Quantitative Score (quantitative + score)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Assessment of drug-induced liver injury in clinical practice

Ma Isabel Lucena
Abstract Currently, pharmaceutical preparations are serious contributors to liver disease, with hepatotoxicity ranking as the most frequent cause for acute liver failure and post-marketing regulatory decisions. The diagnostic approach of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is still rudimentary and inaccurate because of the lack of reliable markers for use in general clinical practice. To incriminate any given drug in an episode of liver dysfunction is a step-by-step process that requires a high degree of suspicion, compatible chronology, awareness of the drug's hepatotoxic potential, the exclusion of alternative causes of liver damage, and the ability to detect the presence of subtle data that favour a toxic aetiology. Clinical and laboratory data may also be assessed with algorithms or clinical scales, which may add consistency to the clinical judgment by translating the suspicion into a quantitative score. The CIOMS/RUCAM instrument is considered at present the best method for assessing causality in DILI, although it could be improved through the use of large database of bona fide DILI cases for validation criteria. [source]

A survey of tracheal intubation difficulty in the operating room: a prospective observational study

F. Adnet
Background: The purpose of this study is to describe all degrees of endotracheal intubation difficulty among patients attended by eight anesthesiologists during routine surgery over a six-month period. Airway characteristics were routinely assessed preoperatively, according to the anesthesiologists' usual practice. Methods: Difficult tracheal intubation was evaluated by the Intubation Difficulty Scale (IDS), a quantitative score based on seven variables. An IDS value of 0 is consistent with a procedure without difficulty, and an IDS > 5 with a procedure involving moderate to major difficulty. Results: For 1171 patients undergoing tracheal intubation, IDS was 0 in 55%, and greater than 5 in 8% of cases. External laryngeal pressure, repositioning the patient and added use of a stylet were the most frequent methods chosen to facilitate tracheal intubation. Conclusion: There was a high incidence (37%) of minor difficulties encountered during routine surgery. [source]


This study investigates the completion of the Ph.D. in economics. We use ex ante information, based upon reviewing individual applications from former doctoral students. Students need different skills to succeed at each distinct stage of the doctoral program. Significant determinants for passing the comprehensive exams include Graduate Record Exam (GRE) verbal and quantitative scores, a Masters degree, and prior focus on economics. By contrast, research motivation and math preparation play significant roles in completing the dissertation. GRE scores become insignificant for completion in the generalized ordered logit estimates, which emphasize the sequential nature of the Economics Ph.D. program. (JEL I210) [source]

Identification of distinct gene expression profiles in the synovium of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

A. Nzeusseu Toukap
Objective Synovitis is a common feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the pattern of joint involvement differs in each disease. This study was undertaken to investigate the global gene expression profiles in synovial biopsy tissue from the swollen knees of untreated SLE patients (n = 6), RA patients (n = 7), and osteoarthritis (OA) patients (n = 6). Methods Synovial biopsy samples were obtained from the affected knees of patients in the 3 groups by needle arthroscopy. Half of the material was used for extraction of total RNA, amplification of complementary RNA, and high-density oligonucleotide spotted hybridization arrays. On the remaining tissue samples, real-time reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical experiments were performed to confirm the microarray data. Results SLE synovial biopsy tissue displayed a significant down-regulation of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis and a significant up-regulation of interferon-inducible (IFI) genes. Real-time RT-PCR experiments confirmed the up-regulation of selected IFI genes (IFI27, IFI44, and IFI44L) in the SLE synovial tissue. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that 3 molecules involved in ECM regulation, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 2, latent transforming growth factor , binding protein 2, and fibroblast activation protein ,, were significantly down-regulated in SLE synovium. In contrast, immunostaining for IFI27, Toll-like receptor 4, and STAT-1 resulted in higher quantitative scores in SLE synovial tissue, which could be attributed to the fact that the RA samples had a large population of inflammatory cell infiltrates that were negative for these markers. Conclusion Arthritis in SLE has a very distinct molecular signature as compared with that in OA and RA, characterized by up-regulation of IFI genes and down-regulation of genes involved in ECM homeostasis. [source]