Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Public

  • american public
  • australian public
  • british public
  • du public
  • du secteur public
  • general public
  • going public
  • lay public
  • mass public
  • pouvoir public
  • secteur public
  • wider public

  • Terms modified by Public

  • public acceptance
  • public access
  • public accommodation
  • public accountability
  • public accountant
  • public accounting firm
  • public action
  • public activity
  • public administration
  • public administration scholar
  • public administrator
  • public affairs
  • public agencies
  • public agency
  • public agenda
  • public announcement
  • public anthropology
  • public approval
  • public area
  • public arena
  • public assistance
  • public attention
  • public attitude
  • public authority
  • public awareness
  • public benefit
  • public budget
  • public budgeting
  • public bureaucracy
  • public campaign
  • public capital
  • public capital stock
  • public care
  • public choice
  • public clinic
  • public company
  • public concern
  • public confidence
  • public consciousness
  • public consultation
  • public consumption
  • public context
  • public controversy
  • public corporation
  • public culture
  • public database
  • public databases
  • public debate
  • public debt
  • public deliberation
  • public dental care
  • public dialogue
  • public diplomacy
  • public disclosure
  • public discourse
  • public discussion
  • public domain
  • public education
  • public employee
  • public employment
  • public engagement
  • public enterprise
  • public enterprises
  • public et
  • public event
  • public expectation
  • public expenditure
  • public exposure
  • public face
  • public facility
  • public finance
  • public firm
  • public forum
  • public forums
  • public fund
  • public funding
  • public good
  • public good model
  • public good provision
  • public goods
  • public governance
  • public health
  • public health agencies
  • public health approach
  • public health authority
  • public health benefit
  • public health burden
  • public health campaign
  • public health center
  • public health challenge
  • public health community
  • public health concern
  • public health consequence
  • public health crisis
  • public health department
  • public health education
  • public health effort
  • public health emergency
  • public health goal
  • public health impact
  • public health implication
  • public health importance
  • public health infrastructure
  • public health initiative
  • public health insurance
  • public health intervention
  • public health issue
  • public health issues
  • public health measure
  • public health message
  • public health nurse
  • public health nursing
  • public health nursing practice
  • public health objective
  • public health official
  • public health perspective
  • public health policy
  • public health practice
  • public health principle
  • public health priority
  • public health problem
  • public health problem worldwide
  • public health professional
  • public health program
  • public health programme
  • public health recommendation
  • public health research
  • public health researcher
  • public health response
  • public health risk
  • public health role
  • public health service
  • public health services
  • public health significance
  • public health strategy
  • public health surveillance
  • public health surveillance system
  • public health system
  • public health threat
  • public health worker
  • public hearing
  • public high schools
  • public hospital
  • public housing
  • public housing policy
  • public housing resident
  • public image
  • public imagination
  • public information
  • public infrastructure
  • public input
  • public inquiry
  • public institution
  • public insurance
  • public intellectual
  • public interest
  • public intervention
  • public investment
  • public involvement
  • public knowledge
  • public land
  • public law
  • public libraries
  • public life
  • public management
  • public management practice
  • public managers
  • public market
  • public meeting
  • public memory
  • public mental health services
  • public money
  • public morality
  • public need
  • public network
  • public news
  • public offering
  • public official
  • public opinion
  • public opinion poll
  • public opinion survey
  • public opposition
  • public order
  • public organisation
  • public organization
  • public ownership
  • public participation
  • public pension
  • public pension programme
  • public pension scheme
  • public pension system
  • public perception
  • public performance
  • public persona
  • public philosophy
  • public place
  • public policy
  • public policy debate
  • public policy development
  • public policy goal
  • public policy implication
  • public policy maker
  • public policy-making
  • public preference
  • public pressure
  • public problem
  • public process
  • public profile
  • public program
  • public provider
  • public provision
  • public reaction
  • public realm
  • public reason
  • public recognition
  • public record
  • public regulation
  • public relations
  • public relations campaign
  • public reporting
  • public repository
  • public resource
  • public response
  • public rhetoric
  • public role
  • public safety
  • public school
  • public school district
  • public schools
  • public sector
  • public sector accounting
  • public sector employee
  • public sector employment
  • public sector management
  • public sector organisation
  • public sector organization
  • public servant
  • public service
  • public service announcement
  • public service delivery
  • public service employee
  • public service motivation
  • public service organization
  • public service provision
  • public services
  • public space
  • public spending
  • public sphere
  • public square
  • public subsidy
  • public support
  • public system
  • public transport
  • public transportation
  • public trust
  • public understanding
  • public university
  • public utility
  • public value
  • public view
  • public views
  • public willingness

  • Selected Abstracts


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2003
    Mark Pennington
    Focusing on house prices and residential densities, this paper offers a comparative institutions account of the likely performance of public and private land use planning regimes. The analysis suggests that whilst far from ,perfect,' a system of private land use planning is likely to offer a more effective way of balancing the costs and benefits of land use change than a government-driven system. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2008
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Sara F. L. Kirk PhD RD


    This paper sets out to test the ,convergence thesis' in respect of managers in the public and private sectors in Britain. New Public Management (NPM) initiatives have had the objective of making managerial behaviour in public sector organizations more similar to that in the private sector. Based on unique national surveys undertaken in 1980, 1990 and 2000, using quite large random samples of fellows and members of the Chartered Management Institute (CMI), comparisons are made to investigate whether ,convergence' between public and private sector managers has actually occurred. The patterns are found to be complex and, although there are some signs of convergence, the two sectors continue to exhibit similarities, persistent differences and parallel movements evident in managerial attitudes, behaviour and experiences. [source]


    Government policy on the nature of wage bargaining in the public sector can have important implications for the provision of public services. Using the New Earnings Survey, the Labour Force Survey and the British Household Panel Survey, we examine the size and evolution of public,private sector wage differentials across geographical areas within the UK and over time. Public sector bargaining structures have led to historically high wage premia, although these premia are declining over time. In high-cost low-amenity areas, such as the south-east of England, the public sector underpays relative to the private sector, therefore creating problems in recruitment to and provision of public services. Public sector labour markets are around 40 per cent as responsive to area differences in amenities and costs as are private sector labour markets. Differences in the degree of spatial variation between sectors are likely to remain, leading to persistent problems for the delivery of public services in some parts of the UK. Reform of public sector pay structures is likely to be costly, and so other non-pay policies need to be considered to increase the attractiveness of public sector jobs. [source]


    German post-unification in the 1990s is a period marked by substantial economic and political change, a crucial part of which was a largely politically motivated attempt to build East German wages towards the much higher West German wages. We study the development of the public,private sector pay gap in Germany in the 1990s. We show that throughout the 1990s the overall pay gap between the public and private sectors remained stable in the West and increased considerably in the East. Wage decompositions show a small and stable negative public sector premium in the West, and a large and increasing positive public sector pay premium in the East. Decompositions also show a considerable deterioration in the skill base of the private sector in the East which the paper attributes in part to the improved attractiveness of the public sector. The paper argues that the development in the size and composition of the public,private sector pay gap in the East is an indication of the public sector crowding out the private sector and raises concerns about the future competitiveness of the East. [source]


    James Huff
    This article explores how one faith-based nonprofit organization and its various Pentecostal and evangelical church partners in El Salvador are creating associational contexts within which local community development projects are identified and implemented. Observational and interview data derived from a process evaluation of a project identification exercise are examined to explore how different community and organizational stakeholders attempt to implement local development initiatives that will presumably build on local assets and associations. The study details the patterns of participation that emerged as members of local churches negotiated with their neighbors over how to best direct social change in their community. Corresponding analysis of interview data portrays how these same actors relied on diverse social logics,which are both religious and practical in nature,to make sense of and assess some of the key assumptions of a particular form of faith-based development. The case is a good example of how faith-based organizations play key roles in the formation of publics, wherein actors from diverse networks come together to deliberate over the aims and outcomes of local development projects in contemporary El Salvador. [source]

    Beyond Biogeography: a Framework for Involving the Public in Planning of U.S. Marine Protected Areas

    control de áreas marinas protegidas; intervención de usufructuarios; manejo basado en ecosistemas; participación del público Abstract:,Planning of marine protected areas (MPAs) is highlighted in the conservation literature but is not explored in much detail. Many researchers acknowledge the importance of involving the public in MPA planning, but there is limited guidance on how to do this in an effective manner. I present a framework for involving the public in planning of U.S. MPAs. Derived from empirically and theoretically based research on public participation in U.S. natural resource management, this framework is composed of factors that influence the success of participatory processes: active participant involvement, complete information exchange, fair decision making, efficient administration, and positive participant interactions. Processes incorporating these factors will produce decisions that are more likely to be supported by stakeholders, meet management objectives, and fulfill conservation goals. This framework contributes to the MPA social science literature and responds to calls in the conservation literature to increase the use of social science research to inform conservation decision making. Resumen:,La planificación de áreas marinas protegidas (AMP) resalta en la literatura de conservación pero no es explorada en mucho detalle. Muchos investigadores reconocen la importancia de involucrar al público en la planificación de AMP, pero las directrices para hacerlo de manera efectiva es limitada. Presento un marco para involucrar al público en la planificación de AMP en E.U.A. Este marco, derivado de investigación empírica y teórica de la participación del público en el manejo de recursos naturales en E.U.A., esta compuesto por factores que influyen en el éxito de procesos participativos: intervención activa de usufructuarios; intercambio completo de información; toma de decisiones justas; administración eficiente e interacciones positivas de participantes. Los procesos que incorporan estos factores producirán decisiones que tendrán más posibilidades de ser apoyadas por los usufructuarios, de alcanzar objetivos de manejo y cumplir metas de conservación. Este marco contribuye a la literatura de ciencias sociales de AMP y responde a llamados en la literatura de conservación para incrementar el uso de investigación de ciencias sociales para proporcionar información a la toma de decisiones de conservación. [source]

    Religious Claims in Public: Lutheran Resources

    DIALOG, Issue 4 2006
    Cynthia Moe-Lobeda
    Abstract:, A cacophony of religious voices seeking to influence public culture, opinion, and policy pervades the public discourse in the United States today. Some publicly-oriented religious claims are appropriate while others are not. Sorely needed are criteria for making that distinction. This essay asks: What are criteria for appropriate and valid use of religious claims, language, and symbols in deliberation about public policy? What particular gifts do Lutheran traditions bring to shaping those criteria? The essay then draws upon Lutheran theological resources to propose theologically grounded criteria for appropriate and valid use of religious language, claims, and symbols in public discourse. [source]

    A review of drug prevention system development in Romania and its impact on youth drug consumption trends, 1995,2005

    Abstract Issues. A tremendous growth occurred in the reported drug use and abuse in Romania from 1995 to 1999. Lack of concern by government and little policy attention contributed to the surprising delay of drug policy and drug prevention system development. General public stigmatize drug users and drug consumption is considered a matter of personal fault and responsibility. There is some but not sufficient research and evaluation on drug use, abuse problem. Approach. Drug use, abuse and prevention are discussed from research-based, user-focused and prevention system development perspectives. Prevalence and trends of drug use, abuse in the past decade (1995,2005) are summarized. Prevention issues are discussed based on research data from adolescents, parents and teachers. The Romanian primary drug prevention system has been evaluated based on our experiences in drug use prevention activities carried out in schools and recreational environments. Key Findings. Public and scientific perspectives on drug consumption in Romania, between 1995 and 1999, were dominated by an idealistic, non-realistic perception. Since 1995, drug use among adolescents increased almost four times in less than 4 years. The first law against drug traffic and consumption was issued only in 2000. Now primary drug prevention strategies are in action, but in general they are lacking standard evaluation procedures. Implications/Conclusion. Conclusions are drafted for new perspectives in prevention activities. More long-term, user-focused, demand-centred prevention activities should be carried out in more and more diversified settings and evaluation should be thoroughly considered.[Dégi CL. A review of drug prevention system development in Romania and its impact on youth drug consumption trends, 1995,2005. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009;28:419,425] [source]

    Going Public: Teaching Students to Speak Out in Public Contexts

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 2 2000
    Judith Baxter
    Abstract Many students find speaking in large group, whole class or ,public' contexts intimidating. Over the last 30 years, a model of collaborative talk in small groups has been favoured within English teaching in British education but, with the new generation of GCSE syllabuses, students are required to speak effectively to larger audiences. This article explores what constitutes an effective ,public' speaker at GCSE level, and suggests various teaching strategies as starting points. [source]

    Public and stakeholder participation in European water policy: a critical review of project evaluation processes

    Nuno Videira
    Abstract The recent reform of the European water policy recognizes the importance of developing effective mechanisms to support public and stakeholder participation in river basin decision-making processes. This paper critically reviews the evaluation processes of different types of water related project in five European countries (Portugal, Greece, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Spain), with respect to participatory criteria. The horizontal comparison of these cases accounted for criteria such as the political and institutional context, the design, the implementation and the evaluation of the outcomes of participation. The results indicated that, in the majority of the case studies, participation was simply adopted to conform to the requisites of the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive. Thus, there was truly no room for the active involvement and collaboration of the interested parties. The development of guidelines, drawing from the analysis of past experiences, is expected to support the implementation of the participatory objectives of the EU water policy. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Public (open) access policy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2008
    Philip A. Schwartzkroin
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Services of General Interest in EC Law: Matching Values to Regulatory Technique in the Public and Privatised Sectors

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 4 2000
    Colin Scott
    All the European Union Member States have long traditions of state activity in providing key services (such as the utilities, health and education) to their citizens and underpinning both such direct provision and provision of services by non-state actors with certain administrative or legal guarantees. In European Community doctrines they are referred to as ,services of general interest' within which is a narrower class of ,services of general economic interest'. The diverse national public service traditions have been challenged both by the requirements of the single market and by other pressures such as fiscal crisis and broader public sector reform. This article examines the means by which services to which special principles should be applied can be identified and focuses on the range of sometimes contradictory values denoted by the term ,services of general interest', examining the range of regime types (based on hierarchical, competition-based and community forms) by which those values might be pursued. The concluding section suggests that the matching of values to techniques should not be made according to the importance of the values to be pursued, but rather by reference to which techniques are likely to be effective given the configuration of interests and capacities and existing culture within the target domain. [source]

    Books and Materials Reviews

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 2 2003
    Article first published online: 17 FEB 200
    Demo, D. H., Allen, K. R., and Fine, M. A. (Eds.). (1999). Handbook of Family Diversity. Golombok, S. (2000). Parenting: What Really Counts? Hewlett, S. A., Rankin, N., and West, C. (Eds.) (2002). Taking Parenting Public: The Case for a New Social Movement. Kozol, J. (2000). Ordinary Resurrections: Children in the Years of Hope. Krovetz, M. L. (1999). Fostering Resiliency: Expecting All Students to Use Their Minds Well. Lee, E. E. (2000). Nurturing Success: Successful Women of Color and Their Daughters. [source]

    Public Versus Private: The Empty Definitions of National Accounting

    Rowan Jones
    The policy-making processes and the policies of the two international systems of national accounts are addressed, from the perspective of the accounting discipline. The particular measurement issue that determines which parts of an economy are public and which are private - the reporting entity - is discussed. The main conclusion is that the definition of the reporting entities is so vague as to be empty; in other words, national accounting's definition of what is public and what is private is empty. [source]

    Going Public: An Empirical Investigation of U.S. Bound Israeli IPOs

    Iftekhar Hasan
    Between 1985,2003, more than 120 Israeli companies went public in the U.S., bringing the accumulated number of U.S. bound, Israeli initial public offerings (IPOs) to a figure greater than all other foreign countries combined. In this study, we compare the short and long run performance of Israeli IPOs to that of similar international and U.S. IPOs. Holding all else equal, we find that Israeli IPOs are significantly less underpriced than their local and foreign counterparts. As we examine the characteristics of Israeli issuers, we find that they differ than those of other foreign and local issuers in some important dimensions that compensate investors for information asymmetry and risk. First, compared to their home market capitalization size, U.S. bound Israeli IPOs, are significantly larger than the IPOs conducted by their foreign counterparts. Second, Israeli issuers tend to perform better than other foreign and U.S. local IPOs during our entire period of observation. Third, to a large extent, the Israeli firms in our sample have products, licensing or franchising relationships or venture capital funds with strong roots in the U.S. prior to the IPO. And fourth, the relevant investor community of Israeli IPOs, at least at the early stages, is small and overwhelmingly American. Our findings are consistent with prior studies documenting that firms raising capital outside of their domicile country are typically a select group of high quality firms in need of external financing that cannot be sufficiently provided in their home market. [source]

    Oral disease experience of older adults seeking oral health services

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Kavita P. Ahluwalia
    doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2009.00311.x Oral disease experience of older adults seeking oral health services Objective:, The objective of this investigation was to describe the dental disease (dental caries and alveolar bone loss) experience in a sample of community-dwelling older adults who regularly utilize dental services in New York City. Background:, Public financing for dental care directed at older adults in the United States is minimal. Improved preventive methods, primarily the use of fluorides, have resulted in declines in tooth loss, and concomitant increase in risk for dental diseases among older adults. While the oral disease burden in institutionalized elderly and those unable to access services is well-documented, the dental care needs of older adults who access dental services are not well documented. Materials and Methods:, Radiographic and record review were used to determine prevalence of dental caries, alveolar bone loss, frequency of service utilization, and medical status in this cross-sectional investigation of a sample of older adults (N = 200) using dental services at Columbia University College of Dental Medicine. Results:, Only 9% of the sample was completely edentulous, the mean DMFT was 19.9 and mean alveolar bone loss was 3.6 mm. Missing and Decayed Teeth accounted for 57.8% and 6.5% of the total caries burden respectively. Missing Teeth and alveolar bone loss increased with increasing age, but there was no increase in Decayed Teeth. Conclusions:, While access to and utilization of dental services may result in improved tooth retention, older adults who use dental services continue to have dental care needs, especially periodontal care needs. [source]

    Disease control, survival, and functional outcome after multimodal treatment for advanced-stage tongue base cancer

    James P. Malone MD
    Abstract Background. Surgical resection and postoperative radiation for advanced-stage malignancies of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and hypopharynx result in a dismal overall survival of 38%. Patients with carcinoma of the tongue base frequently have advanced disease at the time of presentation, and combined-modality therapy is usually required to achieve cure. Because of the poor survival rates with advanced malignancies with standard therapy, new and innovative approaches continue to be developed in an attempt to have a greater impact on disease control, patient survival, and functional outcome after therapy. This study examines functional outcome, survival, and disease control in patients receiving an intensified treatment regimen with concomitant chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and intraoperative radiotherapy for previously untreated, resectable, stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue base. Methods. Forty patients with previously untreated, resectable, stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base were treated in one of three sequential phase II intensification regimens (IRs). Treatment consisted of perioperative, hyperfractionated radiotherapy (9.1 Gy) with concurrent cisplatin followed by surgical resection with intraoperative radiotherapy boost (7.5 Gy). Postoperative treatment involved concurrent chemoradiotherapy (40 Gy to the primary site and upper neck and 45 Gy to the supraclavicular areas) with cisplatin with or without paclitaxel. Locoregional and distant disease control, 2-year overall, and disease-specific survival rates were calculated. The Performance Status Scale (PSS) for Head and Neck Cancer Patients was administered to 25 of the surviving patients. The effects of the method of surgical reconstruction, surgery involving the mandible and/or larynx, and early versus advanced T stage on PSS score were evaluated with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results. Median follow-up in months for IR1, IR2, and IR3 were 83.6, 75.2, and 26.8. The locoregional control rate was 100%, and the rate of distant metastases was 7.5% for all patients. Two-year overall and disease-specific survival rates for the entire study population were 74.7% and 93.6%, respectively. Mean PSS scores by subscales Eating in Public, Understandability of Speech, and Normalcy of Diet were 55 (range, 0,100), 73 (range, 25,100), and 49 (range, 0,100), respectively. PSS scores were significantly higher in patients with primary closure of the surgical defect, no mandibular surgery, and early T-stage lesions. Conclusions. Although functional outcome may be decreased by certain surgical interventions and advanced T stage, the high rate of locoregional and distant disease control and excellent 2-year disease-specific survival supports an aggressive treatment regimen for advanced tongue base cancer. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 561,572, 2004 [source]

    Public and private pharmaceutical spending as determinants of health outcomes in Canada

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2005
    Pierre-Yves Crémieux
    Abstract An Erratum has been published for this article in Health Economics; 14(2): 117 (2005). Canadian per capita drug expenditures increased markedly in recent years and have become center stage in the debate on health care cost containment. To inform public policy, these costs must be compared with the benefits provided by these drugs. This paper measures the statistical relationship between drug spending in Canadian provinces and overall health outcomes. The analysis relies on more homogenous data and includes a more complete set of controls for confounding factors than previous studies. Results show a strong statistical relationship between drug spending and health outcomes, especially for infant mortality and life expectancy at 65. This relationship is almost always stronger for private drug spending than for public drug spending. The analysis further indicates that substantially better health outcomes are observed in provinces where higher drug spending occurs. Simulations show that if all provinces increased per capita drug spending to the levels observed in the two provinces with the highest spending level, an average of 584 fewer infant deaths per year and over 6 months of increased life expectancy at birth would result. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Erratum: ,Public and private pharmaceutical spending as determinants of health outcomes in Canada' by Pierre-Yves Crémieux, Marie-Claude Meilleur, Pierre Ouellette, Patrick Petit, Martin Zelder and Ken Potvin, Health Economics 2005; 14: 107,116

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2005
    Article first published online: 21 JAN 200
    The original article to which this Erratum refers was published in Health Economics 2005; 14: 107,116. [source]

    Cost Convergence between Public and For-Profit Hospitals under Prospective Payment and High Competition in Taiwan

    Sudha Xirasagar
    Objective. To test the hypotheses that: (1) average adjusted costs per discharge are higher in high-competition relative to low-competition markets, and (2) increased competition is associated with cost convergence between public and for-profit (FP) hospitals for case payment diagnoses, but not for cost-plus reimbursed diagnoses. Data Sources. Taiwan's National Health Insurance database; 325,851 inpatient claims for cesarean section, vaginal delivery, prostatectomy, and thyroidectomy (all case payment), and bronchial asthma and cholelithiasis (both cost-based payment). Study Design. Retrospective population-based, cross-sectional study. Data Analysis. Diagnosis-wise regression analyses were done to explore associations between cost per discharge and hospital ownership under high and low competition, adjusted for clinical severity and institutional characteristics. Principal Findings. Adjusted costs per discharge are higher for all diagnoses in high-competition markets. For case payment diagnoses, the magnitudes of adjusted cost differences between public and FP hospitals are lower under high competition relative to low competition. This is not so for the cost-based diagnoses. Conclusions. We find that the empirical evidence supports both our hypotheses. [source]

    The removal of workplace partnership in the UK Civil Service: a trade union perspective

    Douglas Martin
    ABSTRACT Despite extensive research on the impact of social partnership in the workplace, limited investigation has been undertaken around its removal. This article examines, from a trade union perspective, the removal of the partnership agreement by the Department for Work and Pensions and the Public and Commercial Services Union. [source]

    Public funding for residential and nursing home care: projection of the potential impact of proposals to change the residential allowance in services for older people

    Paul Clarkson
    Abstract Background This paper investigates the potential effects of a policy change in the funding of UK residential care. The White Paper Modernising Social Services (Cm 4169, 1998) outlined plans to change the distribution of the Residential Allowance (RA), payable in support of residents in independent residential or nursing home care, from a component of income support paid direct to establishments to a grant to local authorities. This change was intended to remove the perverse incentive in accessing independent residential care more favourably than local authority care. A further objective was to encourage local authorities to use the grant to support home-based alternatives to residential care. The policy rests on a model in which price signals dictate the choice of care for an older person. By, in effect, raising the price of independent residential and nursing home care, the policy provides an incentive for authorities to seek alternatives to institutional care. Methods Managers from 16 UK social services departments attended a focus group discussion, completed questionnaires and provided information to assist in calculating the potential diversionary effect of the policy. Results Managerial estimates indicated a small diversionary effect of the policy; A potential effect of 0.26 and 0.19 per 1000 older people diverted from residential and nursing care respectively. Conclusions The study indicated that wider organisational factors other than price are likely to play a greater role in deciding whether an older person is admitted to care. Changes in public funding alone do not reflect the complexities involved in decision-making concerning the residential placement of older people. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Immigrant Gateways and Hispanic Migration to New Destinations,

    Daniel T. Lichter
    Our understanding of the underlying demographic components of population change in new Hispanic destinations is limited. In this paper, we (1) compare Hispanic migration patterns in traditional settlement areas with new growth in emerging Hispanic destinations; (2) examine the role of immigration vis-à-vis domestic migration in spurring Hispanic population redistribution; and (3) document patterns of migrant selectivity, distinguishing between in-migrants and non-migrant Hispanics at both the origin and destination. We use several recent datasets, including the 1990 and 2000 Public Use Microdata Samples (which include new regional geocodes), and the 2005 and 2006 files of the American Community Survey. Our results document the widespread dispersion of the Hispanic population over the 1990,2006 period from established Hispanic gateways into new Hispanic areas and other parts of the country. Nearly one-half of Hispanic net migration in new destinations comes from domestic gains. In contrast, both established and other Hispanic areas depend entirely on immigration, with each losing domestic migrants to high growth areas. Migrant flows also are highly differentiated by education, citizenship, and nativity. To fully understand the spatial diffusion of Hispanics requires a new appreciation of the complex interplay among immigration, internal domestic migration, and fertility. [source]

    Beyond Miami: The Ethnic Enclave and Personal Income in Various Cuban Communities in the United States,

    Carla P. Davis
    It is frequently noted that Cubans living in Miami are successful because they benefit from the formation of an enclave economy. Using the 1990 Census Public Use Microdata, this study broadens the examination beyond Miami to address the question of why Cubans living elsewhere have higher earnings than those in Miami. Specifically, I address the question of whether there is a relationship between Cuban ethnic enclave participation and Cuban income. Findings indicate that Cubans in Miami have the lowest personal income. Cubans living in areas with the lowest Cuban populations have the highest incomes. These findings are evidence against the enclave economy hypothesis. [source]

    U.S. Perceptions of Nuclear Security in the Wake of the Cold War: Comparing Public and Elite Belief Systems

    Kerry G. Herron
    Our research adds new evidence to the continuing debate about capacities of mass publics to contribute to foreign and security policy processes. Focusing on U.S. beliefs and preferences about nuclear security in the post,Cold War era, we examine not only linear relationships among elite and mass belief structures, but also combinations of beliefs that may be precursors to policy coalitions. We examine attitudes and preferences about nuclear issues among two elite publics,scientists and legislators,surveyed in 1997, and among two samples of the U.S. general public surveyed in 1997 and 1999. We compare elite and mass belief structures using three different methods: descriptive comparisons of central tendencies, relational analyses using bivariate and multivariate regressions, and coalitional analyses using cluster analytical techniques. With each method of analysis we find evidence of similar belief structures and similar relationships between beliefs and nuclear policy preferences among our elite and mass samples. [source]

    Public and Private Negotiations of Gender in Eighteenth-Century England and Italy: Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and the Case of Catterina Vizzani

    First page of article [source]

    Mothering in Public: A Meta-Synthesis of Homeless Women With Children Living in Shelters

    MPHArticle first published online: 24 AUG 200, Mikki Meadows-Oliver MSN
    ISSUES AND PURPOSE The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the current qualitative literature on homeless women with children living in shelters. METHODS Eighteen qualitative studies on homeless women with children living in shelters were included in the synthesis. The meta-synthesis was conducted using the meta-ethnographic approach of Noblit and Hare (1988). RESULTS Six reciprocal translations (themes) of homeless mothers caring for their children in shelters emerged: On becoming homeless, protective mothering, loss, stressed and depressed, survival strategies, and strategies for resolution. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS The results may be used by healthcare workers as a framework for developing intervention strategies directed toward helping mothers find new solutions to dealing with shelter living and innovative ways to resolve their homelessness. [source]

    Exercising in Public and Private Environments: Effects on Feeling States in Women with Social Physique Anxiety

    Brian C. Focht
    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of acute exercise performed in public and private exercise environments upon feeling states (FS) in 30 women with high social physique anxiety (SPA). A secondary purpose was to examine if perceptions of evaluative threat (EVT) mediated the affective responses to exercise. Multivariate analyses revealed that exercising in the public environment resulted in negative FS responses, whereas exercising in the private environment yielded favorable FS responses to exercise. EVT significantly mediated state anxiety responses to exercise but did not mediate any of the FS responses. The results suggest that the environment influences the FS responses to exercise among women with high SPA and that EVT mediates selected psychological responses to exercise. [source]