Quantitative Synthesis (quantitative + synthesis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A Quantitative Synthesis of ,-Carboxylated Thiolophosphates via a Michael Reaction.

CHEMINFORM, Issue 45 2003
Elisabeth Desforges
Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

Self-injurious behavior and the efficacy of naltrexone treatment: A quantitative synthesis

Frank J. Symons
Abstract People with mental retardation, autism, and related developmental disabilities who self-injure are treated with a wide array of behavioral techniques and psychotropic medications. Despite numerous reports documenting short-term and some long-term changes in self-injury associated with the opiate antagonist naltrexone hydrochloride, no quantitative review of its efficacy has been reported. We conducted a quantitative synthesis of the peer-reviewed published literature from 1983 to 2003 documenting the use of naltrexone for the treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB). Individual-level results were analyzed given subject and study characteristics. A sample of 27 research articles involving 86 subjects with self-injury was reviewed. Eighty percent of subjects were reported to improve relative to baseline (i.e., SIB reduced) during naltrexone administration and 47% of subjects SIB was reduced by 50% or greater. In studies reporting dose levels in milligrams, males were more likely than females to respond. No significant relations were found between treatment outcomes and autism status or form of self-injury. Results are discussed with respect to future efficacy work related to study outcomes and the pharmacological treatment of self-injury. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2004;10:193,200. [source]

Randomized controlled trials of interventions to change maladaptive illness beliefs in people with coronary heart disease: systematic review

Lucy Goulding
goulding l., furze g. & birks y. (2010) Randomized controlled trials of interventions to change maladaptive illness beliefs in people with coronary heart disease: systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing,66(5), 946,961. Abstract Title.,Randomized controlled trials of interventions to change maladaptive illness beliefs in people with coronary heart disease: systematic review. Aim., This paper is a report of a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of interventions to change maladaptive illness beliefs in people with coronary heart disease, and was conducted to determine whether such interventions were effective in changing maladaptive beliefs, and to assess any consequent change in coping and outcome. Background., An increasing body of evidence suggests that faulty beliefs can lead to maladaptive behaviours and, in turn, to poor outcomes. However, the effectiveness of interventions to change such faulty illness beliefs in people with coronary heart disease is unknown. Data sources., Multiple data bases were searched using a systematic search strategy. In addition, reference lists of included papers were checked and key authors in the field contacted. Review methods., The systematic review included randomized controlled trials with adults of any age with a diagnosis of coronary heart disease and an intervention aimed at changing cardiac beliefs. The primary outcome measured was change in beliefs about coronary heart disease. Results., Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Owing to the heterogeneity of these studies, quantitative synthesis was not practicable. Descriptive synthesis of the results suggested that cognitive behavioural and counselling/education interventions can be effective in changing beliefs. The effects of changing beliefs on behavioural, functional and psychological outcomes remain unclear. Conclusion., While some interventions may be effective in changing beliefs in people with coronary heart disease, the effect of these changes on outcome is not clear. Further high quality research is required before firmer guidance can be given to clinicians on the most effective method to dispel cardiac misconceptions. [source]

New stage in living cationic polymerization: An array of effective Lewis acid catalysts and fast living polymerization in seconds

Sadahito Aoshima
Abstract Our recent extensive research on Lewis acid catalysts with a weak base for the cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers led to unprecedented living reaction systems: fast living polymerization within 1,3 s; a wide choice of metal halides containing Al, Sn, Fe, Ti, Zr, Hf, Zn, Ga, In, Si, Ge, and Bi; and heterogeneously catalyzed living polymerization with Fe2O3. The use of added bases for the stabilization of the propagating carbocation and the appropriate selection of Lewis acid catalysts were crucial to the success of such new types of living polymerizations. In addition, the base-stabilized living polymerization allowed the quantitative synthesis of star-shaped polymers with a narrow molecular weight distribution via polymer-linking reactions and the precision synthesis and self-assembly of stimuli-responsive block copolymers. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45: 1801,1813, 2007. [source]

Meta-analysis: polymorphisms in TNF-, gene promoter and Crohn's disease

Z. Han
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 159,170 Summary Background, Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-,) is involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). However, results on the association between the polymorphisms in TNF-, promoter and the risk of CD are inconsistent. Aim, To perform a quantitative synthesis for the genetic polymorphisms in TNF-, promoter and CD risk. Methods, Databases were searched (up to 2009) and 31 studies were included. Risks of CD associated with the polymorphisms in TNF-, promoter were assessed. Results, Overall, individuals with -1031 TC+CC genotype had a slightly increased risk to develop CD compared with individuals with -1031 TT genotype (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03,1.70). In the further stratified analysis, we found Asians with the -1031T>C, -863 C>A and -857 C>T variant polymorphisms have almost one and a half CD risk compared with other genotypes (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.16,2.15; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.18,2.02; OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.19,1.99 respectively). We did not find -308 G>A variant associated with CD location and disease behaviours in stratified analysis. Conclusions,TNF-, polymorphisms in the promoter region might be used as a biomarker for CD risk prediction. Larger studies with mixed ethnicity subjects and stratified by clinical and sub clinical characteristics are needed to validate our findings. [source]

A ,-1,4-Galactosyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori is an Efficient and Versatile Biocatalyst Displaying a Novel Activity for Thioglycoside Synthesis

CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 10 2008
Darius-Jean Namdjou
Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a highly persistent and common pathogen in humans. It is the causative agent of chronic gastritis and its further stages. HP0826 is the ,-1,4-galactosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the LPS O-chain backbone of H. pylori. Though it was first cloned nearly a decade ago, there are surprisingly limited data about the characteristics of HP0826, especially given its prominent role in H. pylori pathogenicity. We here demonstrate that HP0826 is a highly efficient and promiscuous biocatalyst. We have exploited two novel enzymatic activities for the quantitative synthesis of the thiodisaccharide Gal-,- S -1,4-GlcNAc- pNP as well as Gal-,-1,4-Man- pNP. We further show that Neisseria meningitidis ,-1,4-galactosyltransferases LgtB can be used as an equally efficient catalyst in the latter reaction. Thiodisaccharides have been extensively used in structural biology but can also have therapeutic uses. The Gal-,-1,4-Man linkage is found in the Leishmania species LPG backbone disaccharide repeats and cap, which have been associated with vector binding in Leishmaniasis. [source]