Quantitative Reverse-transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (quantitative + reverse-transcriptase_polymerase_chain_reaction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Activation of the cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2) protects against experimental colitis

Martin A. Storr MD
Abstract Background: Activation of cannabinoid (CB)1 receptors results in attenuation of experimental colitis. Our aim was to examine the role of CB2 receptors in experimental colitis using agonists (JWH133, AM1241) and an antagonist (AM630) in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in wildtype and CB2 receptor-deficient (CB mice. Methods: Mice were treated with TNBS to induce colitis and then given intraperitoneal injections of the CB2 receptor agonists JWH133, AM1241, or the CB2 receptor antagonist AM630. Additionally, CB mice were treated with TNBS and injected with JWH133 or AM1241. Animals were examined 3 days after the induction of colitis. The colons were removed for macroscopic and microscopic evaluation, as well as the determination of myeloperoxidase activity. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for CB2 receptor was also performed in animals with TNBS and dextran sodium sulfate colitis. Results: Intracolonic installation of TNBS caused severe colitis. CB2 mRNA expression was significantly increased during the course of experimental colitis. Three-day treatment with JWH133 or AM1241 significantly reduced colitis; AM630 exacerbated colitis. The effect of JWH133 was abolished when animals were pretreated with AM630. Neither JWH133 nor AM1241 had effects in CB mice. Conclusions: We show that activation of the CB2 receptor protects against experimental colitis in mice. Increased expression of CB2 receptor mRNA and aggravation of colitis by AM630 suggests a role for this receptor in normally limiting the development of colitis. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor may be a possible novel therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2005
Michael A. D. Goodisman
Abstract Holometabolous insects inhabit almost every terrestrial ecosystem. The evolutionary success of holometabolous insects stems partly from their developmental program, which includes discrete larval and adult stages. To gain an understanding of how development differs among holometabolous insect taxa, we used cDNA microarray technology to examine differences in gene expression between larval and adult Camponotus festinatus ants. We then compared expression patterns obtained from our study to those observed in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that many genes showed distinct patterns of expression between the larval and adult ant life stages, a result that was confirmed through quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Genes involved in protein metabolism and possessing structural activity tended to be more highly expressed in larval than adult ants. In contrast, genes relatively upregulated in adults possessed a greater diversity of functions and activities. We also discovered that patterns of expression observed for homologous genes in D. melanogaster differed substantially from those observed in C. festinatus. Our results suggest that the specific molecular mechanisms involved in metamorphosis will differ substantially between insect taxa. Systematic investigation of gene expression during development of other taxa will provide additional information on how developmental pathways evolve. [source]

Overexpression of MLH-1 and psoriasin genes in cutaneous angiofibromas from tuberous sclerosis complex patients

Michelangelo La Placa
Background:, Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with mutations in two likely tumor-suppressor genes (TSC1 and TSC2) and characterized by the development of tumor-like growths (angiofibromas) in a variety of tissues and organs, particularly brain and skin. Methods:, Employing a DNA-microarray assay, able to detect mRNA production from 1176 different basic genes, we analyzed the gene-expression levels in a cutaneous hamartoma sample from a TSC patient. Altered gene expressions detected by microarray technology were further checked by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the same material and in cutaneous hamartoma samples obtained from five other TSC patients. Results:, The results obtained by the microarray technology in one hamartoma specimen, confirmed by the RT-PCR results obtained in the same material and in five other hamartoma specimens, demonstrated that TSC-related angiofibromas exhibit significant mRNA overexpression of two genes, represented by MLH-1 and psoriasin. Conclusions:, The overexpression of MLH-1, which codes for a DNA mismatch repair protein, and psoriasin, which codes for a specific chemoattractant factor for CD4+ T cells, implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disease, and expressed in excess during abnormal pathways of cell growth, may shed light on the pathogenesis of the proliferative skin lesion. [source]

Cross-species hybridization of a Borrelia burgdorferi DNA array reveals infection- and culture-associated genes of the unsequenced genome of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii

Jianmin Zhong
Summary The known genome sequence of Borrelia burgdorferi, an agent of Lyme borreliosis, was used to study the genetic content and gene expression in B. hermsii, another spirochete pathogen and a cause of relapsing fever. Cross-species hybridization of a DNA array representing 1628 open reading frames (ORF) of B. burgdorferi with genomic DNA of B. hermsii indicated that the latter organism has at least 81% of the chromosomal genes and 43% of the plasmid genes of B. burgdorferi. We then carried out quantitative hybridization of the arrays with multiple replicates of cDNA produced from B. hermsii cells growing in the blood of infected mice or in culture medium that was adjusted to the same pH, temperature and a spirochete density as infected blood. Of 642 B. burgdorferi ORFs hybridized by all replicates under both conditions, 12 (1.9%) demonstrated differential expression by a regularized t -test and stringent criteria. BBP07 and BBG30, two plasmid-borne ORFs with the greatest measurable difference in expression between in vivo and in vitro conditions, putatively encode proteins of unknown function. Orthologues of BBP07 in B. hermsii were identified, and increased expression in infected mice was demonstrated by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. [source]

Augmented suppression of androgen receptor signaling by a combination of ,-tocopheryl succinate and methylseleninic acid

CANCER, Issue 12 2006
Haitao Zhang PhD
Abstract BACKGROUND. Previous reports showed that ,-tocopheryl succinate (,TS) and methylseleninic acid (MSA) independently reduce the abundance of androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer cells. The response to MSA happens quickly, whereas the response to ,TS takes much longer. The present study was designed to investigate whether a combination of ,TS and MSA would produce an additive or a greater than additive effect in suppressing AR level, AR transactivation, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). METHODS. LNCaP cells were treated with ,TS alone for 31 hours, MSA alone for 3 hours, or ,TS first for 28 hours and ,TS/MSA together for the last 3 hours. AR and PSA mRNA levels were quantitated by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). AR transactivation was determined by the ARE-luciferase reporter assay. Both cellular and secretory PSA was also measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. RESULTS. Different doses of ,TS were evaluated in combination with MSA. Some striking results are highlighted below for ,TS alone, MSA alone, or ,TS/MSA (presented in that order). AR mRNA level was depressed by 0%, 20%, or 60%, respectively; AR transactivation was inhibited by 35%, 10%, or 60%, respectively; whereas the PSA mRNA level was decreased by 40%, 60%, or 90%, respectively. Interestingly, secretory PSA was consistently reduced to a greater extent than cellular PSA. CONCLUSIONS. A combination of ,TS/MSA produced a greater than additive effect in suppressing AR signaling compared with the single agent. Decreased AR abundance is a major factor, but not necessarily the sole factor, in diminishing the transcriptional activity of AR by ,TS or MSA. Cancer 2006. 2006 American Cancer Society. [source]