Quaternary Sediments (quaternary + sediment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The influence of parent material on topsoil geochemistry in eastern England

B. G. Rawlins
Abstract The topsoil of around 10 000 km2 in eastern England has recently been sampled intensely at 4609 sites to characterize its geochemistry. The parent materials, which include both solid geology and Quaternary sediments, range in age from Permian to Holocene. The distributions of the concentrations of major and trace elements have been characterized geostatistically, and the role of parent material on their spatial structure (anisotropy) and their spatial relationships (coregionalization) have been investigated. Analysis of variance with the sites grouped by major parent material type showed that this classi,cation accounted for 14 to 48 per cent of the variance for the various elements. Global variograms of 13 elements (Al, As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Ti, and U) have been computed and modelled. Eleven of the variograms seem to comprise two structures, both of which we modelled with spherical functions, one of short range, 35 to 9 km, and the other with a range of 15 to 23 km. The models included a nugget variance, which varied from 27 per cent (for As, Fe, and Mg) to 63 per cent (for P) of the total. The long-range structures are related to the separations of the major parent materials. The variograms of several elements showed appreciable anisotropy, most notably that of Mg. Anisotropy is evident at short ranges of less than 5 km. This accords with the geological structure of the beds which dip from west to east so that their outcrops are elongated from north to south. A linear model of coregionalization ,tted to the data emphasized several important geochemical associations, which we interpret. Elements commonly associated with clay minerals (Mg, Al) and the clay size fraction (Ti) are dominated by the long-range structure of the coregionalization, whilst several trace elements (As, Cr, Ni and U) are spatially correlated with Fe over short distances, through adsorption of the former on the surfaces of Fe oxyhydroxides. The topsoil around large urban areas is enriched in lead, but it is not clear whether anthropogenic sources are responsible for this metal's anomalous spatial relationships with other elements. Crown copyright 2003. Reproduced with the permission of Her Majesty's Stationery Of,ce. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Marine and human activity influences on the groundwater quality of southern Korinthos area (Greece)

G. Stamatis
Abstract In this paper the groundwater quality of the southern part of Korinthos region (north-east Peloponnese) is discussed. The geology is characterized by a thick sequence of Neogene marls alternating with sandstones, overlain by superficial Quaternary deposits. The latter consist of a mixture of loose materials such as conglomerates, marly sandstones, sands and clay to silty sands. The area is crossed by a fault system parallel to the coastline, and the Quaternary sediments have formed extended Tyrrhenian marine terraces. Two aquifers have been identified in the area. The first is unconfined and occurs within the Quaternary sediments whereas the other is a deep confined aquifer occurring within the underlying Neogene marl series. Analysis of hydrochemical evolution over the past 30 years has indicated significant deterioration of quality owing to seawater intrusion and nitrate pollution. The various sources of pollution have rendered, to a large extent, shallow groundwater unsuitable not only for potable water supply but also for irrigation purposes. However, this is not the case for the deeper confined aquifer. Statistical analysis was used to explore the evolution of salinization during the years 1968 and 1998. In view of the alarming conditions caused by the documented groundwater quality deterioration, the need for integrated water resources management is stressed to maintain the socio-economic growth of the region studied. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Thrust geometries in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments and evolution of the Eupchon Fault, southeast Korea

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2004
Young-Seog Kim
Abstract The Korean peninsula is widely regarded as being located at the relatively stable eastern margin of the Asian continent. However, more than 10 Quaternary faults have recently been discovered in and reported from the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. One of these, the Eupchon Fault, was discovered during the construction of a primary school, and it is located close to a nuclear power plant. To understand the nature and characteristics of the Quaternary Eupchon Fault, we carried out two trench surveys near the discovery site. The fault system includes one main reverse fault (N20E/40SE) with approximately 4 m displacement, and a series of branch faults, cutting unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. Structures in the fault system include synthetic and antithetic faults, hanging-wall anticlines, drag folds, back thrusts, pop-up structures, flat-ramp geometries and duplexes, which are very similar to those seen in thrust systems in consolidated rocks. In the upper part of the fault system, several tip damage zones are observed, indicating that the fault system propagates upward and terminates in the upper part of the section. Pebbles along the main fault plane show a preferred orientation of long axes, indicating the fault trace. The unconformity surface between the Quaternary deposits and the underlying Tertiary andesites or Cretaceous sedimentary rocks is displaced by this fault with a reverse movement sense. The stratigraphic relationship shows normal slip sense at the lower part of the section, indicating that the fault had a normal slip movement and was reversely reactivated during the Quaternary. The inferred length of the Quaternary thrust fault, based on the relationship between fault length and displacement, is 200,2000 m. The current maximum horizontal compressive stress direction in this area is generally east-northeast,west-southwest, which would be expected to produce oblique slip on the Eupchon Fault, with reverse and right-lateral strike-slip components. [source]

Quaternary reactivation of Tertiary faults in the southeastern Korean Peninsula: Age constraint by optically stimulated luminescence dating

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2003
Jin-Han Ree
Abstract Two groups of Quaternary faults occur in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. The first group is north-northeast-striking, high-angle dextral strike,slip faults. The second group is north-northeast-striking, low-angle reverse faults that represent the reactivation of the pre-existing normal faults. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of Quaternary sediments cut by one of the reverse faults constrains the faulting age to post-32 Ka. These faults seem to be capable of further slip under the current tectonic stress regime, as determined by recent earthquake events in northeast Asia. Therefore, the traditional concept that the southeastern Korean Peninsula is seismically stable should be reappraised. [source]


Abstract:, Late Quaternary sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1055B, Carolina Slope, western North Atlantic (3247.041, N, 7617.179, W; 1798 m water depth) were examined for deep-sea ostracod taxonomy. A total of 13 933 specimens were picked from 207 samples and c. 120 species were identified. Among them, 87 species were included and illustrated in this paper. Twenty-eight new species are described. The new species are: Ambocythere sturgio, Argilloecia abba, Argilloecia caju, Argilloecia keigwini, Argilloecia robinwhatleyi, Aversovalva carolinensis, Bythoceratina willemvandenboldi, Bythocythere eugeneschornikovi, Chejudocythere tenuis, Cytheropteron aielloi, Cytheropteron demenocali, Cytheropteron didieae, Cytheropteron richarddinglei, Cytheropteron fugu, Cytheropteron guerneti, Cytheropteron richardbensoni, Eucytherura hazeli, Eucytherura mayressi, Eucytherura namericana, Eucytherura spinicorona, Posacythere hunti, Paracytherois bondi, Pedicythere atroposopetasi, Pedicythere kennettopetasi, Pedicythere klothopetasi, Pedicythere lachesisopetasi, Ruggieriella mcmanusi and Xestoleberis oppoae. Taxonomic revisions of several common species were made to reduce taxonomic uncertainty in the literature. This study provides a robust taxonomic baseline for application to palaeoceanographical reconstruction and biodiversity analyses in the deep and intermediate-depth environments of the North Atlantic Ocean. [source]

Luminescence dating: where it has been and where it is going

BOREAS, Issue 4 2008
The luminescence properties of common minerals, such as quartz and potassium-rich feldspars, allow them to be used to measure depositional ages for late Quaternary sediments. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals currently used are appropriate for mineral grains whose previous radiation history was erased by exposure to sunlight immediately prior to deposition. However, the concepts relating to grain size and long-term stability of the signals established when using the thermoluminescence signals should not be forgotten. Recent technological advances and the development of new laboratory measurement procedures for obtaining the equivalent dose have resulted in more widespread and more confident use of OSL for dating using smaller samples, even down to the single grain level. Ages can now be obtained for samples only a few hundred years old, and new luminescence signals are being investigated in order to extend the age range back by an order of magnitude from ,100 kyr to ,1 Myr. [source]