Quaternary System (quaternary + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Viscous behaviour of quaternary fluid solutions at 298.15,K

R. K. Shukla
Abstract Assuming a quaternary fluid solution to be made up of six binaries, a statistical approach of Flory has been extended to develop the expression for dynamic viscosity of multicomponent system using the concept of absolute rate and free volume approaches of liquid state. A reasonable agreement has been achieved between theory and the experiment for n -hexadecane,+,carbon tetrachloride,+,benzene,+,n -hexane quaternary system at 298.15 over a wide range of composition. An attempt has also been made to explain the nature of the molecular interactions, involved in the light of excess thermodynamic functions whose sign and magnitude depend upon the chain length and size of the component liquids. En supposant une solution de fluide quaternaire composée de six binaires, on a généralisé l'approche statistique de Flory dans le but d'établir l,expression pour la viscosité dynamique du système multicomposant à l,aide du concept de taux absolu et de l,approche des volumes libres de l,état liquide. Un accord raisonnable a été trouvé entre la théorie et l,expérience pour le système quaternaire n-hexadécane,+,tétrachlorure de carbone,+,benzène,+,n-hexane à 298,15 pour une vaste gamme de composition. On a également tenté d'expliquer la nature des interactions moléculaires, intervenant à la lumière des fonctions thermodynamiques d'excès dont le signe et la grandeur dépendent de la longueur de chaîne et de la quantité des composants liquides. [source]

Phase equilibrium system of CsCl-YCl3 -(9.5%)HCl-H2O at T=298.15 K and its compounds

Hui Wang
Abstract The equilibrium solubility of one CsCl-YCl3 -H2O ternary section of CsCl-YCl3 -9.5%HCl-H2O quaternary system at T=298.15 K was investigated by the physico-chemical analysis method and the corresponding phase diagram was plotted. The crystallization of two new double salts Cs4YCl7·10H2O (4:1 type) and Cs3Y2Cl9·14H2O (3:2 type) was successful and they were obtained from the complicated system directly. Both were identified and characterized by X-ray, thermal analysis method of TG-DTG, DSC. The fluorescence experiments show that up-conversion phenomenon does not exist in compounds Cs4YCl7·10H2O and Cs3Y2Cl9·14H2O. [source]

Perfumery quaternary diagrams for engineering perfumes

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 8 2009
Miguel A. Teixeira
Abstract The Perfumery Ternary Diagram (PTD®) methodology predicts the headspace odor character and intensity of fragrant mixtures, applying the concept of odor value (OV) to multi-component systems. This methodology is extended here to quaternary and quinary odorant systems through the use of tetrahedric diagrams. To present this new methodology, the effect of different base notes in quaternary systems of the type (limonene + geraniol + base note + ethanol) and its forming ternary subsystems has been studied. Base notes selected were: vanillin, tonalide, ambrox, and galaxolide. The Perfumery Quaternary Diagrams (PQD) of the mixtures studied show the different headspace odor character, with ambrox and galaxolide dominating most of the composition spectrum (OVmax). The methodology was also applied to the quinary mixture (limonene + geraniol + vanillin + tonalide + ethanol), and the effect of different concentrations of tonalide on the headspace is presented. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Liquid-liquid-solid Equilibrium for Two Quaternary Systems Potassium Chloride+Rubidium Chloride+1/2-Propanol+Water at 25 °C

Hai-Yan GUO
Abstract The phase equilibria of two quaternary systems K+, Rb+//Cl-1/2-C3H7OH, H2O have been investigated at 25 °C. The liquid-solid phase equilibrium of ternary system KCl+RbCl+H2O has been determined. The liquid-liq- uid-solid phase equilibrium of the five different KCl/RbCl mass factions (from 1/0, 0.75/0.25, 0.5/0.5, 0.25/0.75 to 0/1) in the mixed solvent of 1/2-C3H7OH-H2O was investigated. The integrated phase diagrams were drawn for two quaternary systems and the salting effects of the 1/2-C3H7OH were discussed. The results of the fitting for liquid- liquid data by a five-coefficient equation and the tie line data by the Eisen-Joffe equation are reasonable. [source]