Quantitative Survey (quantitative + survey)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Managing professionals: The emerging leadership role of Victorian Maternal and Child Health coordinators

Kerreen Reiger PhD
Drawing on research into cultural and organizational change in the Victorian Maternal and Child Health Service during the 1990s, this paper examines implications for the nursing leadership provided by service coordinators. The project included a quantitative survey of nurses and semistructured interviews with managers and coordinators. Under a strongly neo-liberal state government in Victoria, Australia, services were fundamentally restructured through tendering processes. A competitive, productivist culture was introduced that challenged the professional ethos of nurses and a primary health orientation to the care of mothers and infants. This paper focuses on the pressures that the entrepreneurial environment presented to maternal and child health nurses' identity and collegial relations and to the coordination role. It argues that coordinators emerged as a significant nursing management group at the interface of administrative change and the management of professional practice. Although many nurses skilfully negotiated tensions with peers and management, their leadership role needs further clarification and support. [source]

Collaboration Online: The Example of Distributed Computing

Anne Holohan
Distributed Computing is a new form of online collaboration; such projects divide a large computational problem into small tasks that are sent out over the Internet to be completed on personal computers. Millions of people all over the world participate voluntarily in such projects, providing computing resources that would otherwise cost millions of dollars. However, Distributed Computing only works if many people participate. The technical challenge is to slice a problem into thousands of tiny pieces that can be solved independently, and then to reassemble the solutions. The social problem is how to find all those widely dispersed computers and persuade their owners to participate. This article examines what makes a collaborative Distributed Computing project successful. We report on data from a quantitative survey and a qualitative study of participants on several online forums, and discuss and analyze Distributed Computing using Arquilla and Ronfeldt's (2001) five-level network organization framework. [source]

Nostalgic bonding: exploring the role of nostalgia in the consumption experience

Morris B. Holbrook
Abstract The recently awakened awareness of the past has produced a flurry of research directed towards understanding the nostalgic aspects of the human condition, towards investigating the role of nostalgia in the lives of consumers, and towards the application of such knowledge to the design of marketing strategies. With rare exceptions, however, such research has pursued a quantitative survey-based approach to establishing the chronology-related and personality-driven aspects of nostalgia. To explore the nature and types of nostalgic bonding in greater depth, the present study pursues an interpretive approach to understanding the role of nostalgia in the consumption experience. Specifically, it applies a collective approach to subjective personal introspection to draw inferences concerning the key types of nostalgic experience. Copyright © 2003 Henry Stewart Publications. [source]

Facilitation research in marine systems: state of the art, emerging patterns and insights for future developments

Fabio Bulleri
Summary 1. Positive species interactions are increasingly recognized as important drivers of community structure and ecosystem functioning. Although the literature on facilitative interactions in terrestrial environments has been reviewed and emerging patterns have been synthesized, comparable attempts are lacking for the marine realm. 2. By means of a quantitative survey of the literature, I provide a critical summary of current knowledge on positive species interactions in marine environments. In particular, I (i) assess how marine facilitation research compares to that carried out in terrestrial environments in terms of focus and philosophical approach; (ii) illustrate the mechanisms by which facilitation takes place in different habitats; (iii) assess whether benefactor and beneficiary species are more likely to belong to the same or to a different trophic level; and (iv) provide examples of how including facilitation into ecological theory might advance our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate ecosystem functioning. 3. Except for some studies in intertidal habitats, few studies in marine environments have been framed within mainstream facilitation theory (e.g. the Stress Gradient Hypothesis) and research does not seem to be organized in a self-contained theme. Amelioration of physical conditions appears to be the most common mechanism of facilitation in intertidal habitats, whilst associational defence predominates in the subtidal. 4. In contrast to the terrestrial literature, dominated by plant,plant interactions, marine benefactors and beneficiary species often belong to different trophic levels. This might imply little overlapping of resource niches or a differential response to environmental conditions or consumer pressure, with implications for the persistence of facilitative effects at the extreme ends of stress gradients. 5. Recent research shows that facilitation can enhance temporal variability and invasibility of marine communities and emphasizes the central role of positive species interactions in regulating the functioning of natural ecosystems. 6.Synthesis. Studies encompassing a wide variety of life histories and environmental conditions are central to achieving a unified facilitation theory. Research in marine environments can provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying variations in the strength and direction of species interactions, but this will require greater awareness and consideration of facilitation. [source]

Relocation decision-making and couple relationships: a quantitative and qualitative study of dual-earner couples

Hélène Challiol
We present the results of two empirical studies of the relocation decision-making process of dual-earner couples. The first study is a quantitative survey of 155 management-level employees and focuses on the variables likely to moderate the influence of the spouse (partner) on the probability of accepting or turning down geographical mobility. The second complementary study is qualitative, consisting of 11 in-depth interviews of dual-earner couples; it attempts to identify the dynamics within the couple when making relocation decisions. We found that the couple's decision-making process in the face of a transfer proposition is above all a search for compromise solutions that are a function of the respective occupational and family roles within the couple as well as their expectations of how to organize their life as a couple. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Dealing with sectoral corruption in Bangladesh: Developing citizen involvement

Colin Knox
Abstract Bangladesh has had a troubled political history since gaining independence in 1971 and is also beleaguered by poverty and natural environmental disasters. In particular however, corruption is blighting its prospects for economic growth, undermining the rule of law and damaging the legitimacy of the political process. This article adopts a sectoral approach to the study of corruption by examining people's experiences of using health and education services in Bangladesh through a large scale quantitative survey. It also presents case study research which assesses the impact of anti-corruption work by Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB) in the areas of health and education. The article concludes that: the poorest in Bangladesh are most penalised by corruption; there are significant benefits for health and education service users resulting from TIB's interventions and there is a need for committed political leadership if ongoing efforts to tackle corruption are to be effective and sustainable. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Choosing Buddhism in Australia: towards a traditional style of reflexive spiritual engagement1

Tim Phillips
Abstract There has been little dedicated sociological research on the appeal Buddhism holds for many individuals in the West. It is suggested that this absence reflects a current tendency within the discipline to highlight a new age approach to spiritual involvement and to overlook other optional styles of engagement. Such a pattern of study is concerning because the propensity to privilege the new age style would seem to be less an outcome of a coherent research agenda than a result of the currency that the idea of postmodern religion has come to assume in theoretical accounts of spiritual transformation in contemporary societies. Using data from a modest quantitative survey, the study investigates spiritual style among a sample of Australians who have developed an interest in Buddhist practice and belief. The results point to the prevalence of a traditional approach to involvement, whereby the individual decides to engage solely with Buddhism for the long duration. Given its possession of these qualities, the research goes on to examine the social patterning of spiritual commitment. The findings suggest that comprehending the social restrictions to any kind of involvement is a more pressing sociological question than explaining social divergences among the engaged. [source]

Developments in the application of photography to ecological monitoring, with reference to algal beds

Jean-Paul A. Ducrotoy
Abstract 1.,The potential for using photographic methods in ecological monitoring of intertidal rocky shores was investigated at two scales: the scale of a bay, and at sampling quadrat level. 2.,The macroalgal beds at Selwicks Bay, Flamborough Head (north Humberside Coast, England) were used as a case study. 3.,At each station on three 90 m transects, a photograph was taken of a 50 cm2 quadrat. These images were analysed using SigmaScanÔ to measure the cover of algal species. These data were highly correlated with field data collected using a grid quadrat. 4.,Ground techniques were developed for drawing a scaled overhead map of the bay. The potential for a quantitative survey of the extent of the algal beds using cliff top photographs was investigated. The photographs were merged, and rectified using Arc/InfoÔ (a Geographical Information System package) to produce scaled overhead images of the bay. 5.,The two complementary methods developed are suitable for involving amateur naturalists into field-data collection. They were also designed to meet long-term statutory monitoring requirements. They are quick, so are well suited to intertidal areas where field sampling windows are limited. In long-term monitoring strategies, the use of photography produces interactive permanent records of the sample area for back reference. Reporting on the conservation status of sites of European interest could be greatly facilitated by such techniques. 6.,There are obvious applications for overseas monitoring and base-line surveys, which demand large data sets to be collected in limited periods of time. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Values that create value: socially responsible business practices in SMEs , empirical evidence from German companies

Eva-Maria Hammann
Socially responsible business and ethical behaviour of companies have been of interest to academia and practice for decades. But the focus has almost exclusively been on large corporations while small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) have not received as much attention. Thus, this paper focuses on socially responsible business practices of SME entrepreneurs or owner,managers in Germany. Based on the assumption that decision-makers in SMEs are the central point where all business activities start, members of a German entrepreneurs association were approached in the course of a qualitative and quantitative survey. They were asked to assess in what way their social responsibility is expressed in specific management practices towards selected stakeholder groups. These practices in turn were assumed to result in perceived positive reactions of the respective stakeholders and subsequently to positively influence the firm's financial performance, i.e. cost reductions and increase in profits. In the paper, a research model is presented that elaborates the relationship between an SME executive's social responsibility and the value creation of a firm, i.e. whether (personal) values create (economic) value. It was found that socially responsible management practices towards employees, customers and to a lesser extent society have a positive impact on the firm and its performance. As such, values can create additional value. [source]

Influencing product lifetime through product design

Nicole van Nes
Abstract This article investigates the possibility of influencing product lifetime through product design. First, the results of a literature study on consumer behavior are presented. These show that surprisingly few researchers have focused specifically on the arousal of the need to replace a product. Therefore, empirical data about motives for product replacement were acquired through a combination of qualitative investigation and a quantitative survey. This resulted in a model of factors influencing the replacement decision and in a replacement typology. Finally, possible design directions for longer lasting products were explored. It was concluded that despite the variety of replacement motivations people basically want a well functioning and up to date product that meets their altering needs. This requires the development of dynamic and flexible products, which implies designing for variability and product attachment and preparing the product for future repair or upgrading. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Developing theory-based risk-reduction interventions for HIV-positive young people with haemophilia

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 1 2001
J. R. Schultz
Eleven haemophilia treatment centres in the United States collaborated in the Hemophilia Behavioural Intervention Evaluation Projects (HBIEP) to develop theory-based interventions to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from seropositive adolescents and young adults with haemophilia. While the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change and the Theory of Reasoned Action provided the theoretical underpinnings, the exact form in which these theories would be applied depended on developmental research. This paper presents the various phases of the process to develop the theory based interventions: literature review, qualitative interviews, quantitative surveys, a provider survey, a materials review, and the actual planning. All or portions of this process could be applied to the development of interventions for many behaviour-change projects. A description of the HBIEP interventions is also provided. [source]

Smoking as a Weight-Control Strategy among Adolescent Girls and Young Women: A Reconsideration

Many studies have reported that adolescent girls and young women smoke to control their weight. The majority of these studies are cross-sectional and report on correlational data from quantitative surveys. This article presents data from ethnographic interviews with 60 smokers, interviewed in high school and in follow-up interviews at age 21. Contrary to previous research, this study found little evidence for the sustained use of smoking as a weight-control strategy. In high school, smokers were no more likely than nonsmokers to be trying to lose weight. In the follow-up study, 85 percent of informants replied that they had never smoked as a way to control their weight. One-half of informants at age 21 believed that smoking as a weight-control strategy would be ineffective, while the other one-half had no idea whether it would work or not. Researchers need to exert caution in propagating the idea that smoking is commonly used as a conscious and sustained weight-control strategy among adolescent females and young women. [source]

Psychosocial adjustment of female partners of men with prostate cancer: a review of the literature

PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 11 2006
Jeremy Couper
Abstract Advances in prostate cancer treatments since the 1990s have led to a growing proportion of patients living with the effects of the cancer. Various challenges face the man and his partner from the point of learning of the diagnosis: deciding among numerous diverse treatment options, dealing with side-effects of treatment and possibly facing the terminal phase of the illness. This invariably has an impact on the patient's family and, in view of the older age group of men usually affected, the experience of a partner is particularly relevant. A thorough review of the research literature reporting directly from partners of prostate cancer patients has not been undertaken previously. For this review, five databases were searched for the decade 1994,2005, during which most of the work in this field has been done. Very few evaluations of psychosocial interventions involving the partner were found, but there was a preponderance of qualitative studies involving small numbers of participants and quantitative surveys with little consistency in the measures used. The literature suggests that partners report more distress than patients, yet believe that patients are the more distressed, and the focus of concern of patients on their sexual function is not shared to an equal degree by their partners. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]