorescently labeled E. coli cells, that the number of fluorescent E. coli cells had a positive effect on phagocytic activity, that at least 2.5 million cells/mL were required to measure a significant intake, and that a linear increase in uptake of bacteria (R = 0.91; p < 0.01) could be obtained with concentrations of up to 1.3 × 106 hemocytes/mL. Afterward, the assay was used in two field studies to identify sites having the potential to affect the immunocompetence of bivalves. The first study was conducted on Mya arenaria clams collected at selected contaminated sites in the Saguenay River (Quebec, Canada), and the second examined Elliptio complanata freshwater bivalves that had been exposed to a municipal effluent plume in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). In the Saguenay River field study a significant increase in phagocytosis was observed at sites closest to polluted areas. Phagocytotic activity varied over time and was highest during the warmest months (June, July, and August), closely paralleling the spawning period of Mya arenaria clams. In contrast, a drop in phagocytic activity was observed in Elliptio complanata mussels exposed to surface water 4 km downstream of a major municipal effluent plume, with a concomitant increase in the number of hemocytes in the hemolymph. It appears that both immunosuppressive and immunostimulative effects are likely to occur in the field and that responses will be influenced by the type and intensity of contaminants at play. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 17: 160,169, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/tox.10047 [source]

Molluscan shellfish biomarker study of the Quebec, Canada, Saguenay Fjord with the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria

C. Blaise
Abstract A spatial and temporal survey of six sites in the Saguenay Fjord and of one adjacent site in the St. Lawrence River estuary (Quebec, Canada) was undertaken to study the possible effects of anthropogenic contaminant input on soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria) populations. Bivalve sampling sites were selected because they reflected a range of areas representative of either no known (or apparent) pollution sources or of areas potentially influenced by different gradients and types of contamination sources. The most upstream site selected in the Saguenay Fjord, nearest to a highly populated and industrialized sector, and the most downstream site, near its mouth with the St. Lawrence River estuary, spanned a distance of some 70 km and encompassed the entire intertidal area suitable for Mya arenaria habitat. To measure effects in collected animals, we used a comprehensive battery of biomarkers composed of metallothionein-like proteins (MT), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (EROD), DNA damage (DD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), vitellinlike proteins (Vn), phagocytosis (PHAG), nonspecific esterase (NspE) activity, and condition factor (weight-to-length ratio of clams). Vn, PHAG, DD, and NspE biomarkers were assayed in hemolymph (or hemocytes), whereas others (MT, EROD, LPO) were determined in the digestive gland. Whole-tissue metal content was also quantified in clams collected in the spatial survey. The spatial survey conducted in June 1997 showed significant effects at all sites, and principal component analysis indicated in addition that the more important responses were linked to the MT, LPO, and NspE biomarkers. Clams collected from sites closest to the upstream reaches of the fjord generally displayed higher levels of tissue metals (cadmium, manganese), as well as greater responses of NspE activity, MT, LPO, and PHAG. Animals collected from sites influenced by municipal wastewaters had higher levels of Vn, suggesting the presence of environmental estrogens. The results of the temporal survey (six monthly samplings of clams at three sites from May through October, 1997) showed that the bivalve reproductive cycle (vitellogenesis and spawning) can modulate the expression of several biomarkers. Vn levels, for example, were positively correlated with DD and EROD and negatively correlated with MT, suggesting that reproduction can influence the susceptibility of clams to some contaminants. Discrimination analysis over the 6 months of sampling revealed that the mean value of the discriminant function changed significantly over time, suggesting important changes in the relative contribution of each biomarker. In short, this study has provided evidence that clam populations in the Saguenay Fjord are impacted by multiple sources of contamination whose effects can be modulated by reproduction. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 17: 170,186, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/tox.10048 [source]

Networking editors in Quebec

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2003
Kerstin Stenius
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2005
Dylan J. Fraser
Abstract Ecological processes clearly contribute to population divergence, yet how they interact over complex life cycles remains poorly understood. Notably, the evolutionary consequences of migration between breeding and nonbreeding areas have received limited attention. We provide evidence for a negative association between interpopulation differences in migration (between breeding and feeding areas, as well as within each) and the amount of gene flow (m) among three brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations inhabitingMistassini Lake, Quebec, Canada. Individuals (n=1166) captured throughout lake feeding areas over two consecutive sampling years were genotyped (10 microsatellites) and assigned to one of the three populations. Interpopulation differences in migration were compared based on spatial distribution overlap, habitat selection, migration distance within feeding areas, and morphology. We observed a temporally stable, heterogeneous spatial distribution within feeding areas among populations, with the extent of spatial segregation related to differential habitat selection (represented by littoral zone substrate). Spatial segregation was lowest and gene flow highest (m=0.015) between two populations breeding in separate lake inflows. Segregation was highest and gene flow was lowest (mean m=0.007) between inflow populations and a third population breeding in the outflow. Compared to outflow migrants, inflow migrants showed longer migration distances within feeding areas(64,70 km vs. 22 km). After entering natal rivers to breed, inflow migrants also migrated longer distances (35,75 km) and at greater elevations (50,150 m) to breeding areas than outflow migrants (0,15 km; ,10,0 m). Accordingly, inflow migrants were more streamlined with longer caudal regions, traits known to improve swimming efficiency. There was no association between the geographic distance separating population pairs and the amount of gene flow they exchanged. Collectively, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that reduced gene flow between these brook charr populations results from divergent natural selection leading to interpopulation differences in migration. They also illustrate how phenotypic and genetic differentiation may arise over complex migratory life cycles. [source]

Do male and female black-backed woodpeckers respond differently to gaps in habitat?

Jennifer C. Pierson
Abstract We used population- and individual-based genetic approaches to assess barriers to movement in black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a fire-specialist that mainly occupies the boreal forest in North America. We tested if male and female woodpeckers exhibited the same movement patterns using both spatially implicit and explicit genetic analyses to define population structure and movement patterns of both sexes among populations. Three genetic groups were identified, a large, genetically continuous population that spans from the Rocky Mountains to Quebec, a small isolated population in South Dakota and a separate population in the western portion of their distribution (Oregon). Patterns of genetic diversity suggest extensive gene flow mediated by both males and females within the continuous boreal forest. However, male-mediated gene flow is the main form of connectivity between the continuously distributed group and the smaller populations of South Dakota and Oregon that are separated by large areas of unforested habitat, which apparently serves as a barrier to movement of female woodpeckers. [source]

Carbonate melting and peperite formation at the intrusive contact between large mafic dykes and clastic sediments of the upper Palaeozoic Saint-Jules Formation, New-Carlisle, Quebec

P. Jutras
Abstract The base of an upper Palaeozoic graben-fill in eastern Canada was affected by mafic dyke intrusions shortly after deposition, resulting in the formation of peperite. Complex magma,sediment interactions occurred as the melts mingled with the wet and poorly consolidated clastic material of this sedimentary basin, which is separated from underlying rocks by the Acadian unconformity (Middle Devonian). As a result of these interactions, the mafic rocks are strongly oxidized, albitized and autobrecciated near and above the unconformity, where blocky juvenile clasts of mafic glass and porphyritic basalt have mingled with molten or fluidized sediments of the upper Palaeozoic Saint-Jules Formation, forming a peperite zone several metres thick. In contrast to most peperite occurrences, the New-Carlisle peperites are associated with the tip of dykes rather than with the sides of sills or dykes. We argue that more heat can be concentrated above a dyke than above a sill, as the former provides a more efficient and focused pathway for heated waters to invade the poorly consolidated host sediments. Superheated groundwaters that issued from the sides of the dykes appear to have promoted melting of carbonate components in calcareous sedimentary rock clasts of the Saint-Jules Formation, locally generating carbonate melts that contributed to the mingling of juvenile and sedimentary clasts in the peperite. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Short note: Source geometry identification by simultaneous use of structural index and shape factor

Lopamudra Roy
A cross-plot of the shape factors and the structural indices, determined from gravity anomalies over various idealized sources, namely horizontal/vertical lines and vertical ribbons with various strike lengths and depth extents, forms a closed loop. Different segments of this loop, termed the source geometry identification loop (SGIL), correspond to different source geometries. Combined use of the structural index and the shape factor determined from an isolated gravity anomaly reduces the ambiguity in characterizing the source geometry. A simulated example and three field examples, namely a Cuban chromite anomaly, an Indian example over manganese ore and a sulphide ore from Quebec, have been analysed by the proposed method in order to identify their respective source geometries. [source]

Will climate change be beneficial or detrimental to the invasive swede midge in North America?

Contrasting predictions using climate projections from different general circulation models
Abstract Climate change may dramatically affect the distribution and abundance of organisms. With the world's population size expected to increase significantly during the next 100 years, we need to know how climate change might impact our food production systems. In particular, we need estimates of how future climate might alter the distribution of agricultural pests. We used the climate projections from two general circulation models (GCMs) of global climate, the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis GCM (CGCM2) and the Hadley Centre model (HadCM3), for the A2 and B2 scenarios from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios in conjunction with a previously published bioclimatic envelope model (BEM) to predict the potential changes in distribution and abundance of the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii, in North America. The BEM in conjunction with either GCM predicted that C. nasturtii would spread from its current initial invasion in southern Ontario and northwestern New York State into the Canadian prairies, northern Canada, and midwestern United States, but the magnitude of risk depended strongly on the GCM and the scenario used. When the CGCM2 projections were used, the BEM predicted an extensive shift in the location of the midges' climatic envelope through most of Ontario, Quebec, and the maritime and prairie provinces by the 2080s. In the United States, C. nasturtii was predicted to spread to all the Great Lake states, into midwestern states as far south as Colorado, and west into Washington State. When the HadCM3 was applied, southern Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Washington State were not as favourable for C. nasturtii by the 2080s. Indeed, when used with the HadCM3 climate projections, the BEM predicted the virtual disappearance of ,very favourable' regions for C. nasturtii. The CGCM2 projections generally caused the BEM to predict a small increase in the mean number of midge generations throughout the course of the century, whereas, the HadCM3 projections resulted in roughly the same mean number of generations but decreased variance. Predictions of the likely potential of C. nasturtii spatial spread are thus strongly dependent on the source of climate projections. This study illustrates the importance of using multiple GCMs in combination with multiple scenarios when studying the potential for spatial spread of an organism in response to climate change. [source]

Accessibility, continuity and appropriateness: key elements in assessing integration of perinatal services

Danielle D'Amour RN PhD
Abstract A trend toward the reduction in the length of hospital stays has been widely observed. This increasing shift is particularly evident in perinatal care. A stay of less than 48 hours after delivery has been shown to have no negative effects on the health of either the mother or the baby as long as they receive an adequate follow-up. This implies a close integration between hospital and community health services. The present article addresses the following questions: To what extent are postnatal services accessible to mothers and neonates? Are postnatal services in the community in continuity with those of the hospital? Are the services provided by the appropriate source of care? The authors conducted a telephone survey among 1158 mothers in a large urban area in the province of Quebec, Canada. The results were compared to clinical guidelines widely recognised by professionals. The results show serious discrepancies with these guidelines. The authors found a low accessibility to services: less than half of the mothers received a home visit by a nurse. In terms of continuity of care, less than 10% of the mothers received a follow-up telephone call within the recommended time frame and only 18% benefited from a home visit within the recommended period. Finally, despite guidelines to the contrary, hospitals continue to intervene after discharge. This results in a duplication of services for 44.7% of the new-borns. On the other hand, 40.7% are not seen in the recommended period after hospital discharge at all. These results raise concerns about the integration of services between agencies. Following earlier work, the present authors have grouped explanatory factors under four dimensions: the strategic dimension, particularly leadership; the structural dimension, including the size of the network; the technological dimension, with respect to information transmission system; and the cultural dimension, which concerns the collaboration process and the development of relationships based on trust. [source]

Estimating the price elasticity of expenditure for prescription drugs in the presence of non-linear price schedules: an illustration from Quebec, Canada

Paul Contoyannis
Abstract The price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs is a crucial parameter of interest in designing pharmaceutical benefit plans. Estimating the elasticity using micro-data, however, is challenging because insurance coverage that includes deductibles, co-insurance provisions and maximum expenditure limits create a non-linear price schedule, making price endogenous (a function of drug consumption). In this paper we exploit an exogenous change in cost-sharing within the Quebec (Canada) public Pharmacare program to estimate the price elasticity of expenditure for drugs using IV methods. This approach corrects for the endogeneity of price and incorporates the concept of a ,rational' consumer who factors into consumption decisions the price they expect to face at the margin given their expected needs. The IV method is adapted from an approach developed in the public finance literature used to estimate income responses to changes in tax schedules. The instrument is based on the price an individual would face under the new cost-sharing policy if their consumption remained at the pre-policy level. Our preferred specification leads to expenditure elasticities that are in the low range of previous estimates (between ,0.12 and ,0.16). Naïve OLS estimates are between 1 and 4 times these magnitudes. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Multivariate homogeneity testing in a northern case study in the province of Quebec, Canada

Fateh Chebana
Abstract In regional frequency analysis, the examination of the regional homogeneity represents an important step of the procedure. Flood events possess multivariate characteristics which can not be handled by classical univariate regional procedures. For instance, classical procedures do not allow to assess regional homogeneity while taking into consideration flood peak, volume and duration. Chebana and Ouarda proposed multivariate discordancy and homogeneity tests. They carried out a simulation study to evaluate the performance of these tests. In the present paper, practical aspects are investigated jointly on flood peak and flood volume of a data set from the Côte-Nord region in the province of Quebec, Canada. It is shown that, after removing the discordant sites, the remaining ones constitute a homogeneous region for the volumes and heterogeneous region for the peaks. However, if both variables are jointly considered, the obtained region is possibly homogeneous. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the usefulness of the bivariate test to take into account the dependence structure between the variables representing the event, and to take advantage of more information from the hydrograph. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Validation of hydrological models for climate scenario simulation: the case of Saguenay watershed in Quebec

Yonas B. Dibike
Abstract This paper presents the results of an investigation into the problems associated with using downscaled meteorological data for hydrological simulations of climate scenarios. The influence of both the hydrological models and the meteorological inputs driving these models on climate scenario simulation studies are investigated. A regression-based statistical tool (SDSM) is used to downscale the daily precipitation and temperature data based on climate predictors derived from the Canadian global climate model (CGCM1), and two types of hydrological model, namely the physically based watershed model WatFlood and the lumped-conceptual modelling system HBV-96, are used to simulate the flow regimes in the major rivers of the Saguenay watershed in Quebec. The models are validated with meteorological inputs from both the historical records and the statistically downscaled outputs. Although the two hydrological models demonstrated satisfactory performances in simulating stream flows in most of the rivers when provided with historic precipitation and temperature records, both performed less well and responded differently when provided with downscaled precipitation and temperature data. By demonstrating the problems in accurately simulating river flows based on downscaled data for the current climate, we discuss the difficulties associated with downscaling and hydrological models used in estimating the possible hydrological impact of climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Characterization of surface storage and runoff patterns following peatland restoration, Quebec, Canada

M. A. Shantz
Abstract Blocking drainage ditches and creating bunds to limit surface water losses are important for restoring abandoned peat-extraction sites in North America. However, these runoff control techniques have not been well characterized, particularly during the snowmelt period. Therefore, patterns of runoff timing and magnitude were evaluated in a peatland (Bois-des-Bel, Quebec, Canada) undergoing restoration (restored site), in comparison with an unrestored section of the same peatland (unrestored site). Snowmelt dominated runoff, representing over 79% of the April to August runoff for both sites in 2001. Low (25,35 cm) bunds constructed on the restored site detained water for much of the melt period, but some water loss occurred where bunds were breached. Overland flow and surface ponding were prevalent at the restored site, but were not evident at the unrestored site. At the restored site, the presence of bunds and frozen, saturated (thus impermeable) ground contributed to differences in snowmelt runoff patterns relative to the unrestored site. In the post-snowmelt period (May,August 2001 and 2002), restored site runoff was reduced to 25% of that lost at the unrestored site. Both hydrometric and chemical hydrograph separation analysis using electrical conductivity indicated that blocked ditches restricted water losses from much of the restored site during the summer months, when the bunds had little effect on runoff. However, discharge peaks were greater at the restored site relative to the unrestored site and generally occurred more quickly following rainfall, because of the wetter antecedent conditions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

La Chevrotière, Coopérative agro-alimentaire,

Raymond Morissette
ABSTRACT L'histoire de La Chevrotière est celle du développement d'une coopérative agricole en milieu rural québécois. Fondée en 1925, la coopérative La Chevrotière a connu une croissance contrôlée en étant à l'affût d'occasions d'affaires correspondant à son orientation de développement, pour et par le milieu agricole régional. Ses principaux secteurs d'activité étaient ceux de la machinerie agricole et de l'approvisionnement de la ferme. Par la suite, La Chevrotière a étendu ses activités aux secteurs de la production porcine, du fromage et de la transformation du lait (beurre et crème glacée). La coopérative emploie aujourd'hui 738 personnes. Le cas se déroule le 9 janvier 2006, lors d'une réunion du conseil d'administration ayant pour objet l'analyse des résultats financiers de l'exercice terminé le 31 décembre 2005, la révision du plan stratégique triennal et l'approbation du budget de fonctionnement pour le prochain exercice. C'est la première fois en dix ans que la coopérative n'a pas atteint ses objectifs financiers. De plus, les membres du conseil d'administration doivent choisir, parmi trois projets d'investissement majeurs, lequel s'arrime le mieux à leur plan stratégique triennal. Nota: Une version anglaise de ce cas ainsi que les notes d'enseignement en français et en anglais sont également disponibles. Les notes d'enseignement relatives aux cas didactiques ne sont pas publiées dans la revue mais sont mises à la disposition des abonnés qui sont membres à part entière de l'ACPC, dans une zone du site Web de l'ACPC protégée par un mot de passe. Rendez-vous à l'adresse http:www.caaa.caAccountingPerspectivesCAPCasesTeachingNotes pour pouvoir consulter ces notes. The "La Chevrotière" case tells the story of the development of a food co-operative ("Co-op") located in rural Quebec. Founded in 1925, the La Chevrotière Co-operative has enjoyed regular growth by pursuing business opportunities aligned with the Co-op's path of development - for and by means of regional agriculture. Initially, its two main sectors of activities were farm machinery and agricultural supplies. With time, La Chevrotière has extended its activities to include pork production, cheese making, and milk processing (butter and ice cream). Today, the Co-op has a staff of 738. The case unfolds on January 9, 2006, during a board of directors meeting whose purpose is to analyze the financial results of the period ended December 31, 2005; to review the three-year strategic plan; and to approve the operating budget for the next period. This is the first time in 10 years that the Co-op has not attained its financial objectives. Moreover, the members of the board of directors must take a hard look at three major investment projects and choose the one which fits in best with their three-year strategic plan. [source]

Prevalence of psychotropic drug use in nursing homes for the aged in Quebec and in the French-speaking area of Switzerland

Micheline Gobert
Abstract Background The use of psychotropic drugs is high in institutionalised elderly, which raises the question of its appropriateness. This study aimed to: (1) estimate the use of psychotropics, for each family, in terms of the prevalence and dosage among the elderly in nursing homes in French-speaking Switzerland and Quebec; and (2) assess, for each family of psychotropic drugs and for each care facility, the prevalence of use and departure from average prescription (ratio of observed-to-expected prevalence). Method An administrative database was used for this cross-sectional analysis. The sample included 8183 Quebec and 7592 Swiss long-term care residents. Three classes of psychotropics (antipsychotics, antidepressants, hypnotics-anxiolytics) were defined as dichotomous variables. Logistic regressions were conducted to identify residents characteristics associated with the use of each psychotropic type and to compute expected prevalence. Results Swiss residents were slightly older and less dependent than Quebec residents. Use of psychotropic drugs was higher in Swiss than in Quebec residents, on the whole as well as for each family of drug. A total of 78.1% of Swiss residents used at least one drug as compared to 66.9% in Quebec. Ninety percent of residents were given less than 7 defined daily doses per week, irrespective of the drug family. According to Beer's criteria, only 4.9% of prescriptions were inadequate. In Quebec and in Switzerland, the prevalence of antidepressant use was associated with the prevalence of hypnotic-anxiolytic use. No ratios of observed-to-expected reached statistical significance. Interpretation There was a considerable use of psychotropics in Quebec and Switzerland with, seemingly, no dramatic departure from the average practice. Our data cannot tell if there is a global overuse of psychotropics, but indicated that dosage and medication selection seem adequate. Physicians should critically reassess the necessity of prescribed medications for their patients. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Introduction: federalism in an era of globalisation

Ronald Watts
Under the pressure of globalization we appear to be in the midst of a paradigm shift from a world of nation-states to one in which federalism provides the closest political approximation to the complex diversity of the contemporaryworld. In this context the Forum of Federations, as its first major activity, held an international conference at Mont Tremblant, Quebec, 5-8 October 1999, on ,Federalism in an Era of Globalization'. The articles in this issue of the International Social Science Journal are drawn from among the many presentations and back-ground papers at that conference, and provide an insight into a range of salient issues within contemporary federations. [source]

Nationalist Sources of International Economic Integration

Stephen Shulman
Most scholars of international relations and nationalism presume that nationalist ideology acts uniformly to hinder international economic integration, globalization, and free trade. This article challenges the conventional wisdom by developing an analytical framework of the incentives majority and minority nationalists face in the realm of foreign economic relations. Defining nationalism as the promotion of the autonomy, unity, and identity of the nation, it argues that nationalists have strong possible motivations both for and against close economic ties with foreign nations and states. As a result, oftentimes nationalists must make trade-offs among their goals of autonomy, unity, and identity when developing foreign economic policy preferences. Case studies of nationalist organizations in Quebec, India, and Ukraine that favor a high degree of international economic integration are presented to show the usefulness of the analytical framework. [source]

On being the right size: food-limited feedback on optimal body size

Sinclair Anthony R.E
An insular population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus introduced in 1896 to predator-free Anticosti Island, Quebec, has caused long-term changes in the plant community. Food quality declined as did body weight. Although different parameters of reproduction changed, overall reproductive rates remained similar, thus maintaining deer density and promoting further change in habitat. These results show (i) long-term feedbacks on carrying capacity, (ii) the mechanism for reduction of body mass, and (iii) the lack of strong reduction in reproductive rates to regulate the population at high density, a feature of Eutherians. They are relevant to mechanisms determining the evolution of vertebrate body sizes. [source]

Effects of intensive harvesting on moose reproduction

Catherine Laurian
Summary 1.,It has been hypothesized that a balanced adult sex ratio is necessary for the full participation of ungulate females in reproduction and therefore high productivity. We tested this general hypothesis by combining two complementary approaches. 2.,First, using telemetry (n = 60) and annual aerial censuses between 1995 and 1998, we compared two moose Alces alces populations in Quebec, Canada, one non-harvested and the other subject to intensive sport harvesting from the end of September to mid-October. We tested the following predictions for the harvested population: (i) females increase movements and home ranges during the mating period; (ii) the mating system is modified, with the appearance of groups of one male and many females; (iii) subadult males participate in reproduction; (iv) the mating period extends over two to three oestrus cycles; (v) the calving period extends over several months; and (vi) productivity declines. 3.,Daily movements and home range sizes during the mating period did not differ between harvested and non-harvested populations. Most groups observed were male,female pairs. Subadult males (1·5,2·5 years old) were only observed with females in the harvested population. Mating and calving periods did not differ between populations. The proportion of females that gave birth and the number of calves produced were also comparable in the two populations. 4.,Secondly, we also assessed the existence of a relationship between population productivity and percentage of males in various management units of the province of Quebec that were characterized by a wide range in sex ratios. Contrary to prediction (vi), the number of calves per 100 adult females was not related to the percentage of adult males in the population. 5.,The participation of young adult males (subadults) in reproduction in our harvested population may have compensated for the lower percentage of adult males, and thus productivity was unaffected. We therefore reject the hypothesis that intensive harvesting, at least at the level we observed, affects reproduction and population productivity. 6.,As there are some uncertainties regarding the long-term effects of high hunting pressure, however, managers should favour sex ratios close to levels observed in non-harvested populations. [source]

Oviposition and feeding preference of Acrolepiopsis assectella Zell. (Lep., Acrolepiidae)

J. Allison
Abstract:, The leek moth, Acrolepiopsisassectella (Zell.), is a recently discovered exotic species in eastern Ontario and western Quebec. This Allium spp. (Asparagales, Alliaceae) specialist can cause up to 40% crop damage. A no-choice experiment was used to determine the relationship between oviposition behaviour and larval survival of the leek moth as the phylogenetic distance from the preferred host Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum L. increased. Results indicate that oviposition preference and larval survival of the leek moth declined as the phylogenetic distance from the preferred host increased. These results support the conclusion that the leek moth is a specialist feeder on closely related Allium spp. although the strength of this preference may decline as the motivation to oviposit increases. This may indicate that the leek moth is able to use closely related novel hosts as temporary refuges if the preferred host plant is unavailable. [source]

Health and Psychiatric Disparities in Children with Cognitive and Developmental Delays: Implications for Health Policy in Quebec

Jennifer S. Nachshen
Background, Previous research on psychiatric and health disparities according to level of cognitive functioning has focused on adults within an American healthcare context. The current study compares children with and without cognitive and developmental delays in Quebec, Canada, using physician billing data from a longitudinal study of low-income, francophone families. Canada is an ideal context for studying medical billing data as its equal access healthcare system removes many socioeconomic biases. Methods, A large sample (n = 1050) of children is used to describe psychiatric and health disparities, as well as differences in Ambulatory Care Sensitive (ACS) conditions and primary healthcare, between children with (n = 107) and without (n = 943) diagnoses in their billing history indicative of delays. Results, The findings demonstrated a relatively high level of psychiatric diagnoses for children with delays. However, no difference was found between children with and without delays in regard to emergency room visits and hospitalizations for ACS conditions and primary healthcare. Conclusions, The findings suggest that, within a universal healthcare system, disparities in primary healthcare may not emerge until adulthood in individuals with delay status. [source]

The Association Between Heel Ultrasound and Hormone Replacement Therapy Is Modulated by a Two-Locus Vitamin D and Estrogen Receptor Genotype

Yves Giguère
Abstract Evidence supports the role of estrogen deprivation in the process of bone remodeling and increased risk of fracture in postmenopausal women but little is known about the genetic basis of individual differences in response to therapy. In a cross-sectional study, 425 ambulatory postmenopausal French-Canadian women from Quebec (age range, 42,85 years old) were genotyped for a common Bsm I polymorphism at the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene as well as a Pvu II polymorphism in the estrogen receptor (ESR1) gene. Heel ultrasound was determined by right calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and results were expressed as an age- and-weight-adjusted stiffness index (heel SI z score). Our aim was to investigate the interaction between hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) and receptor genotypes in an effect on heel SI. Notably, a two-locus genotype (VDR-bb/ESR-PP) present in 9.5% of women was responsible for over 30% of the total HRT-related heel SI difference in the whole sample. Women bearing this combined VDR/ESR1 genotype who received HRT for more than 5 years had a 21% (1.25 SD) greater heel SI (p = 0.002) than those bearing the same genotype but who received HRT for <5 years. This may translate into a 2- to 3-fold difference in the risk of fracture. Although follow-up studies are needed, our findings suggest that QUS of the heel in postmenopausal women taking HRT is affected by variation in VDR and ESR1 loci, jointly. [source]

XXIIIrd Meeting of the Society of Cardiac Surgeons Magog, Quebec, Canada June, 8-11, 2003

Article first published online: 23 JAN 200
First page of article [source]

Division of domestic work and psychological distress 1 year after childbirth: a comparison between France, Quebec and Italy,

Catherine des Rivières-Pigeon
Abstract Background. The participation of men in domestic work should have a positive impact on the wellbeing and mental health of women who are mothers of young children. However, cultural factors, which largely determine the expectations and desires of men and women, are likely to modify this impact. The purpose of this study was to explore differences between countries in the division of child care and housework between couples 1 year after childbirth, and to look at possible differences in the relationship between this division and the psychological health of new mothers. Methods. Similar studies were carried out in three countries: France, Italy and Canada (province of Quebec), making it possible to compare the situation of 1598 women. Results. The results revealed major differences between countries in the division of domestic work. For nearly all the child care and housework tasks studied, answers indicating an unequal division were more frequent in Italy than in France, and more frequent in France than in Quebec. Despite these differences, we found very similar pattern of associations, in the three countries, between the division of domestic work and the mental health of women. An unequal division of child care was linked with psychological distress, but this association was not found for the division of housework. Conclusion. These results raise questions concerning the mechanisms by which the division of domestic work affects the psychological health of new mothers. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Limits of the Appeal to Internet in Accessing Information and Training in the Exercise of Parenting Skills in Quebec

François Larose
In this article, we define the concept of digital gap as a multidimensional construct, and account for the contradictory relations stated in the scientific literature concerning the appeal to Internet by the more or less privileged strata of society. We explore the state of the digital gap and analyze diverse policies implemented by federal and provincial governments to support accessibility to digital resources in Quebec. After presenting results of a survey with parents concerning access to information and training in the exercise of parenting skills, we analyze these data in accordance with factors associated with the digital gap. We conclude by underlining the danger of compensation policies for the most vulnerable strata of society when government services are placed online. [source]

Goal attainment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors in community-based clinical practice (a Canadian experience)

Pendar Farahani MD MSc
Abstract Background, The primary goal in the clinical management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease is to reduce major CV risk factors. A single risk factor approach has been traditionally used for demonstrating effectiveness of therapeutic interventions designed to reduce CV risk in clinical trials, but a global CV risk reduction approach should be adopted when assessing effectiveness in the clinical practice setting. Objectives, To explore combined goal achievement for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose and systolic-diastolic blood pressure, in patients with dyslipidemia on pharmacotherapy in community-based clinical practices across Canada. Methods, In a cross-sectional study, patients filling a prescription for any antihyperlipidemia therapy in selected pharmacies in Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia and Nova Scotia were recruited. Family physicians of the participating patients were requested to provide information from the patient's medical record. Ten-year CV risk was identified for each patient according to the Framingham criteria. Results, High-risk patients comprised 52% of the patient population; 34% were moderate-risk and 14% were low-risk. Patients had a mean of 2.8 CV risk factors; high-risk 3.7, moderate-risk 2.3 and low-risk 1.2. LDL-C goal attainment was observed in 62%, 79% and 96% of patients in high-risk, moderate-risk and low-risk strata respectively. BP goal was achieved in high-risk patients 58%, moderate-risk 83% and low-risk 95%. Glucose levels were below the threshold in 91% of patients. Complete global CV risk reduction was achieved in only 21%, 66% and 92% of high-risk, moderate-risk and low-risk strata respectively. Conclusion, This study illustrates that many patients with dyslipidemia in the Canadian population, and in particular the high-risk patients, did not meet the therapeutic targets for specific CV risk factors according to the Canadian guidelines. Overall, 54% of patients failed to achieve a state of complete global CV risk reduction. [source]