Quaternary Faults (quaternary + fault)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Origin of the in situ stress field in south-eastern Australia

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2004
Mike Sandiford
The in situ stress field of south-eastern Australia inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms and bore-hole breakouts is unusual in that it is characterised by large obliquity between the maximum horizontal compressive stress orientation (SHmax) and the absolute plate motion azimuth. The evolution of the neotectonic strain field deduced from historical seismicity and both onshore and offshore faulting records is used to address the origin of this unusual stress field. Strain rates derived from estimates of the seismic moment release rate (up to ,10,16 s,1) are compatible with Quaternary fault,slip rates. The record of more or less continuous tectonic activity extends back to the terminal Miocene or early Pliocene (10,5 Ma). Terminal Miocene tectonic activity was characterised by regional-scale tilting and local uplift and erosion, now best preserved by unconformities in offshore basins. Plate-scale stress modelling suggests the in situ stress field reflects increased coupling of the Australian and Pacific Plate boundary in the late Miocene, associated with the formation of the Southern Alps in New Zealand. [source]


Present-day stress in the surroundings of 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence (Italy)

GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2010
Maria Teresa Mariucci
SUMMARY The axial zone of the Apenninic belt in central Italy is a tectonically active region affected by post-orogenic Quaternary extension. The present-day stress field is characterized by a minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) , NE,SW oriented, derived mainly from earthquake focal mechanisms and secondarily from borehole breakouts and fault data. The paper describes the computation of the Shmin orientation along two deep boreholes located in the vicinity of the area hit by the 2009 April 6, Mw 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake. The analysed wells show breakout zones at a depth range between 1.4 and 4.6 km, giving precious information on a depth interval usually not investigated by any other data. The results show an Shmin N81 22 and N74 10 oriented for Varoni 1 and Campotosto 1 wells, respectively. The comparison among the breakouts, the 2009 seismic sequence, the past seismicity and the Quaternary faults indicates a small rotation of Shmin orientation from , NE, in the southern, to , ENE in the northern sector of the study area, where the wells are located. These differences are linked both to the natural variations of data and to the orientation of the main tectonic structures varying from NW,SE in the Abruzzi region to , N,S moving toward the Umbro-Marchean Apennines. The identification of constant Shmin orientations with depth derived from all the examined active stress data, confirms the breakouts as reliable stress indicators also for aseismic areas. [source]


Thrust geometries in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments and evolution of the Eupchon Fault, southeast Korea

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2004
Young-Seog Kim
Abstract The Korean peninsula is widely regarded as being located at the relatively stable eastern margin of the Asian continent. However, more than 10 Quaternary faults have recently been discovered in and reported from the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. One of these, the Eupchon Fault, was discovered during the construction of a primary school, and it is located close to a nuclear power plant. To understand the nature and characteristics of the Quaternary Eupchon Fault, we carried out two trench surveys near the discovery site. The fault system includes one main reverse fault (N20E/40SE) with approximately 4 m displacement, and a series of branch faults, cutting unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. Structures in the fault system include synthetic and antithetic faults, hanging-wall anticlines, drag folds, back thrusts, pop-up structures, flat-ramp geometries and duplexes, which are very similar to those seen in thrust systems in consolidated rocks. In the upper part of the fault system, several tip damage zones are observed, indicating that the fault system propagates upward and terminates in the upper part of the section. Pebbles along the main fault plane show a preferred orientation of long axes, indicating the fault trace. The unconformity surface between the Quaternary deposits and the underlying Tertiary andesites or Cretaceous sedimentary rocks is displaced by this fault with a reverse movement sense. The stratigraphic relationship shows normal slip sense at the lower part of the section, indicating that the fault had a normal slip movement and was reversely reactivated during the Quaternary. The inferred length of the Quaternary thrust fault, based on the relationship between fault length and displacement, is 200,2000 m. The current maximum horizontal compressive stress direction in this area is generally east-northeast,west-southwest, which would be expected to produce oblique slip on the Eupchon Fault, with reverse and right-lateral strike-slip components. [source]


Quaternary reactivation of Tertiary faults in the southeastern Korean Peninsula: Age constraint by optically stimulated luminescence dating

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2003
Jin-Han Ree
Abstract Two groups of Quaternary faults occur in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. The first group is north-northeast-striking, high-angle dextral strike,slip faults. The second group is north-northeast-striking, low-angle reverse faults that represent the reactivation of the pre-existing normal faults. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of Quaternary sediments cut by one of the reverse faults constrains the faulting age to post-32 Ka. These faults seem to be capable of further slip under the current tectonic stress regime, as determined by recent earthquake events in northeast Asia. Therefore, the traditional concept that the southeastern Korean Peninsula is seismically stable should be reappraised. [source]