Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Quartz

  • fused quartz

  • Terms modified by Quartz

  • quartz crystal
  • quartz grain
  • quartz reactor
  • quartz sand
  • quartz substrate
  • quartz surface
  • quartz tubes
  • quartz vein

  • Selected Abstracts

    Weathering control over geomorphology of supermature Proterozoic Delhi quartzites of India

    Jayant K. Tripathi
    Abstract Quartz and quartzite are thought to be resistant as a mineral and a rock respectively; however, we have shown that the presence of small amounts of pyrite in the quartzites makes them vulnerable to weathering. We observe that weathering of Proterozoic quartzite in the semi-arid conditions around Delhi proceeded from fractures towards the inside and produced weathering rinds. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), which is actually a measure of weathering of aluminosilicate minerals, increases from the core outwards, through the rinds. Although aluminosilicate minerals occur only as minor phases (<2 per cent), their weathering indicates a movement of the weathering front from the periphery towards the core. We have suggested a coupled mechanism in which the dissolution of pyrites by moving water produced a sulphate-bearing acidic solution and ferrous iron, which reacted with aluminosilicate minerals and quartz, respectively. This initially makes the Delhi quartzite porous and subsequently friable. The total disintegration of grain to grain contacts imparted friability to this quartzite to produce silica sand. Subsequent physical erosion of loose sand, produced during rind development in the outermost zones, has given rise to features like tors, spheroids, gullies, cavities and small-scale caves on these quartzites. Thus, the terrain has acquired ruggedness in semi-arid conditions. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Three-Dimensional and Sensitive Bioassay Based on Nanostructured Quartz Combined with Viral Nanoparticles

    Jong-Hwan Lee
    Abstract An effective mask-free method for fabricating high-aspect-ratio pillarlike nanostructures over a large area of a quartz surface via a simple O2 and CF4 two-step reactive ion etching (RIE) procedure is developed. The nanostructured quartz surfaces are successfully combined with the engineered viral particles derived from hepatitis B virus capsid, yielding a novel 3D assay system with attomolar sensitivity, which has great potential for use in sensitive and early detection of various disease markers. [source]

    K-feldspar alteration to gel material and crystallization of glauconitic peloids with berthierine in Cretaceous marine sediments,sedimentary implications (Prebetic Zone, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
    Juan Jiménez-Millįn
    Abstract Glauconitic peloids from a Hauterivian condensed level in a hemipelagic unit of the Internal Prebetic (Los Villares Formation, eastern Betic Cordillera) have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The sediments forming the condensed level are characterized by abundant spherical to ovoid green glauconite peloids with radial cracks. Quartz, feldspar and muscovite are also abundant, whereas calcium phosphate is rarely detected. XRD analysis of the peloids reveals glauconite and small amounts of berthierine. SEM and HRTEM data show feldspar dissolution features, a Si,Al-rich gel-like substance filling K-feldspar micropores and interlayering of well-crystallized glauconite and berthierine packets. The last stage of the glauconitization process resulted in conversion of the smectitic precursor. Sedimentary and mineralogical features indicate an autochthonous origin for the glauconite. The depositional environment was a distal, hemipelagic ramp on the Southern Iberian Continental Palaeomargin. Low sedimentation rates lead to sediment condensation in a general transgressive context. The margin was affected by extensional tectonics, creating tilted blocks, resulting in lateral facies changes. The dissolution of K-feldspars probably occurred after their deposition in the marine environment but predating the glauconitization. An influx of meteoric water is therefore required, probably related to subsurface fluxes from adjacent emergent areas (the higher parts of tilted blocks). Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Reaction localization and softening of texturally hardened mylonites in a reactivated fault zone, central Argentina

    Abstract The Tres Arboles ductile fault zone in the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, central Argentina, experienced multiple ductile deformation and faulting events that involved a variety of textural and reaction hardening and softening processes. Much of the fault zone is characterized by a (D2) ultramylonite, composed of fine-grained biotite + plagioclase, that lacks a well-defined preferred orientation. The D2 fabric consists of a strong network of intergrown and interlocking grains that show little textural evidence for dislocation or dissolution creep. These ultramylonites contain gneissic rock fragments and porphyroclasts of plagioclase, sillimanite and garnet inherited from the gneissic and migmatitic protolith (D1) of the hangingwall. The assemblage of garnet + sillimanite + biotite suggests that D1-related fabrics developed under upper amphibolite facies conditions, and the persistence of biotite + garnet + sillimanite + plagioclase suggests that the ultramylonite of D2 developed under middle amphibolite facies conditions. Greenschist facies, mylonitic shear bands (D3) locally overprint D2 ultramylonites. Fine-grained folia of muscovite + chlorite ± biotite truncate earlier biotite + plagioclase textures, and coarser-grained muscovite partially replaces relic sillimanite grains. Anorthite content of shear band (D3) plagioclase is c. An30, distinct from D1 and D2 plagioclase (c. An35). The anorthite content of D3 plagioclase is consistent with a pervasive grain boundary fluid that facilitated partial replacement of plagioclase by muscovite. Biotite is partially replaced by muscovite and/or chlorite, particularly in areas of inferred high strain. Quartz precipitated in porphyroclast pressure shadows and ribbons that help define the mylonitic fabric. All D3 reactions require the introduction of H+ and/or H2O, indicating an open system, and typically result in a volume decrease. Syntectonic D3 muscovite + quartz + chlorite preferentially grew in an orientation favourable for strain localization, which produced a strong textural softening. Strain localization occurred only where reactions progressed with the infiltration of aqueous fluids, on a scale of hundreds of micrometre. Local fracturing and microseismicity may have induced reactivation of the fault zone and the initial introduction of fluids. However, the predominant greenschist facies deformation (D3) along discrete shear bands was primarily a consequence of the localization of replacement reactions in a partially open system. [source]

    Chemical and physical responses to deformation in micaceous quartzites from the Tauern Window, Eastern Alps

    J. Selverstone
    Abstract Micaceous quartzites from a subvertical shear zone in the Tauern Window contain abundant quartz clasts derived from dismembered quartz-tourmaline veins. Bulk plane strain deformation affected these rocks at amphibolite facies conditions. Shape changes suggest net shortening of the clasts by 11,64%, with a mean value of 35%. Quartz within the clasts accommodated this strain largely via dislocation creep processes. On the high-stress flanks of the clasts, however, quartz was removed via solution mass transfer (pressure solution) processes; the resulting change in bulk composition allowed growth of porphyroblastic staurolite + chlorite ± kyanite on the clast flanks. Matrix SiO2 contents decrease from c. 83 wt% away from the clasts to 49,58% in the selvages on the clast flanks. The chemical changes are consistent with c. 70% volume loss in the high-stress zones. Calculated shortening values within the clast flanks are similar to the volume-loss estimates, and are greatly in excess of the shortening values calculated from the clasts themselves. Flow laws for dislocation creep versus pressure solution imply large strain-rate gradients and/or differential stress gradients between the matrix and the clast selvages. In a rock containing a large proportion of semirigid clasts, weakening within the clast flanks could dominate rock rheology. In our samples, however, weakening within the selvages was self limiting: (1) growth of strong staurolite porphyroblasts in the selvages protected remaining quartz from dissolution; and (2) overall flattening of the quartz clasts probably decreased the resolved shear stress on the flanks to values near those of the matrix, which would have reduced the driving force for solution-transfer creep. Extreme chemical changes nonetheless occurred over short distances. The necessity of maintaining strain compatibility may lead to significant localized dissolution in rocks containing rheologic heterogeneities, and overall weakening of the rocks may result. Solution-transfer creep may be a major process whereby weakening and strain localization occur during deep-crustal metamorphism of polymineralic rocks. [source]

    Hydrothermal alteration of late- to post-tectonic Lyon Mountain Granitic Gneiss, Adirondack Mountains, New York: Origin of quartz,sillimanite segregations, quartz,albite lithologies, and associated Kiruna-type low-Ti Fe-oxide deposits

    J. Mclelland
    Abstract Quartz,sillimanite segregations, quartz,albite lithologies (Ab95,98), and Kiruna-type low-Ti iron-oxide deposits are associated with late- to post-tectonic (c. 1055 Ma) leucogranites of Lyon Mountain Gneiss (LMG) in the Adirondack Mountains, New York State. Most recent interpretations of these controversial features, which are global in occurrence, favour hydrothermal origins in agreement with results presented here. Field relations document that quartz,sillimanite veins and nodules cut, and therefore post-date, emplacement of host LMG leucogranites. Veins occur in oriented fracture networks, and aligned trains of nodules are interpreted as disrupted early veins. Late dykes of leucogranite cut veins and nodules demonstrating formation prior to terminal magmatism. Veins and nodules consist of sillimanite surrounded by quartz that commonly embays wall-rock feldspar indicating leaching of Na and K from LMG feldspar by acidic hydrothermal fluids. Subsequent, and repeated, ductile flow disrupted earlier veins into nodular fragments but produced little grain shape fabric. Geochemical and petrographic studies of quartz,albite rock indicate that it formed through metasomatic replacement (albitization) of LMG microperthite by sodic hydrothermal fluids that resulted in diagnostic checkerboard albite. Low-Ti iron-oxide ores are commonly associated with the quartz,albite sub-unit, and it is proposed that hydrothermal fluids related to albitization transported Fe as well. The regional extent of sodic alteration suggests large quantities of surface-derived hydrothermal fluids. Fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope data are consistent with high temperature, regionally extensive fluids consisting primarily of evolved surface-derived brines enriched in Na and Cl. Quartz,sillimanite veins and nodules, which are significantly more localised phenomena and require acidic fluids, were most likely formed from local magmatic fluids in the crystallizing carapaces of LMG plutons. [source]

    Seeking a Holocene drift ice proxy: non-clay mineral variations from the SW to N-central Iceland shelf: trends, regime shifts, and periodicities,

    John T. Andrews
    Abstract Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of the <2,mm sediment fraction was carried out on 1257 samples (from the seafloor and 16 cores) from the Iceland shelf west of 18° W. All but one core (B997-347PC) were from transects along troughs on the NW to N-central shelf, an area that in modern and historic times has been affected by drift ice. The paper focuses on the non-clay mineralogy of the sediments (excluding calcite and volcanic glass). Quartz and potassium feldspars occupy similar positions in an R-mode principal component analysis, and oligoclase feldspar tracks quartz; these minerals are used as a proxy for ice-rafted detritus (IRD). Accordingly, the sum of these largely foreign minerals (Q&K) (to Icelandic bedrock) is used as a proxy for drift ice. A stacked, equi-spaced 100 a record is developed which shows both low-frequency trends and higher-frequency events. The detrended stacked record compares well with the flux of quartz (mg,cm,2,a,1) at MD99-2269 off N Iceland. The multi-taper method indicated that there are three significant frequencies at the 95% confidence level with periods of ca. 2500, 445 and 304 a. Regime shift analysis pinpoints intervals when there was a statistically significant shift in the average Q&K weight %, and identifies four IRD-rich events separated by intervals with lower inputs. There is some association between peaks of IRD input, less dense surface waters (from ,18O data on planktonic foraminifera) and intervals of moraine building. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    High oxidation state during formation of Martian nakhlites

    Oxygen fugacities obtained cluster closely around the FMQ (Fayalite,Magnetite,Quartz) buffer (NWA998 = FMQ , 0.8; Y-000593 = FMQ , 0.7; Nakhla = FMQ; Lafayette = FMQ + 0.1). The corresponding equilibration temperatures are 810 °C for Nakhla and Y-000593, 780 °C for Lafayette and 710 °C for NWA998. All nakhlites record oxygen fugacities significantly higher and with a tighter range than those determined for Martian basalts, i.e., shergottites whose oxygen fugacities vary from FMQ , 1 to FMQ , 4. It has been known for some time that nakhlites are different from other Martian meteorites in chemistry, mineralogy, and crystallization age. The present study adds oxygen fugacity to this list of differences. The comparatively large variation in fO2 recorded by shergottites was interpreted by Herd et al. (2002) as reflecting variable degrees of contamination with crustal fluids that would also carry a light rare earth element (REE)-enriched component. The high oxygen fugacities and the large light REE enrichment of nakhlites fit qualitatively in this model. In detail, however, it is found that the inferred contaminating phase in nakhlites must have been different from those in shergottites. This is supported by unique 182W/184W and 142Nd/144Nd ratios in nakhlites, which are distinct from other Martian meteorites. It is likely that the differences in fO2 between nakhlites and other Martian meteorites were established very early in the history of Mars. Parental trace element rich and trace element poor regions (reservoirs) of Mars mantle (Brandon et al. 2000) must have been kept isolated throughout Martian history. Our results further show significant differences in closure temperature among the different nakhlites. The observed range in equilibration temperatures together with similar fO2 values is attributable to crystallization of nakhlites in the same cumulate pile or lava layer at different burial depths from 0.5 to 30 m below the Martian surface in agreement with Mikouchi et al. (2003) and is further confirmed by similar crystallization ages of about 1.3 Ga ago (e.g., Misawa et al. 2003). [source]

    The Sirente crater field, Italy

    Jens ORMö
    They are located in the Sirente plain within the mountains of the Abruzzo region, central Italy. The craters are distributed in a field 450 m long and 400 m wide. This field consists of ,17 smaller craters close to a larger main crater. The main crater is located in the southern end of the crater field and is 140 m long and 115 m wide, measured rim-to-rim. It has a well-developed, saddle-shaped rim that rises at a maximum 2.2 m above the surrounding plain. Radiocarbon dating of the target surface preserved below the rim gave a calibrated age of formation at about a.d. 412 (1650 ± 40 radiocarbon years b.p.). This young age is consistent with the apparent little modification of the rim. The morphology of the main crater and its relation to a crater field strongly points to its origin by impact from a projectile that broke up during its passage through the atmosphere. Quartz is very rare in the target and no planar deformation features have been found so far. The rim material and the upper 4 m of the main crater infill are impregnated with ferric oxides, which gives a more reddish colour compared to the other sediments of the plain. Rusty crusts with high Fe and Mn content occur in the rim material, but have not been found in the plain's sediments. Some of these crusts can be separated by magnet, and have sporadic micron-sized Ni-rich granules. The main crater is in the size range of the craters with explosive dispersion of the projectile and has many features comparable to both large experimental and meteoritic impact craters formed in loose sediments. We suggest that this crater represents a rare example of well-preserved, small impact crater formed in unconsolidated target materials. [source]

    Transport Processes at ,-Quartz,Water Interfaces: Insights from First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 7 2008
    Waheed A. Adeagbo Dr.
    Abstract Car,Parrinello molecular dynamics (CP,MD) simulations are performed at high temperature and pressure to investigate chemical interactions and transport processes at the ,-quartz,water interface. The model system initially consists of a periodically repeated quartz slab with O-terminated and Si-terminated (1000) surfaces sandwiching a film of liquid water. At a temperature of 1000 K and a pressure of 0.3 GPa, dissociation of H2O molecules into H+ and OH, is observed at the Si-terminated surface. The OH, fragments immediately bind chemically to the Si-terminated surface while Grotthus-type proton diffusion through the water film leads to protonation of the O-terminated surface. Eventually, both surfaces are fully hydroxylated and no further chemical reactions are observed. Due to the confinement between the two hydroxylated quartz surfaces, water diffusion is reduced by about one third in comparison to bulk water. Diffusion properties of dissolved SiO2 present as Si(OH)4 in the water film are also studied. We do not observe strong interactions between the hydroxylated quartz surfaces and the Si(OH)4 molecule as would have been indicated by a substantial lowering of the Si(OH)4 diffusion coefficient along the surface. No spontaneous dissolution of quartz is observed. To study the mechanism of dissolution, constrained CP,MD simulations are done. The associated free energy profile is calculated by thermodynamic integration along the reaction coordinate. Dissolution is a stepwise process in which two SiO bonds are successively broken. Each bond breaking between a silicon atom at the surface and an oxygen atom belonging to the quartz lattice is accompanied by the formation of a new SiO bond between the silicon atom and a water molecule. The latter loses a proton in the process which eventually leads to protonation of the oxygen atom in the cleaved quartz SiO bond. The final solute species is Si(OH)4. [source]

    A new piezoelectric single crystal obtained by Ge doping in the SiO2 structure

    M. Miclau
    Abstract The interest of Si1,xGexO2 single crystals with alpha-quartz structure is connected to improvement of electromechanical coefficients and rise of , , , phase transition of quartz one. Growth of an ,-SixGe1,xO2 crystal was realized by a hydrothermal method of temperature gradient in autoclaves, made from Cr,Ni alloys. Nutrient material was prepared from synthetic quartz as crashed rods and placed in the bottom of autoclaves. There was loaded GeO2 powder additive in proportions to quartz nutrient. Single crystals were investigated by electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The most important result, which was obtained during the investigations, is an experimental proof of growth of ,-SixGe1,xO2 single crystals under the hydrothermal conditions. The present results thus open the possibility to tune the piezoelectric properties of these materials by varying the chemical composition. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Crystal growth, crystal structure and physical properties of polar orthorhombic tris(glycine) zinc chloride

    M. Fleck
    Abstract Large single crystals of the polar (point group mm 2) compound tris(glycine) zinc chloride, (NH3CH2COO)3 · ZnCl2, were grown from aqueous solutions. The refractive indices were measured in the wavelength region from 365 nm to 1083 nm and an unpolarised absorption spectrum was recorded (transparency range from 260 to 1550nm). The phase matching conditions for second harmonic generation were analysed: both, type I (ss-f) and type II (sf-f) are possible in the red and near IR region. All five components of the piezoelectric tensor [dijk ] were determined; the maximum values of longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric effects are less than one half of d111 of ,-quartz. In addition, a redetermination of the crystal structure (including location of H atoms) is presented. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Heat treatment induced structural and optical properties of rf magnetron sputtered tantalum oxide films

    S. V. Jagadeesh Chandra
    Abstract Rf magnetron sputtering technique was employed for preparation of tantalum oxide films on quartz and crystalline silicon (111) substrates held at room temperature by sputtering of tantalum in an oxygen partial pressure of 1x10 -4 mbar. The films were annealed in air for an hour in the temperature range 573 , 993 K. The effect of annealing on the chemical binding configuration, structure and optical absorption of tantalum oxide films was systematically studied. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Radiation induced modification of impurity-related point defects in crystalline quartz , a review

    Harish Bahadur
    Abstract This article presents a short review of impurity-related point defects in crystalline quartz and their radiation induced modifications. In particular, a discussion has been presented on some of the prominent aluminum related alkali and proton compensated centers. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    A mathematical model for steady-state regolith production at constant erosion rate

    M.I. Lebedeva
    Abstract It has been hypothesized that many soil profiles reach a steady-state thickness. In this work, such profiles were simulated using a one-dimensional model of reaction with advective and diffusive solute transport. A model ,rock' is considered, consisting of albite that weathers to kaolinite in the presence of chemically inert quartz. The model yields three different steady-state regimes of weathering. At the lowest erosion rates, a local-equilibrium regime is established where albite is completely depleted in the weathering zone. This regime is equivalent to the transport-limited regime described in the literature. With an increase in erosion rate, transition and kinetic regimes are established. In the transition regime, both albite and kaolinite are present in the weathering zone, but albite does not persist to the soil,air interface. In the weathering-limited regime, here called the kinetic regime, albite persists to the soil,air interface. The steady-state thickness of regolith decreases with increasing erosion rate in the local equilibrium and transition regimes, but in the kinetic regime, this thickness is independent of erosion rate. Analytical expressions derived from the model are used to show that regolith production rates decrease exponentially with regolith thickness. The steady-state regolith thickness increases with the Darcy velocity of the pore fluid, and in the local equilibrium regime may vary markedly with small variations in this velocity and erosion rate. In the weathering-limited regime, the temperature dependences for chemical weathering rates are related to the activation energy for the rate constant for mineral reaction and to the ,H of dissolution, while for local equilibrium regimes they are related to the ,H only. The model illustrates how geochemical and geomorphological observations are related for a simple compositional system. The insights provided will be useful in interpreting natural regolith profiles. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Textural and compositional controls on modern beach and dune sands, New Zealand

    J. J. Kasper-Zubillaga
    Abstract Textural, compositional, physical and geophysical determinations were carried out on 111 beach and dune sand samples from two areas in New Zealand: the Kapiti,Foxton coast sourced by terranes of andesite and greywackes and the Farewell Spit,Wharariki coast sourced by a wide variety of Paleozoic terranes. Our aim is to understand how long-shore drift, beach width and source rock control the sedimentological and petrographic characteristics of beach and dune sands. Furthermore, this study shows the usefulness of specific minerals (quartz, plagioclase with magnetite inclusions, monomineralic opaque grains) to interpret the physical processes (fluvial discharges, long-shore currents, winds) that distribute beach and dune sands in narrow and wide coastal plains. This was done by means of direct (grain size and modal analyses) and indirect (specific gravity, magnetic/non-magnetic separations M/NM, magnetic susceptibility measurements, hysteresis loops) methods. Results are compared with beach sands from Hawaii, Oregon, the Spanish Mediterranean, Elba Island and Southern California. Compositionally, the Kapiti,Foxton sands are similar to first-order immature sands, which retain their fluvial signature. This results from the high discharge of rivers and the narrow beaches that control the composition of the Kapiti,Foxton sands. The abundance of feldspar with magnetite inclusions controls the specific gravity of the Kapiti,Foxton sands due to their low content of opaque minerals and coarse grain size. Magnetic susceptibility of the sands is related mainly to the abundance of feldspars with Fe oxides, volcanic lithics and free-opaque minerals. The Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands are slightly more mature than the Kapiti,Foxton sands. The composition of the Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands does not reflect accurately their provenance due to the prevalence of long-shore drift, waves, little river input and a wide beach. Low abundance of feldspar with magnetite inclusions and free opaque grains produces poor correlations between specific gravity (Sg) and Fe oxide bearing minerals. The small correlation between opaque grains and M/NM may be related to grain size. The magnetic susceptibility of Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands is low due to the low content of grains with magnetite inclusions. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM) agree with the magnetic susceptibility values. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Weathering control over geomorphology of supermature Proterozoic Delhi quartzites of India

    Jayant K. Tripathi
    Abstract Quartz and quartzite are thought to be resistant as a mineral and a rock respectively; however, we have shown that the presence of small amounts of pyrite in the quartzites makes them vulnerable to weathering. We observe that weathering of Proterozoic quartzite in the semi-arid conditions around Delhi proceeded from fractures towards the inside and produced weathering rinds. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), which is actually a measure of weathering of aluminosilicate minerals, increases from the core outwards, through the rinds. Although aluminosilicate minerals occur only as minor phases (<2 per cent), their weathering indicates a movement of the weathering front from the periphery towards the core. We have suggested a coupled mechanism in which the dissolution of pyrites by moving water produced a sulphate-bearing acidic solution and ferrous iron, which reacted with aluminosilicate minerals and quartz, respectively. This initially makes the Delhi quartzite porous and subsequently friable. The total disintegration of grain to grain contacts imparted friability to this quartzite to produce silica sand. Subsequent physical erosion of loose sand, produced during rind development in the outermost zones, has given rise to features like tors, spheroids, gullies, cavities and small-scale caves on these quartzites. Thus, the terrain has acquired ruggedness in semi-arid conditions. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Microchip micellar electrokinetic chromatography separation of alkaloids with UV-absorbance spectral detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 4 2008
    Carl I. D. Newman
    Abstract A microchip device is demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation and UV-absorbance spectral detection of four toxic alkaloids: colchicine, aconitine, strychnine, and nicotine. A fused-silica (quartz) microchip containing a simple cross geometry is utilized to perform the separations, and a miniature, fiber-optic CCD spectrometer is coupled to the microchip for detection. Sensitive UV-absorbance detection is achieved via the application of online preconcentration techniques in combination with the quartz microchip substrate which contains an etched bubble-cell for increased pathlength. The miniature CCD spectrometer is configured to detect light between 190 and 645,nm and LabView programming written in-house enables absorbance spectra as well as separations to be monitored from 210 to 400,nm. Consequently, the configuration of this microchip device facilitates qualitative and quantitative separations via simultaneous spatial and spectral resolution of solutes. UV-absorbance limits of quantification for colchicine, 20,,M (8,mg/L); strychnine, 50,,M (17,mg/L); aconitine, 50,,M (32,mg/L); and nicotine, 100,,M (16,mg/L) are demonstrated on the microchip. With the exception of aconitine, these concentrations are ,20-times more sensitive than lethal dose monitoring requirements. Finally, this device is demonstrated to successfully detect each toxin in water, skim milk, and apple juice samples spiked at sublethal dose concentrations after a simple, SPE procedure. [source]

    Advances in optically stimulated luminescence dating of individual grains of quartz from archeological deposits

    Zenobia Jacobs
    Abstract Paleoanthropologists and archeologists interested in occupation histories, faunal remains, and objects of material culture have become increasingly reliant on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating to construct Quaternary chronologies. In part, the increased use of OSL dating reflects its capacity to date events beyond the range of radiocarbon dating and in contexts where suitable organic materials are absent. An earlier review in Evolutionary Anthropology by Feathers1 provides a general account of the principles of luminescence dating. Since then, however, important advances have been made in OSL dating of quartz, so that it is now possible to date individual sand-sized grains and thereby resolve issues of postdepositional mixing of archeological sediments. In this review, we discuss the most important of these advances and their implications with regard to improved age control of archeological sites. We cover aspects of instrumental and methodological development that have facilitated the widespread measurement of single grains related to archeological questions and illustrate our review with some examples of where archeological problems have been resolved using single-grain OSL dating. We do not propose single-grain dating as a panacea, because there are instances where it is not straightforward to use or the results may be difficult to interpret; dating in such contexts remains the subject of continuing research. [source]

    Single and multigrain quartz-luminescence dating of irrigation-channel features in Santa Fe, New Mexico

    Glenn W. Berger
    Acequias (irrigation channels and ditches) were used by Spanish settlers, their descendants, and Native Americans in New Mexico. Several such features were recently excavated in Santa Fe, but material for numeric dating was difficult to find. Therefore, for this high-energy-deposition irrigation-feature setting we applied optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) sediment dating methods to determine the timing of last filling of some of these acequias. We report multigrain single-aliquot quartz (MGSAQ) OSL dating results and the first single-grain quartz (SGQ) OSL dating results for irrigation features. One sample yielded an average age of 96 ± 13 yr, consistent with the maximum expected age of 127 yr (before 2007). An OSL age of 175 ± 15 yr for another sample delimits a sedimentation event since the first construction of that feature ca. 300 yr ago. A sample known to be younger than 400,450 yr but predating the mid-19th century gave an SGQ age of 376 ±31 yr. These results indicate that: (1) Regional quartz in New Mexico is highly favorable to OSL dating; (2) in this setting, SGQ OSL dating is preferred to MGSAQ dating; and (3) for the last 500,600 yr, SGQ OSL dating in such settings is preferred to 14C dating because OSL dating lacks those ambiguities inherent in converting 14C ages to calendar years. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Petrography and provenance of Laecanius Amphorae from Istria, northern Adriatic region, Croatia

    Maria A. Mange
    Amphorae sherds from the Laecanius workshop of Roman Istria (10,5 B.C. and 78 A.D.), Croatia, were studied by integrating archaeological and geological techniques including fabric analysis, thin-section petrography, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and heavy mineral analysis. The fabric of the sherds showed distinctive characteristics, permitting their classification and allocation into nine fabric groupss. Petrography revealed that quartz is the dominant clastic component, whereas carbonate is common as temper; XRD provided information on firing temperatures that ranged between 750 and 900°C. The sherds contain diverse heavy mineral suites with generally high epidote and garnet proportions; zircon is occasionally important. Garnet/epidote ratios and the presence of diagnostic species (pyroxene, hornblende) showed systematic variations that coincided with similar variations in fabric characteristics. Heavy mineral signatures of amphorae produced in other workshops proved essential in differentiating them from Laecanius sherds. A comparative heavy mineral analysis of terra rossa samples from the vicinity of the workshop indicated that terra rossa was the major source for the paste. Differences observed in the heavy mineral composition of the sherds and terra rossa were interpreted by the spatial heterogeneity of the latter and the mixing of the paste with sandy temper. Fresh Adriatic sponge spicules in the majority of Laecanius sherds and the temper-derived, generally immature heavy mineral assemblages suggest that sandy deposits from the Adriatic were used for the clastic temper. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Investigation of Islamic ceramics from Tell Tuneinir using X-ray diffraction

    M.L. Eiland
    In this study, X-ray diffraction (XRD) is applied to select ceramics, particularly dating to the Ayyoubid (A.D. 1174,1250) period from Tell Tuneinir in Syria. Because XRD has not been commonly applied to archaeological ceramics, a thorough background of the technique is given, with emphasis on quantitative measurements of quartz and calcite tempers. Several compositional groups based on raw materials and firing conditions emerge. While most ceramic samples are of local manufacture, Islamic stonepaste wares, and the "grenade" sample emerge as likely imports. We conclude that XRD is a powerful tool in characterizing archaeological ceramics and may be used to semi-quantitatively gauge the amount of quartz, calcite, and feldspars in a sample. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Garnet-filled trails associated with carbonaceous matter mimicking microbial filaments in Archean basalt

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    K. LEPOT
    The study of the earliest traces of life on Earth can be complicated by abiotically formed biomorphs. We report here the finding of clustered micrometer-sized filaments of iron- and calcium-rich garnets associated with carbonaceous matter in an agate amygdale from a 2.7-billion-year-old basalt of the Maddina Formation, Western Australia. The distribution of carbonaceous matter and the mineral phases composing the filaments were analyzed using a combination of confocal laser scanning microscopy, laser-Raman micro-spectroscopy, focused ion beam sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. The results allow consideration of possible biogenic and abiotic processes that produced the filamentous structures. The filaments have a range of sizes, morphologies and distributions similar to those of certain modern iron-mineralized filamentous bacteria and some ancient filamentous structures interpreted as microfossils. They also share a high morphological similarity with tubular structures produced by microbial boring activity. However, the microstructures and the distribution of carbonaceous matter are more suggestive of an abiotic origin for the filaments. They are characteristic features of trails produced by the displacement of inclusions associated with local dissolution of their silica matrix. Organic compounds found in kerogen or bitumen inclusions may have contributed significantly to the dissolution of the quartz (or silica gel) matrix driving filamentous growth. Discriminating the products of such abiotic organic-mediated processes from filamentous microfossils or microbial borings is important to the interpretation of the scarce Precambrian fossil record and requires investigation down to the nanoscale. [source]

    Unravelling the microbial role in ooid formation , results of an in situ experiment in modern freshwater Lake Geneva in Switzerland

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    K. PLEE
    ABSTRACT The microbial role in the formation of the cortex of low-Mg calcite freshwater ooids in western part of Lake Geneva in Switzerland has been suggested previously, but not demonstrated conclusively. Early work mostly concentrated in hypersaline milieus, and hence little is known about their genesis in freshwater environments. We designed an in situ experiment to mimic the natural process of low-Mg calcite precipitation. A special device was placed in the ooid-rich bank of the lake. It contained frosted glass (SiO2) slides, while quartz (SiO2) is the most abundant mineral composition of ooid nuclei that acted as artificial substrates to favour microbial colonization. Microscopic inspection of the slides revealed a clear seasonal pattern of carbonate precipitates, which were always closely associated with biofilms that developed on the surface of the frosted slides containing extracellular polymeric substance, coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria, diatoms and heterotrophic bacteria. Carbonate precipitation peaks during early spring and late summer, and low-Mg calcite crystals mostly occur in close association with filamentous and coccoid cyanobacteria (e.g. Tolypothrix, Oscillatoria and Synechococcus, Anacystis, respectively). Further scanning electron microscope inspection of the samples revealed low-Mg calcite with crystal forms varying from anhedral to euhedral rhombohedra, depending on the seasons. Liquid cultures corroborate the in situ observations and demonstrate that under the same physicochemical conditions the absence of biofilms prevents the precipitation of low-Mg calcite crystals. These results illustrate that biofilms play a substantial role in low-Mg calcite ooid cortex formation. It further demonstrates the involvement of microbes in the early stages of ooid development. Combined with ongoing microbial cultures under laboratory-controlled conditions, the outcome of our investigation favoured the hypothesis of external microbial precipitation of low-Mg calcite as the main mechanism involved in the early stage of ooid formation in freshwater Lake Geneva. [source]

    Wettability alteration of caprock minerals by carbon dioxide

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2007
    Abstract One of the critical factors that control the efficiency of CO2 geological storage process in aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs is the capillary-sealing potential of the caprock. This potential can be expressed in terms of the maximum reservoir overpressure that the brine-saturated caprock can sustain, i.e. of the CO2 capillary entry pressure. It is controlled by the brine/CO2 interfacial tension, the water-wettability of caprock minerals, and the pore size distribution within the caprock. By means of contact angle measurements, experimental evidence was obtained showing that the water-wettability of mica and quartz is altered in the presence of CO2 under pressures typical of geological storage conditions. The alteration is more pronounced in the case of mica. Both minerals are representative of shaly caprocks and are strongly water-wet in the presence of hydrocarbons. A careful analysis of the available literature data on breakthrough pressure measurements in caprock samples confirms the existence of a wettability alteration by dense CO2, both in shaly and in evaporitic caprocks. The consequences of this effect on the maximum CO2 storage pressure and on CO2 storage capacity in the underground reservoir are discussed. For hydrocarbon reservoirs that were initially close to capillary leakage, the maximum allowable CO2 storage pressure is only a fraction of the initial reservoir pressure. [source]

    Contrasting paleofluid systems in the continental basement: a fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of hydrothermal vein mineralization, Schwarzwald district, Germany

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2007
    Abstract An integrated fluid inclusion and stable isotope study was carried out on hydrothermal veins (Sb-bearing quartz veins, metal-bearing fluorite,barite,quartz veins) from the Schwarzwald district, Germany. A total number of 106 Variscan (quartz veins related to Variscan orogenic processes) and post-Variscan deposits were studied by microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and stable isotope analysis. The fluid inclusions in Variscan quartz veins are of the H2O,NaCl,(KCl) type, have low salinities (0,10 wt.% eqv. NaCl) and high Th values (150,350°C). Oxygen isotope data for quartz range from +2.8, to +12.2, and calculated ,18OH2O values of the fluid are between ,12.5, and +4.4,. The ,D values of water extracted from fluid inclusions vary between ,49, and +4,. The geological framework, fluid inclusion and stable isotope characteristics of the Variscan veins suggest an origin from regional metamorphic devolatilization processes. By contrast, the fluid inclusions in post-Variscan fluorite, calcite, barite, quartz, and sphalerite belong to the H2O,NaCl,CaCl2 type, have high salinities (22,25 wt.% eqv. NaCl) and lower Th values of 90,200°C. A low-salinity fluid (0,15 wt.% eqv. NaCl) was observed in late-stage fluorite, calcite, and quartz, which was trapped at similar temperatures. The ,18O values of quartz range between +11.1, and +20.9,, which translates into calculated ,18OH2O values between ,11.0, and +4.4,. This range is consistent with ,18OH2O values of fluid inclusion water extracted from fluorite (,11.6, to +1.1,). The ,D values of directly measured fluid inclusion water range between ,29, and ,1,, ,26, and ,15,, and ,63, and +9, for fluorite, quartz, and calcite, respectively. Calculations using the fluid inclusion and isotope data point to formation of the fluorite,barite,quartz veins under near-hydrostatic conditions. The ,18OH2O and ,D data, particularly the observed wide range in ,D, indicate that the mineralization formed through large-scale mixing of a basement-derived saline NaCl,CaCl2 brine with meteoric water. Our comprehensive study provides evidence for two fundamentally different fluid systems in the crystalline basement. The Variscan fluid regime is dominated by fluids generated through metamorphic devolatilization and fluid expulsion driven by compressional nappe tectonics. The onset of post-Variscan extensional tectonics resulted in replacement of the orogenic fluid regime by fluids which have distinct compositional characteristics and are related to a change in the principal fluid sources and the general fluid flow patterns. This younger system shows remarkably persistent geochemical and isotopic features over a prolonged period of more than 100 Ma. [source]

    Sodic metasomatism in the Palaeoproterozoic Hotazel iron-formation, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa: implications for fluid,rock interaction in the Kalahari manganese field

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 4 2005
    Abstract Petrological and geochemical evidence is presented on the occurrence of aegirine in the Palaeoproterozoic Hotazel iron-formation, which hosts the giant manganese deposits of the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. The mineral has an essentially pure Na end-member composition and occurs sporadically in iron-formation immediately bordering the manganese ore beds. The development of aegirine appears to have taken place due to the action of late-infiltrating, saline hydrothermal fluids at the expense of a pre-existing, binary quartz,hematite assemblage. It is proposed that such a process would have overprinted (and therefore post-dated) a spatially more extensive, low-temperature alteration event which brought about thorough carbonate leaching, oxidation and residual enrichment of metals in the Hotazel iron,manganese rocks. [source]

    Growth and albitization of K-feldspar in crystalline rocks in the shallow crust: a tracer for fluid circulation during exhumation?

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2003
    M. B. Holness
    Abstract A general feature of medium- to coarse-grained, sheet-silicate bearing, quartzo-feldspathic rocks of either metamorphic or igneous affinity is the retrograde development of lenses of pure K-feldspar at the grain boundaries between sheet silicate (0 0 1) faces and original feldspar grains. The growth of these lenses acts to displace and deform the sheet silicate grain by a force of crystallization, although the substrate feldspar and adjacent quartz are not deformed. Subsequent to the growth of the lenses they are replaced to variable degrees by pure albite, which grows into the lens from the substrate feldspar behind an irregular replacement front. The composition and texture of both K-feldspar and replacive albite suggest a strong affinity with authigenic feldspars, although it is considered likely that the K-feldspar of the lenses is derived from low-temperature biotite-breakdown reactions. A model is proposed whereby the lenses grow into open pores at dilatant sites in response to infiltration of aqueous fluids as the crystalline rocks are exhumed under brittle conditions. Continued circulation of infiltrating fluids in a temperature gradient results in the replacement of K-feldspar by albite via an alkali exchange process. The lenses point to a significant grain-scale permeability in crystalline rock at shallow levels in the crust. [source]

    Infiltration of basinal fluids into high-grade basement, South Norway: sources and behaviour of waters and brines

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2003
    S. A. Gleeson
    Abstract Quartz veins hosted by the high-grade crystalline rocks of the Modum complex, Southern Norway, formed when basinal fluids from an overlying Palaeozoic foreland basin infiltrated the basement at temperatures of c. 220°C (higher in the southernmost part of the area). This infiltration resulted in the formation of veins containing both two-phase and halite-bearing aqueous fluid inclusions, sometimes with bitumen and hydrocarbon inclusions. Microthermometric results demonstrate a very wide range of salinities of aqueous fluids preserved in these veins, ranging from c. 0 to 40 wt% NaCl equivalent. The range in homogenization temperatures is also very large (99,322°C for the entire dataset) and shows little or no correlation with salinity. A combination of aqueous fluid microthermometry, halogen geochemistry and oxygen isotope studies suggest that fluids from a range of separate aquifers were responsible for the quartz growth, but all have chemistries comparable to sedimentary formation waters. The bulk of the quartz grew from relatively low ,18O fluids derived directly from the basin or equilibrated in the upper part of the basement (T < 200°C). Nevertheless, some fluids acquired higher salinities due to deep wall-rock hydration reactions leading to salt saturation at high temperatures (>300°C). The range in fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and densities, combined with estimates of the ambient temperature of the basement rocks suggests that at different times veins acted as conduits for influx of both hotter and colder fluids, as well as experiencing fluctuations in fluid pressure. This is interpreted to reflect episodic flow linked to seismicity, with hotter dry basement rocks acting as a sink for cooler fluids from the overlying basin, while detailed flow paths reflected local effects of opening and closing of individual fractures as well as reaction with wall rocks. Thermal considerations suggest that the duration of some flow events was very short, possibly in the order of days. As a result of the complex pattern of fracturing and flow in the Modum basement, it was possible for shallow fluids to penetrate basement rocks at significantly higher temperatures, and this demonstrates the potential for hydrolytic weakening of continental crust by sedimentary fluids. [source]

    Enigmatic sedimentary,volcanic successions in the central European Variscides: a Cambrian/Early Ordovician age for the Wojcieszów Limestone (Kaczawa Mountains, SW Poland) indicated by SHRIMP dating of volcanic zircons

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2008
    Ryszard Kryza
    Abstract Metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary successions in the central European Variscides are, in many areas, poorly biostratigraphically constrained, making palaeotectonic interpretations uncertain. In such instances, geochronological data are crucial. Sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dating of volcanic zircons from a quartz,white mica schist (interpreted as deformed metavolcaniclastic/epiclastic rock) within the stratigraphically controversial Wojcieszów Limestone of the Kaczawa Mountains (Sudetes, SW Poland), near to the eastern termination of the European Variscides, has yielded an age of 498,±,5,Ma (2, error), corresponding to late Cambrian to early Ordovician magmatism in that area and constraining the depositional age of the limestones. The new SHRIMP data are not consistent with the recent revision of the age of the Wojcieszów Limestone based on Foraminifera findings that ascribed them to a Late Ordovician,Silurian or even younger interval. They are though, consistent with sparse macrofossil data and strongly support earlier interpretations of the lower part of the Kaczawa Mountains succession as a Cambrian,Early Ordovician extensional basin-fill with associated initial rift volcanic rocks, likely emplaced during the breakup of Gondwana. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]