Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Psychopathology

  • adolescent psychopathology
  • adult psychopathology
  • child psychopathology
  • comorbid psychopathology
  • developmental psychopathology
  • disorder psychopathology
  • eating disorder psychopathology
  • general psychopathology
  • other psychopathology
  • parental psychopathology
  • severe psychopathology
  • underlying psychopathology

  • Selected Abstracts


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 3 2007
    First page of article [source]


    Tomas Geyskens
    The author describes the development of Freud's theory of neurosis from 1892 onwards, starting with his distinction between the actual neuroses and the psychoneuroses and his discovery of a specific, sexual aetiology for both, until which point it remained limited to pathology. The problem of the aetiology of perversion, however, confronted him with a paradox within the theory of seduction: how can an infantile sexual pleasure produce unpleasure when it is remembered at the time of puberty? This problem could not be solved within the framework of the seduction theory because the asexuality of childhood was essential to this theory. For an answer Freud had to turn to biology. He considered that the transformation of an infantile pleasure into unpleasure presupposed an organic repression of non-genital sexual pleasure. This hypothesis of organic repression radically changed the anthropological claim of Freud's theory. As long as he was looking for a specific aetiology of neurosis and perversion, Freud's theory remained restricted to pathology. However, when he introduced infantile sexuality and its organic repression as universal organic processes, the strict distinction between normality and pathology could not be maintained. The author concludes that by turning to sexual biology, Freud transformed psychopathology into a clinical anthropology. [source]


    Dorothy Lloyd-Owen
    ABSTRACT This paper explores the psychopathology of perversion in women, an area often resisted in society and, as a consequence, leaving women without the help they need. The role of aggression and ,core complex' issues are discussed with case illustrations of the perverse use of the body in women. [source]

    Pregnancy complications associated with childhood anxiety disorders

    Dina R. Hirshfeld-Becker Ph.D.
    Abstract To determine whether perinatal complications predict childhood anxiety disorders independently of parental psychopathology, we systematically assessed pregnancy and delivery complications and psychopathology in a sample of children (mean age=6.8 years) at high risk for anxiety disorders whose parents had panic disorder with (n=138) or without (n=26) major depression, and in contrast groups of offspring of parents with major depression alone (n=47), or no mood or anxiety disorders (n=95; total N=306). Psychopathology in the children was assessed by structured diagnostic interviews (K-SADS), and pregnancy and delivery complications were assessed using the developmental history module of the DICA-P. Number of pregnancy complications predicted multiple childhood anxiety disorders independently of parental diagnosis (odds ratio=1.6 [1.4,2.0]). This effect was accounted for by heavy bleeding requiring bed-rest, hypertension, illness requiring medical attention, and serious family problems. Associations remained significant when lifetime child mood and disruptive behavior disorders were covaried. Results suggest that prenatal stressors may increase a child's risk for anxiety disorders beyond the risk conferred by parental psychopathology alone. Depression and Anxiety 19:152,162, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Psychoeducational intervention for caregivers of Indian patients with schizophrenia: a randomised-controlled trial

    P. Kulhara
    Objective:, There are hardly any randomised-controlled trials of structured family interventions for schizophrenia from India. This study attempted to evaluate the impact of a structured psychoeducational intervention for schizophrenia, compared with standard out-patient treatment, on various patient- and caregiver-related parameters. Method:, Seventy-six patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and their caregivers were randomly allocated to receive either a structured psychoeducational intervention (n = 38) consisting of monthly sessions for 9 months or ,routine' out-patient care (n = 38) for the same duration. Psychopathology was assessed on monthly basis. Disability levels, caregiver-burden, caregiver-coping, caregiver-support and caregiver-satisfaction were evaluated at baseline and upon completion. Results:, Structured psychoeducational intervention was significantly better than routine out-patient care on several indices including psychopathology, disability, caregiver-support and caregiver-satisfaction. The psychoeducational intervention package used was simple, feasible and not costly. Conclusion:, Structured psychoeducational intervention is a viable option for treatment of schizophrenia even in developing countries like India. [source]

    Parental psychopathology and self-rated quality of life in adolescents with epilepsy in Nigeria

    Abiodun O Adewuya MBChB
    This study sought to investigate the relationship between parental psychopathology and health-related quality of life in a group of Nigerian adolescents with epilepsy. The participants were 86 adolescents with epilepsy (50 males, 36 females; mean age 14y 5mo [SD 2y 1mo]; age range 12,18y). There were 54 (62.8%) adolescents with complex partial seizures, six (7.0%) with simple partial seizures, 14 (16.3%) with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, four (4.7%) with absence seizures, and eight (9.2%) with other types of seizure. They completed the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory for Adolescents (QOLIE-AD-48). Parents also completed the General Health Questionnaire, Zung's Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and Zung's Self-Rating Depressive Scale as measures of their psychopathology. Factors correlating with poor overall quality of life in the adolescents include longer duration of illness, large number of antiepileptic drugs, more severe medication toxicity, and psychopathology in the parents. General psychopathology in parents is significantly associated with QOLIE-AD-48 subscales of Epilepsy Impact (r= 0.527, p < 0.001), Attitude (r= 0.214, p= 0.047), Physical Function (r= 0.417, p < 0.001), Stigma (r= 0.305, p= 0.004), Social Support (r= 0.365, p= 0.001), and School Behaviour (r= 0.220, p= 0.042). There is a possibility of a cross-cultural difference on the effect of epilepsy on the quality of life of adolescents. Psychopathology in parents is significantly associated with poorer quality of life of these adolescents. Physicians should consider this, therefore, when planning intervention strategies in improving the quality of life in adolescents with epilepsy. [source]

    Psychopathology in treated Wilson's disease determined by means of CPRS expert and self-ratings

    K. Portala
    Objective: To examine the occurrence and severity of psychopathological symptoms in patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and to evaluate the clinical utility of a self-assessment. Method: Twenty-six consecutive patients with confirmed WD were investigated using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) and the CPRS Self-rating Scale. Results: The total CPRS scores ranged from 2.5 to 59.0 (mean 29.415.5). Most common symptoms were: autonomic disturbances, observed muscular tension, fatiguability, reduced sexual interest, lack of appropriate emotion, concentration difficulties, reduced sleep, aches and pains, hostile feelings, apparent sadness and failing memory. Agreement between interview-based ratings and self-ratings was low. Conclusion: The patients with treated WD have prominent psychopathology in the same range as in patients with moderate to severe depressive disorders. A specific symptom profile has been identified. If confirmed, the identification of the typical symptom profile might be of great importance. The patients with WD tend to underestimate the presence of psychopathological symptoms. [source]

    Expressed Emotion Attitudes and Individual Psychopathology Among the Relatives of Bipolar Patients

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2002
    Tina R. Goldstein M.A.
    This study investigated the relationships between expressed emotion (EE) and individual psychopathology among 82 biological and non-biological relatives of 66 patients with bipolar I disorder. Relatives' psychopathology was assessed via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Patient Version (SCID-P) and the General Behavior Inventory (GBI), a self-report measure of lifetime subsyndromal mood disturbances. We hypothesized that relatives who held high-EE critical, hostile, and/or overinvolved attitudes toward their bipolar family member, as measured via the Camberwell Family Interview, would be more likely to have DSM-III-R Axis I diagnoses on the SCID, as well as more mood and temperamental disturbances on the GBI, than those who held low-EE attitudes. The findings did not support a significant relationship between overall EE status and psychopathology in family members. However, relatives without significant Axis I pathology scored significantly higher than those with Axis I pathology on one measure of EE, emotional overinuolvement. The findings are discussed with reference to explanations for the genesis of high-EE attitudes. [source]

    The Transmission of Psychopathology From Parents to Offspring: Development and Treatment in Context,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2001
    Seth J. Schwartz
    First page of article [source]

    Psychopathology and autobiographical memory in stroke and non-stroke hospitalized patients

    Mark John Sampson
    Abstract Background Psychopathology and autobiographical memory were investigated in a cohort of stroke and non-stroke hospitalized patients. Both these cohorts have been identified as having high levels of psychopathology (Katon and Sullivan 1990; Burvill et al., 1995). Difficulties recalling specific autobiographical memories (overgeneral memory) have been identified as important psychological variables in depression and predictors of outcome (Williams and Scott 1988; Brittlebank et al., 1993). Intrusive autobiographical memories have also been found to be associated with depression and overgeneral memory in depressed women (Kuyken and Brewin, 1995) and depressed cancer patients (Brewin et al., 1998a). This study looked at levels of psychopathology and autobiographical memories in stroke and non-stroke hospital patients. Method 417 patients were screened, of the 176 eligible 103 agreed to participate (54 stroke and 49 non-stroke). Participants were assessed for overgenerality using the Autobiographical Memory Test and intrusiveness of memories using the Impact of Events Scale. Also assessed were PTSD-like symptoms (PCL-S), mood (HADS, GHQ-28) and cognitive ability (MMSE, verbal fluency, digit span and estimated pre-morbid IQ). Results No significant differences were found between stroke and non-stroke patients on severity of depression, anxiety, severity of PTSD-like symptoms or autobiographical memories. Backward multivariate regression analyses for combined data (stroke and non-stroke) indicated that overgeneral memory recall, intrusive memories of past events and intrusive memories of illness were significant independent predictors of depression (HADS). Avoidance of intrusive memories and reported childhood distress were not predictors of overgeneral memory recall. Significant predictors of overgeneral memory recall were; Gender, antidepressant medication, and estimated IQ. Conclusion Significant levels of psychopathology were identified in this cohort. However, there were no significant differences in the levels of depression, anxiety, PTSD symptoms and autobiographical memory between stroke and non-stroke hospitalized patients. Of particular interest was the finding that PTSD-like symptoms did not appear to be influenced by the nature of the person's illness. In combined data (stroke and non-stroke) autobiographical memories (intrusive images of their illness, intrusive memories of other events and overgeneral memory recall variables) were significant predictors of depression in this cohort. This suggests that psychological intervention of memory processes may be a worthwhile target in psychological intervention for depression in these cohorts. Gender, cognitive impairment, antidepressant medication, and estimated IQ were significant predictors of overgeneral memory recall and further investigation into the validity of these findings are warranted. Suggestions for further research and limitations of the study are also discussed. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Screening for depression and anxiety: correlates of non-response and cohort attrition in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    Willem Jan Van Der Veen
    Abstract A major problem in the analysis of attrition of cohorts in studies on mental health problems is that data on those who do not participate at the outset of a study are largely unavailable. It is not known how underlying psychopathology affects the first stages of screening where non-response and selectivity are usually highest. This article presents results of one of the centres of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), a longitudinal study aimed at describing the long-term course and consequences of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim is to describe the different ways of attrition during the first NESDA-wave in a cohort of patients aged 18,65 years of the Registration Network Groningen and to analyse whether attrition is related to gender, age and psychopathology as recorded in general practice. The attrition of the study cohort (n = 8475) was highest during the first stages, eventually leading to a population of 169 patients only who participated in the full NESDA-programme. Probabilities of transition from one stage of the screening process to the next were regressed on selected background variables using binary logistic regression. Correlates of participation were being female and being older (>40). Psychopathology was an important variable in the formation of the initial sample cohort, but only had a weak influence on patient response to the screening questionnaire. Study design factors had a stronger impact on the changing composition of the cohort at each screening stage compared to patient factors. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Preliminary Investigation into the Utility of the Adult Behavior Checklist in the Assessment of Psychopathology in People with Low IQ

    Nienke H. Tenneij
    Background, Achenbach & Rescorla (2003) recently developed the Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL) to assess psychopathology in the general population. The ABCL should be completed by a proxy informant. The use of proxy informants, instead of self-reporting, makes the ABCL potentially suitable for the assessment of psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability. The aim of the present study was to examine reliability and validity of the ABCL in 124 adults with mild intellectual disability or low IQ, and severe challenging behaviour referred for residential treatment. Methods, The ABCL was completed by two independent informants to assess inter-rater reliability. To examine the validity of the ABCL, its relationship with three measures of functioning was assessed. Furthermore, association between scales of the ABCL and DSM-IV axis I disorders was examined. Results, The ABCL was reliable in terms of internal consistency of its scales, and inter-rater reliability. Relationships between clusters of axis I DSM-IV disorders and scales of the ABCL were found as expected. Moreover, ABCL scales predicted different measures of functioning. Conclusions, The ABCL appears to be a reliable and valid measure to assess psychopathology in persons with mild intellectual disabilities or low IQ, admitted for treatment in facilities for adults with mild intellectual disability and severe challenging behaviour. [source]

    Prevalence of Psychopathology in Preschool-Age Children

    FFNP, Mary Ann McDonnell MS
    PROBLEM Little is known about psychopathology in preschool-age children. METHODS A review of representative studies of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. FINDINGS Sample sizes ranged from 104 to 3,860 subjects, ages 1 to 9 years. Prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders varied from 0.1% to 26.4%; high rates of co-morbidity were reported. CONCLUSIONS Studies addressing psychiatric disorders in preschoolers are extremely limited. Future research is needed to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes in preschool-age children. [source]

    The relationship between history of violent and criminal behavior and recognition of facial expression of emotions in men with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder

    Elisabeth M. Weiss
    Abstract Social psychological research underscores the relation between aggression and emotion. Specifically, regulating negative affect requires the ability to appraise restraint-producing cues, such as facial signs of anger, fear and other emotions. Individuals diagnosed with major mental disorders are more likely to have engaged in violent behavior than mentally healthy members of the same communities. We examined whether violent and criminal behavior in men with schizophrenia is related to emotion recognition abilities. Forty-one men with schizophrenia underwent a computerized emotion discrimination test presenting mild and extreme intensities of happy, sad, angry, fearful and neutral faces, balanced for gender and ethnicity. History of violence was assessed by the Life History of Aggression Scale and official records of arrests. Psychopathology was rated using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Criminal behavior was associated with poor emotion recognition, especially for fearful and angry facial expressions. History of aggression was also associated with more severe positive symptoms and less severe negative symptoms. These findings suggest that misinterpretation of social cues such as angry and fearful expression may lead to a failure in socialization and adaptive behavior in response to emotional situation, which may result in a higher number of criminal arrests. Aggr. Behav. 32:1,8, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Psychopathology in tuberous sclerosis: an overview and findings in a population-based sample of adults with tuberous sclerosis

    A. Raznahan
    Abstract Background Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a multi- system disorder with complex genetics. The neurodevelopmental manifestations of TS are responsible for considerable morbidity. The prevalence of epilepsy and intellectual disabilities among individuals with TS have been well described. Ours is the first study that explores the prevalence and pattern of psychopathology in a population-based sample of adults with TS. Methods Sixty subjects were identified through a capture,recapture analysis of TS. Information was gathered as to seizure history, cognitive functioning (WISC-III) and psychopathology (SADS-L, SAPPA). Lifetime psychopathology was categorized according to Research Diagnostic Criteria. The overall pattern of mental illness (MI) was examined as well as how this varied with IQ and seizure history. Results Twenty-four (40.0%) subjects had a history of MI. The most common diagnosis was that of an affective disorder [18 (30.0%)], the majority of which were major depressive episodes. Alcoholism [4 (6.7%)] and anxiety disorders [3 (5.0%)] were the next most common diagnoses. Two (3.3%) subjects had had a tic disorder. Only one individual had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. MI was found in 75.0% of those with a history of epilepsy and 37.5% of those without epilepsy. MI was significantly more prevalent in those with a full-scale IQ above 70. Conclusions A significant proportion of adult with TS experience MI. MI was significantly less prevalent in subjects with a full-scale IQ above 70. Reasons for such a finding are explored, and related methodological considerations for future research outlined. [source]

    Risk factors for psychopathology in children with intellectual disability: a prospective longitudinal population-based study

    J. L. Wallander
    Abstract Background This study examined risk factors for the development of psychopathology in children with intellectual disability (ID) in the developmental, biological, family and social-ecological domains. Methods A population sample of 968 children, aged 6,18, enrolled in special schools in the Netherlands for educable and trainable ID were assessed at Time 1. A random 58% were re-contacted about 1 year later, resulting in a sample of 474 at Time 2. Results Psychopathology was highly consistent over 1 year. Risk factors jointly accounted for significant, but small, portions of the variance in development of psychopathology. Child physical symptoms, family dysfunction and previous parental mental health treatment reported at Time 1 were uniquely associated with new psychopathology at Time 2. Conclusions Prevention and early intervention research to find ways to reduce the incidence of psychopathology, possibly targeting family functioning, appear important. [source]

    Injury risk in young people with intellectual disability

    J Sherrard
    Abstract Epidemiological studies have established injury as a major public health problem for young people in the general population, but minimal population-based injury information exists on those with intellectual disability (ID). The present study investigated risk factors for injury to subjects in the Australian Child and Adolescent Development (ACAD) programme, which is examining emotional and behavioural problems in young people with ID. Extensive biopsychosocial data for the ACAD programme were collected at two time intervals (i.e. 1990,1991 and 1995,1996). Carer report of medically attended injury over one year was collected for the first time period (1995,1996) on a sample of 465 ACAD subjects (aged 5,29 years) representative of young people with ID (IQ < 70) to determine risk factors for injury using the ACAD biopsychosocial data. Psychopathology [odds ratio (OR) = 3.4] epilepsy (OR = 2.4) and an overly sociable temperament (OR = 2.2) are associated with injury in young people with ID. Social and family factors had minimal influence on injury risk in this population. Those who are highly disruptive, self-absorbed, anxious, have problems relating socially, have communication disturbance or have attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms are particularly at increased risk for injury. The present study demonstrates a largely under-recognized public health problem of a high unintentional injury risk for young people with ID, and identifies substantial and important risk factors for injury. Injury prevention programmes, with a particular focus on those with highly disturbed behaviours or epilepsy, are warranted in this population. [source]

    Psychopathology and young people with Down's syndrome: childhood predictors and adult outcome of disorder

    J. McCarthy
    Abstract There is a scarcity of follow-up studies into adult life of psychiatric disorder in young people with intellectual disability. The key aims of the present study were: (1) to determine the outcome of psychopathology present in childhood in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS); and (2) to look at childhood predictors of adult psychiatric disorder. Fifty-two young people with DS were identified from a sample of 193 subjects examined in childhood and adolescence for psychiatric and behaviour disorder. These young adults were interviewed for the presence of psychiatric disorder. No significant relationship was found between childhood mental disorder and psychiatric disorder in adult life for those individuals with DS. Early childhood factors of psychiatric disorder, challenging behaviour and family environment, except social background, did not predict adult psychopathology in young people with DS. Childhood disorder in individuals with DS has a good early prognosis with little evidence of continuity of the disorder into adult life. [source]

    A Self-Regulatory Model of Behavioral Disinhibition in Late Adolescence: Integrating Personality Traits, Externalizing Psychopathology, and Cognitive Capacity

    Tim Bogg
    ABSTRACT Two samples with heterogeneous prevalence of externalizing psychopathology were used to investigate the structure of self-regulatory models of behavioral disinhibition and cognitive capacity. Consistent with expectations, structural equation modeling in the first sample (N=541) showed a hierarchical model with 3 lower order factors of impulsive sensation seeking, antisociality/unconventionality, and lifetime externalizing problem counts, with a behavioral disinhibition superfactor best accounted for the pattern of covariation among 6 disinhibited personality trait indicators and 4 externalizing problem indicators. The structure was replicated in a second sample (N=463) and showed that the behavioral disinhibition superfactor, and not the lower order impulsive sensation seeking, antisociality/unconventionality, and externalizing problem factors, was associated with lower IQ, reduced short-term memory capacity, and reduced working memory capacity. The results provide a systemic and meaningful integration of major self-regulatory influences during a developmentally important stage of life. [source]

    Seasonality of psychopathology and circannual melatonin rhythm

    A.L. Morera
    Abstract:, The association of seasonal changes in health and disease has been known for centuries. The prevalence of psychopathological symptoms with seasonal fluctuations and the use of melatonin as a biological marker of circadian and circannual rhythms is well documented. The aim of this work was to study the variability of melatonin secretion between summer and winter in our geographical area (28N, 16W) and relate the changes to the level of psychopathology. Ten drug-free, nonsmoker, healthy subjects were studied in summer (August) and winter (December). Blood samples for melatonin assays were collected every hour at night for 5 hr, from 22:00 to 02:00 hr, and next day at noon. Melatonin was assayed by an ELISA technique. Psychopathology was evaluated by means of the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). All subjects had a circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion in summer and winter. There was a seasonal rhythm with melatonin levels being significantly higher at night in winter than in summer. Melatonin levels at 22:00, 23:00, 24:00 and 01:00 hr and mean melatonin area under the curve (AUC) were significantly higher in winter than in summer. Melatonin AUC increased 80% in winter compared with summer. The GHQ-28 somatic and anxiety subscales and the total GHQ-28 score were significantly higher in winter than summer. Psychopathology scores were significantly and negatively correlated with melatonin production in summer and winter. Our data strongly suggest that melatonin production and psychopathology levels present seasonal fluctuations and these variations should be taken into account when conducting research in this field. [source]

    Psychopathology in Pregnant Drug-Dependent Women With and Without Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2001
    Donna R. Miles
    Background : Individuals with comorbid alcohol and drug use disorders are at particularly high risk for a variety of problems, including other psychiatric disorders. In general, patients with comorbid alcohol and drug dependence tend to have more severe dependence problems and often have poorer treatment outcomes than individuals with single disorders. For treatment-seeking pregnant women, psychiatric comorbidity can lead to relapse and premature treatment dropout, with adverse consequences to mother and infant. Methods: Psychopathology, as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory,Revised (MMPI-2), was examined in 170 pregnant women admitted to a comprehensive treatment program for cocaine or opiate dependence. Most were single (75%) and African American (80%), with a mean age of 29 years. Thirty-six met DSM-III-R criteria for both alcohol and drug dependence (alcohol positive), whereas 134 were drug dependent only (alcohol negative). Results: Alcohol-positive women had higher levels of psychopathology than alcohol-negative women, with higher scores on scales 2 (Depression), 4 (Psychopathic Deviance), 8 (Schizophrenia), and 0 (Social Introversion;p < 0.05). The mean MMPI-2 profile for alcohol-positive women was 2-4-8 (Depression-Psychopathic Deviance-Schizophrenia; all T-scores > 65), whereas alcohol-negative women had only a scale 4 increase. Conclusions: Results suggest that pregnant, drug-dependent women with comorbid alcohol dependence present for treatment with greater psychopathology and thus may require more intense interventions than pregnant, drug-dependent women without comorbid alcohol dependence. Alcohol use by pregnant women is particularly important to address in treatment, because alcohol is a known teratogen associated with mental retardation and behavioral problems. [source]

    Psychopathology is associated with dyspeptic symptom severity in primary care patients with a new episode of dyspepsia

    Summary Background, Personality and psychiatric disorders are reported to be more common in dyspeptic patients with severe complaints, but it remains unclear whether this association exists for patients with mild and moderate dyspepsia. Aim, To study the association between dyspeptic symptom severity and psychopathology, major life events and coping ability in patients with a new episode of dyspepsia. Methods, Dyspeptic symptom severity was measured using the validated eight symptom Veldhuyzen van Zanten questionnaire. Psychopathology was measured using the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL 90). Major life events were measured with a modified version of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). Coping styles were measured by a short version of the Utrecht Coping Questionnaire, distinguishing six coping styles. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between dyspepsia symptom severity and psychological factors. Results, In all, 664 patients with a new episode of uninvestigated dyspepsia, aged >18 years were included. Dyspeptic symptom severity was positively correlated with the presence of depression (P < 0.01), somatization symptoms (P < 0.01), use of an active coping style (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with age (P < 0.01). Conclusions, Primary care patients consulting with dyspepsia have higher levels of depression and somatization especially at younger age. An active coping style is associated with dyspepsia symptom severity. [source]

    Psychopathology in Patients with ICDs over Time: Results of a Prospective Study

    Introduction:The effects of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and ICD shocks on psychological state have previously been studied. However, it is still unclear how health-related quality-of-life changes over time using standardized assessments. We sought to characterize the effects of ICDs and ICD shocks on psychological outcomes. Methods:Three hundred-eight patients receiving ICDs were prospectively identified. Baseline QOL assessments including standardized psychological surveys [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36)] were obtained within 2 months of device implantation and at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Outcomes including ICD shocks were followed over the 12-month study period. Results:The number of patients meeting criteria for anxiety or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at baseline (78/223, 35%) was higher than at 6 (34/223, 15%) or 12 (34/223, 15%) months (P < 0.01). There was a significant improvement over time in HADS (P < 0.001) and IES-R (PTSD) scores (P < 0.001). Amongst the 20 patients who received ICD shocks, no significant differences were observed in IES-R, SF-36, or HADS scores when compared with those who did not receive shocks at any time point. Patients who experienced electrical storms (N = 5) had significantly higher baseline PTSD scores (29.6 11.4 vs 14.6 11.6, P < 0.01). Conclusions:Patients receiving ICDs have significant rates of baseline psychopathology after implantation. However, psychological assessment scores tend to improve with time. ICD shocks do not appear to significantly impact psychological state. These results suggest the importance of close screening and referral for possible psychopathology in patients receiving ICDs, especially in the peri-implant period. (PACE 2010; 33:198,208) [source]

    Ego Development, Psychopathology, and Parenting Problems in Substance-Abusing Mothers

    Nancy Suchman PhD
    The authors examined maternal ego development in relation to psychopathology and parenting problems in a sample of substance abusing mothers. Given predilections at higher levels of ego development for introspection and guilt, the authors expected mothers at higher levels to report more psychopathology. Given predilections at lower levels of ego development for dichotomous perceptions and limited conceptions of causation, the authors expected mothers at low levels to report more problematic parenting behaviors. Intelligence was expected to correlate but not overlap with ego development. Subjects were 182 mothers who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial for a new parenting intervention. Measures included the Washington University Sentence Completion Task,Short Form, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Results of correlation and multivariate analyses of variance confirmed predictions. Implications for future development of interventions for substance abusing mothers are discussed. [source]

    The Development of Psychopathology: Nature and Nurture, by Bruce F. Pennington

    Article first published online: 24 MAR 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Correlation between scores on Continuous Performance Test and plasma concentration for schizophrenic patients on risperidone

    PO SEE CHEN md
    Abstract, The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate the relationship between plasma antipsychotics concentration and cognitive task performance. This may provide valuable information for rational dosage titration. Literature on the relationship between plasma risperidone (RIS) concentration and performance on the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) remains scarce. Ten patients (four male, six female) were given RIS for more than 1 year. Steady-state plasma concentrations of the parent drug RIS and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxy-risperidone (9-OH-RIS), were measured using specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Psychopathology, side-effects of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and CPT were also assessed. A negative correlation was found between CPT performance and the plasma RIS, 9-OH-RIS and its active moiety (RIS + 9-OH-RIS) concentrations. Both RIS and 9-OH-RIS have an impact on the CPT performance of schizophrenic patients. Optimal active moiety plasma concentration for best cognitive performance needs further study. [source]

    Psychopathology in the schools: Multicultural factors that impact assessment and intervention

    Lisa A. Suzuki
    All cultures promote specific norms of behavior that can influence the assessment and intervention process with members of racially/ethnically diverse groups who are diagnosed with various forms of psychopathology. The purpose of this article is to highlight literature on the prevalence of psychological disorders with respect to children and adolescents from different racial/ethnic groups and present variables that may impact assessment and intervention within these diverse populations (e.g., contextual factors, racial and ethnic identity, religious/spiritual beliefs, parenting factors, student attitudes). In addition, cultural issues related to the assessment process and culturally sensitive recommendations for intervention are addressed. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 43: 429,438, 2006. [source]

    The Psychophysiology of Developmental Psychopathology

    Article first published online: 11 SEP 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Factors Affecting Hospital Length of Stay: Is Substance Use Disorder One of Them?

    A Study in a Greek Public Psychiatric Hospital
    Comorbidity of psychiatric disorder and substance use disorder (SUD) is very common. Clinical experience says that comorbidity increases inpatient length of stay. We aimed to discover which factors affect length of stay for inpatients at a psychiatric department in a specialized mental hospital in a Greek urban area, and specifically whether SUD is one of them. All patients admitted over a 12-month period were given the CAGE questionnaire and that part of the EUROPASI questionnaire dealing with substance use. This was followed by a diagnostic interview to establish the final diagnosis in accordance with the DSM-IV criteria. Following this, the patients' characteristics in conjunction with their average length of stay were all evaluated statistically. A total of 313 patients were assessed. Present substance use disorder was identified in 102 individuals (32.6%). The principal substances involved in addiction or abuse were alcohol, cannabis, benzodiazepines, and opiates. Patients differed as to their cooperation with the medication regime. On the other hand, there was no statistical difference regarding the number of hospitalisations. Psychopathology was not found to play a direct role, as no one diagnosis correlated with length of stay. The factors found to affect length of stay in this psychiatric department were the length of time they had been mentally ill and cooperation in taking medication. It appears that SUD is not one of the factors affecting length of stay. [source]

    Psychopathology in female juvenile offenders

    Angela Dixon
    Background:, The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method:, One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and socioeconomic status (SES). Psychological profiles and trauma histories of both groups were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children , Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and family functioning was assessed with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale II (FACES II) self-report measure. Results:, Rates of psychopathology were higher for offenders than non-offenders (p < .001), with particularly high levels of conduct disorder (91% v.1%, p < .001), substance abuse disorders (85% v. 5%, p < .001), depression (55% v. 25%, p < .001) and posttraumatic stress disorder (37% v. 4%, p < .001). In the offenders, 78% met the criteria for three or more diagnoses. The number of psychiatric diagnoses was the most significant factor associated with offender status (OR = 21.26, p < .001). Conclusions:, There is a high prevalence of psychological disorder in females in juvenile justice custody and this has a very strong association with offender status. Because these co-morbid disorders are treatable, there is a clear opportunity to intervene to decrease psychological distress. [source]