Quantitative Tool (quantitative + tool)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

"Demographic Futures for Christianity and the World Religions"

DIALOG, Issue 1 2004
By Todd M. Johnson
Abstract:, Since before 1970 Christian researchers have been tracking the massive demographic shift of Christianity to the Southern Hemisphere and noting the increasingly religious nature of populations around the world. At the same time, writers on the future of religion have been drawn to extreme portrayals of decline or revival of religion. However, the world's religious situation is replete with detailed information, drawn from enormous data collections on religious affiliation and questions about religion in government censuses. Quantitative tools, utilizing this information in the context of demography provide a more nuanced view of humankind's religious future. Demographic trends coupled with conservative estimates of conversions and defections envision over 80% of the world's population will continue to be affiliated with religions 200 years into the future. This religious future will have a profound influence on Christian theology, relations between religions, and the interaction between religion and politics. [source]

Unnatural landscapes in ecology: generating the spatial distribution of brine spills,

Henriette I. Jager
Abstract Quantitative tools are needed to evaluate the ecological effects of increasing petroleum production. In this article, we describe two stochastic models for simulating the spatial distribution of brine spills on a landscape. One model uses general assumptions about the spatial arrangement of spills and their sizes; the second model distributes spills by siting rectangular well complexes and conditioning spill probabilities on the configuration of pipes. We present maps of landscapes with spills produced by the two methods and compare the ability of the models to reproduce a specified spill area. A strength of the models presented here is their ability to extrapolate from the existing landscape to simulate landscapes with a higher (or lower) density of oil wells. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Quantitative tools for perfecting species lists

Michael W. Palmer
Abstract A substantial body of literature has accumulated on the topic of the estimation of species richness by extrapolation. However, most of these methods rely on an objective sampling of nature. This condition is difficult to meet and seldom achieved for large regions. Furthermore, scientists conducting biological surveys often already have preliminary but subjectively gathered species lists, and would like to assess the completeness of such lists, and/or to find a way to perfect them. We propose several strategies for utilizing external data (such as might be obtained using GIS) to aid in the completion of species lists. These include: (i) using existing species lists to develop predictive models; (ii) using the uniqueness of the environment as a guide to find underrepresented species; (iii) using spectral heterogeneity to locate environmentally heterogeneous regions; (iv) combining surveys with statistical model-building in an iterative manner. We demonstrate the potential of these approaches using simulation and case studies from Oklahoma. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Stream Temperature Surges Under Urbanization and Climate Change: Data, Models, and Responses,

Kären C. Nelson
ABSTRACT: Multiple anthropogenic stressors, including increased watershed imperviousness, destruction of the riparian vegetation, increased siltation, and changes in climate, will impact streams over the coming century. These stressors will alter water temperature, thus influencing ecological processes and stream biota. Quantitative tools are needed to predict the magnitude and direction of altered thermal regimes. Here, empirical relationships were derived to complement a simple model of in-stream temperature [developed by Caissie et al. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering25 (1998) 250; Journal of Hydrology251 (2001) 14], including seasonal temperature shifts linked to land use, and temperature surges linked to localized rainstorms; surges in temperature averaged about 3.5°C and dissipated over about 3 h. These temperature surges occurred frequently at the most urbanized sites (up to 10% of summer days) and could briefly increase maximum temperature by >7°C. The combination of empirical relationships and model show that headwater streams may be more pervasively impacted by urbanization than by climate change, although the two stressors reinforce each other. A profound community shift, from common cold and coolwater species to some of the many warmwater species currently present in smaller numbers, may be expected, as shown by a count of days on which temperature exceeds the "good growth" range for coldwater species. [source]

Effect of local analgesia on movement of the equine back

Summary Reasons for performing study: Diagnostic infiltration of local anaesthetic solution is commonly used in cases of equine back pain. Evaluation is subjective and it is not known how local analgesia of the back affects horses without clinical signs of back pain. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of infiltration of local anaesthetics on the movement of the back in horses without clinical signs of back pain, and to evaluate the usefulness of kinematic studies as an objective and quantitative tool in evaluating local analgesia in clinical practice. Methods: The kinematics of the back in 10 clinically sound horses were measured on 2 occasions at walk and trot before and after injections with mepivacaine and sodium chloride around the interspinous spaces between T16 and L2. The kinematics were compared between the 2 occasions before injections and before and after each injection. Results: The range of motion (ROM) for dorsoventral flexion-extension (FE) of the back was increased significantly in all measured segments other than T10 at walk, as was lateral bending (LB) at T10, L3 and L5 after injection of mepivacaine. For lateral excursion (LE), total movement increased at all measured segments. At trot the only affected segment was L3, where the injection with mepivacaine decreased the ROM for FE. After injection of sodium chloride the ROM for FE increased at T13 and T17 at walk. Lateral bending and LE were not affected at walk. At trot, LB increased at L3 and L5. Conclusions and potential relevance: Diagnostic infiltration of local anaesthetic solution affects the function of the back in clinically sound horses, which must be considered when interpreting the use of this clinical aid in assessing clinical cases of back dysfunction. Kinematics can qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the effect of local analgesia of the back. [source]

Thermodynamic optimization of the life cycle of plastics by exergy analysis

J. Dewulf
Abstract Decision-makers should strive for an efficient employment of resources for the whole industrial ecological system. The metabolization of resources should be optimized in thermodynamic terms. This contribution presents an effort to use exergy analysis as a quantitative tool in the thermodynamic optimization of the life cycle of plastics. Quantitative results on overall exergetic efficiencies of different industrial metabolic options are presented. Therefore, different waste treatment options of plastics will be considered, taking into account interacting industrial activities, such as virgin plastics production and heat and electricity production starting from natural resources. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Core-shell CdS/Cd(OH)2 quantum dots: synthesis and bioconjugation to target red cells antigens

Summary We report a new and efficient methodology of labelling red blood cells, in order to investigate the expression of anti-A antigen, employing luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Highly luminescent and stable core-shell cadmium sulphide/cadmium hydroxide [CdS/CdS(OH)2] colloidal particles were obtained in the nanometre size range. The surface of these particles was characterized by using a monoclonal anti-A antibody via a one-step glutaraldehyde cross-linking procedure, followed by conjugation of the particles to red cells of blood groups A+, and O+. Laser scanning confocal microscopy images indicated that after conjugation for 30 min, A+ and erythrocytes presented different patterns of dual bright emission whereas the O+ group cells showed no emission. We suggest that this labelling procedure may be applied as a quantitative tool to investigate the distribution and expression of alloantigen in red blood cells. [source]

Development of a quantitative tool for the comparison of the prebiotic effect of dietary oligosaccharides

R. Palframan
Abstract Aims: To develop a quantitative equation [prebiotic index (PI)] to aid the analysis of prebiotic fermentation of commercially available and novel prebiotic carbohydrates in vitro, using previously published fermentation data. Methods: The PI equation is based on the changes in key bacterial groups during fermentation. The bacterial groups incorporated into this PI equation were bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, clostridia and bacteroides. The changes in these bacterial groups from previous studies were entered into the PI equation in order to determine a quantitative PI score. PI scores were than compared with the qualitative conclusions made in these publications. In general the PI scores agreed with the qualitative conclusions drawn and provided a quantitative measure. Conclusions: The PI allows the magnitude of prebiotic effects to be quantified rather than evaluations being solely qualitative. Significance and Impact of the Study: The PI equation may be of great use in quantifying prebiotic effects in vitro. It is expected that this will facilitate more rational food product development and the development of more potent prebiotics with activity at lower doses. [source]

Flow cytometric determination of Src phosphorylation in pediatric patients treated with dasatinib,

Bella S. Guerrouahen MS
Abstract Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib, have dramatically improved the outcomes for patients with selected cancers. For imatinib, western blotting of phospho-CrkL was an insensitive, indirect, and descriptive method to determine drug efficacy. Greater use of targeted therapies should involve more quantitative evaluation of the target's dose-inhibition. The Src/Abl kinase inhibitor dasatinib has recently been approved for use in Ph+ leukemias after failure with imatinib. Src family kinases (SFK) also play a critical role in nonhematologic cancers. We have developed a flow cytometric assay to measure SFK autophosphorylation levels in blood mononuclear cells and observed a direct correlation between its inhibition and patient dosage. This method provides a sensitive, quick, and quantitative tool to assess drug efficacy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;53:1132,1135. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Quantification of vitellin/vitellogenin-like proteins in the oyster Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein 1951) as a tool to predict the degree of gonad maturity

Fabiola G. Arcos
Abstract The oyster's reproductive process is poorly documented, especially in terms of a quantitative approach. In recent years, investigations with this species have been directed at determining important reproductive factors. Within this scope, techniques that allow standardized and accurate quantitative estimations of gonad development have become of primary importance. In this study, the histological characteristics and the levels of vitellin/vitellogenin-like proteins (Vn/Vtg) from ovaries of the Mexican Pacific ,pleasure' oyster Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein 1951) were analysed during different stages of gonad maturation using quantitative histological techniques and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This was performed in order to evaluate a possible quantitative tool to predict the degrees of gonad maturity and to analyse the biological implications of the findings relative not only to broodstock conditioning but also to natural populations. Using this information, we expect to be able to undertake further research on different reproductive aspects of this oyster species, including, among others, evaluation of the response in Vn/Vtg concentrations to different diets and environmental conditions during laboratory conditioning. [source]


ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 4 2009
Forgeries of ancient gold objects are prevalent in almost every collection and some public exhibitions in the past have been exposed as containing forgeries to an embarrassing extent. This situation comes from the fact that it is sometimes impossible to unequivocally recognize forgeries based on their patina or manufacturing and decoration characteristics. We demonstrate that for 13 ancient gold objects the time of their last melting process can be estimated using the U,Th,4He dating technique. The extremely small quantities of radiogenic 4He found, due to the young age and small sample size, require the use of a specially designed ultrasensitive mass spectrometer. We show that the proposed method is a powerful, and the only, quantitative tool in archaeometry for discriminating between fake and genuine ancient gold objects. [source]

Quantitative assessment of retinal thickness in diabetic patients with and without clinically significant macular edema using optical coherence tomography

Chang-Sue Yang
ABSTRACT. Purpose: To assess patients with diabetic macular edema quantitatively using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: OCT was performed in 14 eyes with diabetic retinopathy and ophthalmoscopic evidence of clinically significant macular edema (CSME) and in 19 diabetic eyes without CSME. Retinal thickness was computed from the tomograms at fovea and other 36 locations throughout the macula. Results: The mean±standard deviation foveal thickness was 255.6±138.9 ,m in eyes with CSME, and 174.6±38.2 ,m in eyes without CSME (p=0.051). Within 2000 ,m of the center of the macula, eyes with CSME had significantly thicker retina in the inferior quadrant than those without CSME (p<0.01). The foveal thickness was correlated with logMAR visual acuity (,=0.68, p<0.01). OCT identified sponge-like retinal swelling and/or cystoid macular edema in 11 (58%) eyes without CSME, and in 12 (86%) eyes with CSME. Conclusions: Criteria of CSME seem to be insufficient in really identifying macular edema. OCT may be more sensitive than a clinical examination in assessing diabetic macular edema and is a quantitative tool for documenting changes in macular thickening. [source]

Waste management modeling with PC-based model , EASEWASTE

Gurbakhash S. Bhander
Abstract As life-cycle-thinking becomes more integrated into waste management, quantitative tools are needed for assessing waste management systems and technologies. This article presents a decision support model to deal with integrated solid waste management planning problems at a regional or national level. The model is called EASEWASTE (environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies). The model consists of a number of modules (submodels), each describing a process in a real waste management system, and these modules may combine to represent a complete waste management system in a scenario. EASEWASTE generates data on emissions (inventory), which are translated and aggregated into different environmental impact categories, e.g. the global warming, acidification, and toxicity. To facilitate a "first level" screening evaluation, default values for process parameters have been provided, wherever possible. The EASEWASTE model for life-cycle-assessment of waste management is described and applied to a case study for illustrative purposes. The case study involving hypothetical but realistic data demonstrates the functionality, usability, and flexibilities of the model. The design and implementation of the software successfully address the substantial challenges in integrating process modeling, life-cycle inventory (LCI), and impact assessment (LCIA) modeling, and optimization into an interactive decision support platform. © 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2008 [source]

Ethnic differences in use value and use patterns of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in northern Benin

E. De Caluwé
Abstract The aim of this study was to combine qualitative and quantitative tools to evidence ethnic differences in use value and use patterns of baobab for the rural populations of northern Benin. The study was carried out in the municipalities of Boukoumbé and Karimama, focusing on Ottamari and Dendi ethnic groups, respectively, who have good knowledge on baobab uses. Ethnobotanical data were gathered through semi-structured individual interviews and processed by quantitative (multiple use curve, use value and fidelity level) and qualitative (flow chart) analytical and ethnobotanical methods. Leaves, fruit pulp and seeds of baobab were shown to be well-known for several food uses and were often the main ingredient in sauces, pastes, porridges and beverages. Medicinal uses were especially well-known for the bark, which was also used for making ropes. In both communities, a total of 38 different uses were mentioned for baobab products. There were significantly more uses known by the Ottamari than by the Dendi, with use values of 8 and 5, respectively. There were no differences detected in knowledge between sexes and age classes. As a result of its nutritional and high potential market value, preservation of ethnobotanical knowledge on baobab and exchange between communities is critical. Résumé Le but de cette étude était de combiner des outils qualitatifs et quantitatifs pour mettre en évidence des différences ethniques dans la valeur d'utilisation et dans les schémas d'utilisation du baobab chez les populations rurales du nord du Bénin. Cette étude fut réalisée dans les municipalités de Boukoumbé et de Karimama, spécifiquement chez les groupes ethniques Ottamari et Dendi, respectivement, qui ont une bonne connaissance des utilisations du baobab. Des données ethnobotaniques furent récoltées grâce à des interviews individuelles semi-structurées et elles furent traitées par des méthodes analytiques et ethnobotaniques quantitatives (courbe d'utilisation multiple, valeur d'utilisation et degré de fidélité) et qualitatives (graphique d'évolution). Les feuilles, la pulpe de fruits et les semences de baobab se sont avérées être bien connues pour plusieurs utilisations alimentaires et elles étaient souvent les ingrédients principaux dans des sauces, des pâtes, des bouillies et des boissons. Des utilisations médicinales étaient particulièrement bien connues pour l'écorce qui servait aussi pour fabriquer des cordes. Dans les deux communautés, un total de 38 utilisations différentes ont été mentionnées pour des produits du baobab. Il y avait significativement plus d'utilisations connues chez les Ottamari que chez les Dendi, avec des valeurs d'utilisation de 8 et de 5, respectivement. On n'a décelé aucune différence de connaissances en fonction de l'âge ni du sexe. Suite à sa valeur nutritionnelle et à sa haute valeur commerciale potentielle, la préservation des connaissances ethnobotaniques sur le baobab et des échanges entre communautés est critique. [source]


Summary In recent years network analysis has been applied in archaeological research to examine the structure of archaeological relationships of whatever sort. However, these archaeological applications share a number of issues concerning 1) the role of archaeological data in networks; 2) the diversity of network structures, their consequences and their interpretation; 3) the critical use of quantitative tools; and 4) the influence of other disciplines, especially sociology. This article concerns a deconstruction of past archaeological methods for examining networks. Through a case study of Roman table wares in the eastern Mediterranean, the article highlights a number of issues with network analysis as a method for archaeology. It urges caution regarding the uncritical application of network analysis methods developed in other disciplines and applied to archaeology. However, it stresses the potential benefits of network analysis for the archaeological discipline and acknowledges the need for specifically archaeological network analysis, which should be based on relational thinking and can be expanded with an archaeological toolset for quantitative analysis. [source]

Incorporation of inherent safety principles in process safety management

Paul R. Amyotte
Abstract Process safety management (PSM) deals with the identification, understanding, and control of process hazards to prevent process-related injuries and incidents. Explicit incorporation of the principles of inherent safety in the basic definition and functional operation of the various PSM elements can help to improve the quality of the safety management effort. Numerous inherent safety examples, both technical and nontechnical, are given in this paper. Existing qualitative and quantitative tools that already include, or could incorporate, inherent safety are described. Recently developed inherent safety tools for quantitative hazard identification and assessment are identified from either the literature or the current authors' work. Qualitative protocols for incorporating inherent safety into PSM elements are also presented. The language of inherent safety, although largely unused in PSM documentation, has a key role to play in enhancing the effectiveness of PSM. © 2007 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog 2007 [source]