Quaternary Deposits (quaternary + deposit)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Sediment provenance of late Quaternary morainic, fluvial and loess-like deposits in the southwestern Verkhoyansk Mountains (eastern Siberia) and implications for regional palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

Steffen Popp
Abstract A provenance analysis of late Quaternary deposits from tributaries of the Aldan and Lena rivers in Central Yakutia (eastern Siberia) was carried out using analysis of heavy minerals and clay mineralogy. Cluster analysis revealed one assemblage that is characterized by relatively high proportions of amphibole, orthopyroxene and garnet as well as pedogenic clay minerals, reflecting a sediment provenance from the wide catchment area of the Lena and Aldan rivers. In contrast, the three other clusters are dominated by stable heavy minerals with varying amounts of clinopyroxene, apatite and garnet, as well as high percentages of illite and chlorite that are indicative of source rocks of the Verkhoyansk Mountains. Glacial moraines reveal the local mountain source signal that is overprinted by the Lena-Aldan signal in the oldest moraines by reworking processes. Alluvial sediments in the Verkhoyansk Foreland show a clear Lena source signal through intervals of the middle and late Pleistocene, related to a stream course closer to the mountains at that time. Loess-like cover sediments are characterized by the dominant Lena provenance with increasing proportions of local mountain sources towards the mountain valleys. Aeolian sands in an alluvial terrace section at the mountain margin covering the time between 30,ka and 10,ka BP reflect temporarily dominant inputs of aeolian materials from the Lena Plains. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Marine and human activity influences on the groundwater quality of southern Korinthos area (Greece)

G. Stamatis
Abstract In this paper the groundwater quality of the southern part of Korinthos region (north-east Peloponnese) is discussed. The geology is characterized by a thick sequence of Neogene marls alternating with sandstones, overlain by superficial Quaternary deposits. The latter consist of a mixture of loose materials such as conglomerates, marly sandstones, sands and clay to silty sands. The area is crossed by a fault system parallel to the coastline, and the Quaternary sediments have formed extended Tyrrhenian marine terraces. Two aquifers have been identified in the area. The first is unconfined and occurs within the Quaternary sediments whereas the other is a deep confined aquifer occurring within the underlying Neogene marl series. Analysis of hydrochemical evolution over the past 30 years has indicated significant deterioration of quality owing to seawater intrusion and nitrate pollution. The various sources of pollution have rendered, to a large extent, shallow groundwater unsuitable not only for potable water supply but also for irrigation purposes. However, this is not the case for the deeper confined aquifer. Statistical analysis was used to explore the evolution of salinization during the years 1968 and 1998. In view of the alarming conditions caused by the documented groundwater quality deterioration, the need for integrated water resources management is stressed to maintain the socio-economic growth of the region studied. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Thrust geometries in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments and evolution of the Eupchon Fault, southeast Korea

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2004
Young-Seog Kim
Abstract The Korean peninsula is widely regarded as being located at the relatively stable eastern margin of the Asian continent. However, more than 10 Quaternary faults have recently been discovered in and reported from the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. One of these, the Eupchon Fault, was discovered during the construction of a primary school, and it is located close to a nuclear power plant. To understand the nature and characteristics of the Quaternary Eupchon Fault, we carried out two trench surveys near the discovery site. The fault system includes one main reverse fault (N20E/40SE) with approximately 4 m displacement, and a series of branch faults, cutting unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. Structures in the fault system include synthetic and antithetic faults, hanging-wall anticlines, drag folds, back thrusts, pop-up structures, flat-ramp geometries and duplexes, which are very similar to those seen in thrust systems in consolidated rocks. In the upper part of the fault system, several tip damage zones are observed, indicating that the fault system propagates upward and terminates in the upper part of the section. Pebbles along the main fault plane show a preferred orientation of long axes, indicating the fault trace. The unconformity surface between the Quaternary deposits and the underlying Tertiary andesites or Cretaceous sedimentary rocks is displaced by this fault with a reverse movement sense. The stratigraphic relationship shows normal slip sense at the lower part of the section, indicating that the fault had a normal slip movement and was reversely reactivated during the Quaternary. The inferred length of the Quaternary thrust fault, based on the relationship between fault length and displacement, is 200,2000 m. The current maximum horizontal compressive stress direction in this area is generally east-northeast,west-southwest, which would be expected to produce oblique slip on the Eupchon Fault, with reverse and right-lateral strike-slip components. [source]

Quaternary tephra marker beds and their potential for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction on Chatham Island, east of New Zealand, southwest Pacific Ocean,

Katherine A. Holt
Abstract Tephras provide one of the most reliable methods of time control and synchronisation within Quaternary sequences. We report on the identification of two widespread rhyolitic tephras , the Kawakawa and Rangitawa tephras , preserved in extensive peat deposits on Chatham Island ,900,km east of New Zealand. The tephras, both products of supereruptions from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, occur as pale, fine-ash dominated layers typically 10,150,mm thick. Mineralogically they are dominated by rhyolitic glass, together with subordinate amounts of quartz, feldspar, hypersthene, hornblende, Fe,Ti oxides and zircon. Phlogopite/biotite was identified additionally in Rangitawa Tephra. Ages for each tephra were obtained via mineralogical and major element glass composition-based correlation with well-dated equivalent deposits on mainland New Zealand, and we also obtained a new zircon fission-track age for Rangitawa Tephra (350,,50,ka) on Chatham Island. Both tephras were erupted at critical times for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions in the New Zealand region: the Kawakawa at ca. 27 cal. ka, near the beginning of the ,extended' LGM early in marine isotope stage (MIS) 2; and the Rangitawa at ca. 350 ka near the end of MIS 10. The time constraints provided by the tephras demonstrate that Chatham Island peats contain long-distance pollen derived from mainland New Zealand, which provides a reliable proxy for identifying glacial,interglacial climate conditions, in this case during the MIS 11,10 and MIS 2,1 cycles. The two tephras thus provide important chronostratigraphic tie-points that facilitate correlation and synchronisation not only across the Quaternary deposits of the Chatham Islands group but also with climatically significant terrestrial and marine records in the wider New Zealand region. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Amino-acid geochronology and the British Pleistocene: secure stratigraphical framework or a case of circular reasoning?

Danny McCarroll
Abstract Aminostratigraphy is central to the recently revised correlation of Quaternary deposits in the British Isles, providing a link between terrestrial deposits and marine Oxygen Isotope Stages. The central tenet of British aminostratigraphy, however, that shells from the same interglacial yield very similar ratios, so that the characteristic ratios from different interglacials are distinct, remains uncertain. The data available suggest that amino-acid ratios from different interglacials do not fall into discrete groups, but overlap considerably. It is therefore not valid to assign individual shells to Oxygen Isotope Stages simply on the basis of their amino-acid ratios, which means that filtering data to remove high or low values, on the assumption that they represent reworked shells, is unacceptable. The range of ,characteristic ratios' assigned to British warm stages may have been underestimated and the degree of separation between them overestimated. Amino-acid ratios should be treated as sample data that are naturally variable. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Zekai Sen
ABSTRACT: The quality of ground water in any aquifer takes its final form due to natural mixture of waters, which may originate from different sources. Water quality varies from one aquifer to another and even within the same aquifer itself. Different ground water quality is obtained from wells and is mixed in a common reservoir prior to any consumption. This artificial mixing enables an increase in available ground water of a desired quality for agricultural or residential purposes. The question remains as to what proportions of water from different wells should be mixed together to achieve a desired water quality for this artificial mixture. Two sets of laboratory experiments were carried out, namely, the addition of saline water to a fixed volume of fresh water. After each addition, the mixture volume and the electric conductivity value of the artificially mixed water were recorded. The experiments were carried out under the same laboratory temperature of 20C. A standard curve was developed first experimentally and then confirmed theoretically. This curve is useful in determining either the volume or discharge ratio from two wells to achieve a predetermined electrical conductivity value of the artificial mixture. The application of the curve is given for two wells within the Quaternary deposits in the western part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [source]

Mixed method approaches to the investigation and mapping of buried Quaternary deposits: examples from southern England

Martin R. Bates
Abstract The lower reaches of major river valleys usually present archaeologists with considerable problems where thick sequences of stratified alluvium bury archaeology. These situations are typical of the lower reaches of major river systems that are currently under intense pressure from urban development where the archaeological resource is consequently at risk. Here we demonstrate how mixed method approaches, utilizing a range of borehole methods, cone penetration testing and surface and subsurface geophysics coupled with microfossil assessment (Foraminifera/Ostracoda), can be used to model these deposits and predict locations and depths at which important archaeological remains may be located. The novelty of this approach is not in the application of individual techniques to the problem but in the combined methodology, which enables a structured and cost effective programme of works to be formulated and provides the best chance to understand the subsurface. Although this approach has been developed to facilitate the location of archaeological sites buried at depth within the route corridor of development projects it is also suitable for locating fossil-bearing sequences and mapping stratigraphical units in Quaternary science. We demonstrate the approach using two examples from southern England. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]