Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Psychology

  • analytical psychology
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  • cultural psychology
  • depth psychology
  • developmental psychology
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  • empirical psychology
  • evolutionary psychology
  • experimental psychology
  • folk psychology
  • forensic psychology
  • health psychology
  • history of psychology
  • human psychology
  • humanistic psychology
  • individual psychology
  • industrial psychology
  • moral psychology
  • occupational health psychology
  • of psychology
  • organizational psychology
  • personality psychology
  • philosophical psychology
  • political psychology
  • positive psychology
  • professional psychology
  • scientific psychology
  • social psychology

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  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2006


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 2 2010
    Bruce Maxwell
    Philosophers tend to assume that theoretical frameworks in psychology suffer from conceptual confusion and that any influence that philosophy might have on psychology should be positive. Going against this grain, Dan Lapsley and Darcia NarvŠez attribute the Kohlbergian paradigm's current state of marginalization within psychology to Lawrence Kohlberg's use of ethical theory in his model of cognitive moral development. Post-Kohlbergian conceptions of moral psychology, they advance, should be wary of theoretical constructs derived from folk morality, refuse philosophical starting points, and seek integration with literatures in psychology, not philosophy. In this essay, Bruce Maxwell considers and rejects Lapsley and NarvŠez's diagnosis. The Kohlbergian paradigm's restricted conception of the moral domain is the result of a selective reading of one tendency in ethical theorizing (Kantianism). The idea that moral psychology may find shelter from normative criticism by avoiding ethics-derived models overlooks the deeper continuity between "ethical theory" and "psychological theory." The confusion and barrenness of psychology is not to be explained by calling it a "young science"; its state is not comparable with that of physics, for instance, in its beginnings. (Rather with that of certain branches of mathematics. Set theory.) For in psychology there are experimental methods and conceptual confusion. (As in the other case conceptual confusion and methods of proof.) The existence of the experimental method makes us think we have the means of solving the problems which trouble us; though problem and method pass one another by.1 [source]


    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 1 2010
    ABSTRACT Contemporary caution against anachronism in intellectual history, and the currently momentous theoretical emphasis on subjectivity in the philosophy of mind, are two prevailing conditions that set puzzling constraints for studies in the history of philosophical psychology. The former urges against assuming ideas, motives, and concepts that are alien to the historical intellectual setting under study, and combined with the latter suggests caution in relying on our intuitions regarding subjectivity due to the historically contingent characterizations it has attained in contemporary philosophy of mind. In the face of these conditions, our paper raises a question of what we call non-textual (as opposed to contextual) standards of interpretation of historical texts, and proceeds to explore subjectivity as such a standard. Non-textual standards are defined as (heuristic) postulations of features of the world or our experience of it that we must suppose to be immune to historical variation in order to understand a historical text. Although the postulation of such standards is often so obvious that the fact of our doing so is not noticed at all, we argue that the problems in certain special cases, such as that of subjectivity, force us to pay attention to the methodological questions involved. Taking into account both recent methodological discussion and the problems inherent in two de facto denials of the relevance of subjectivity for historical theories, we argue that there are good grounds for the adoption of subjectivity as a nontextual standard for historical work in philosophical psychology. [source]


    METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 1 2006
    Abstract: The philosophical method of conceptual analysis has been criticised on the grounds that empirical psychological research has cast severe doubt on whether concepts exist in the form traditionally assumed, and that conceptual analysis therefore is doomed. This objection may be termed the Charge from Psychology. After a brief characterisation of conceptual analysis, I discuss the Charge from Psychology and argue that it is misdirected. [source]


    First page of article [source]


    Leonard M. Hummel
    First page of article [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PSYCHOLOGY: Sexual Motivation in Women as a Function of Age

    Cindy M. Meston PhD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Women's motivations to engage in sex are likely influenced by their past sexual experiences, the type of relationship in which they are involved in, and numerous lifestyle factors such as career and family demands. The influences of these factors undoubtedly change as women age. Aim., This study aimed to examine potential differences in sexual motivation between three distinct age groups of premenopausal women. Methods., Women aged 18,22 years (N = 137), 23,30 years (N = 103), and 31,45 years (N = 87) completed an online survey that assessed the proportion with which they had engaged in sexual intercourse for each of 140 distinct reasons. Main Outcome Measures., The YSEX? Questionnaire by Meston and Buss [1] was used to measure sexual motivation. The items of this questionnaire were composed of four primary sexual motivation factors (physical, goal attainment, emotional, insecurity), and 13 subfactors. Results., Women aged 31,45 years reported a higher proportion of engaging in sex compared with one or both of the younger age groups of women for nine of the 13 YSEX? subfactors: stress reduction, physical desirability, experience seeking, resources, social status, revenge, expression, self-esteem boost, and mate guarding. At an item level, the top 25 reasons for having sex were virtually identical across age groups. Conclusion., Women aged 31,45 have more motives for engaging in sex than do women aged 18,30, but the primary reasons for engaging in sex do not differ within this age range. Women aged 18,45 have sex primarily for pleasure, and love and commitment. The implications for diagnosis and treatment of women with sexual dysfunctions were discussed. Meston CM, Hamilton LD, and Harte CB. Sexual motivation in women as a function of age. J Sex Med 2009;6:3305,3319. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PSYCHOLOGY: Women's Partnered Orgasm Consistency Is Associated with Greater Duration of Penile,Vaginal Intercourse but Not of Foreplay

    Petr Weiss PhD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., It has been asserted that women's likelihood or consistency of partnered orgasm (her orgasm as a result of sexual activities with a partner) is determined by duration of foreplay, but not by duration of penile,vaginal intercourse. Aims., The objective was to examine the extent to which women's likelihood or consistency of partnered orgasm is associated with duration of foreplay, duration of penile,vaginal intercourse, and age. Methods., In a representative sample of the Czech population, 2,360 women reported their consistency of orgasm with a partner (from "never" to "almost every time"), and estimates of their typical durations of foreplay and of penile,vaginal intercourse. Main Outcome Measures., The association of consistency of partnered orgasm with typical durations of both foreplay and penile,vaginal intercourse. Results., In univariate analyses, consistency of partnered orgasm was more associated with penile,vaginal intercourse duration than with foreplay duration (consistency also correlated negatively with age). In multivariate analysis, foreplay ceased to be a significant correlate of partnered orgasm consistency (the exclusion of respondents reporting a penile,vaginal intercourse duration of 1 minute or less did not alter the results). Conclusions., When both sexual activity categories are examined in tandem on a population level, women's likelihood or consistency of partnered orgasm is associated with penile,vaginal intercourse duration, but not with foreplay duration. In contrast to the assumptions of many sex therapists and educators, more attention should be given to improve the quality and duration of penile,vaginal intercourse rather than foreplay. Weiss P, and Brody S. Women's partnered orgasm consistency is associated with greater duration of penile,vaginal intercourse but not of foreplay. J Sex Med 2009;6:135,141. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PSYCHOLOGY: Age of First Sexual Intercourse and Acculturation: Effects on Adult Sexual Responding

    Jane S.T. Woo MA
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Although age of first intercourse and the emotional aspects of that experience are often a target in assessment because they are thought to contribute to later sexual functioning, research to date on how sexual debut relates to adult sexual functioning has been limited and contradictory. Aim., The goal of this study was to explore the association between age of first intercourse and adult sexual function in a sample of Euro-Canadian and Asian Canadian university students. In addition, culture-based comparisons of sexual complaints were made to clarify the role of culture in sexual response. Methods., Euro-Canadian (N = 299) and Asian Canadian (N = 329) university students completed the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. Main Outcome Measures., Self-reported sexual problems and bidimensional acculturation. Results., Ethnic group comparisons revealed that Asians reported more sexual complaints including sexual avoidance, dissatisfaction and non-sensuality. Among the women, Asians reported higher scores on the Vaginismus and Anorgasmia subscales whereas the ethnic groups did not differ on the male-specific measures of sexual complaints. In the overall sample, older age of first intercourse was associated with more sexual problems as an adult, including more sexual infrequency, sexual avoidance, and non-sensuality. Among the Asian Canadians, less identification with Western culture was predictive of more sexual complaints overall, more sexual noncommunication, more sexual avoidance, and more non-sensuality. For Asian women, acculturation interacted with age of first intercourse to predict Vaginismus scores. Conclusions., Overall, these data replicate prior research that found that a university sample of individuals of Asian descent have higher rates of sexual problems and that this effect can be explained by acculturation. Earlier sexual debut was associated with fewer sexual complaints in adulthood. Woo JST, and Brotto LA. Age of first sexual intercourse and acculturation: Effects on adult sexual responding. J Sex Med 2008;5:571,582. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PSYCHOLOGY: A New Evaluation Concept and Its Measurement: "Male Sexual Anticipating Cognitions"

    Mireille Bonierbale MD
    ABSTRACT Context., The development of sex-active drugs justifies the use of scales for evaluating changes induced by such forms of therapy. Among the tools available for evaluating erectile dysfunction (ED), the International Index of Erectile Function is the most widely used. Analysis of the scientific literature shows that these instruments remain primarily focused on functional aspects of ED. The vulnerability factors involved in ED are mainly based upon organic characteristics, e.g., age, cardiovascular diseases, or diabetes, but the psychological factors involved in the occurrence and maintenance of ED are less studied. Objective., This conclusion led us to develop a French self-administered instrument, based on patients' subjective sexual experiences, to evaluate "male sexual anticipating cognitions," using Apter's reversal theory as a framework. Design, Setting, and Patients., We present here the first stages of the development of this new instrument. We carried out semistructured, one-to-one interviews with patients with psychogenic ED and patients with mixed ED. Eighteen one-to-one interviews were held in several urologic/andrologic and psychiatric sexologist services. Interviews were continued until the required information was obtained. Analyses of the content were performed to generate items for the new instrument. Results., Dimensions isolated were those of (a) sexual beliefs; (b) metamotivational modes; and (c) dysfunctional coping. Pools of items are currently being analyzed by 108 experts (psychologists, sexologists, andrologists, urologists) to determine if additional items are required. The acceptability and the comprehensiveness of this preliminary questionnaire will be tested by 320 patients in a multicentric study, to produce a shorter questionnaire featuring the most relevant items. Once validated, this multidimensional instrument could be used to assess treatment efficacy of, the, mixed, and psychogenic components of ED. Bonierbale M, Clement A, Loundou A, Simeoni M-C, Barrau K, Hamidi K, Apter MJ, LanÁon C, and Auquier P. A new evaluation concept and its measurement: "Male sexual anticipating cognitions." J Sex Med 2006;3:96,103. [source]


    Anthony Ryle
    ABSTRACT The claims made for the contribution of Evolutionary Psychology to psychotherapy are questioned. The relevance of human evolutionary history is not disputed, but it is argued that insufficient account is taken of the unique features of human beings, that the polemical attacks made on the social and human sciences are irrational, that the hypothetical reconstructions of human evolution are frequently arbitrary and biased, and that the extent to which evolved innate,mentalities'are said to determine social roles ignores the evidence for the plasticity of human brains and for social influences in individual development. In its consistent bias in favour of innate rather than learned and culturally formed processes and in its language and assumptions EP underestimates the inherited and acquired capacities of human societies and individuals to change. It fails to take adequate account of the key evolutionary development whereby humans became symbol-making and symbol-using social animals whose individual psychological development involves processes, the understanding of which requires a new theoretical perspective. These features, combined with the absence of a clear model of practice, seriously limit the contribution of EP to psychotherapy. [source]


    Christopher MacKenna
    ABSTRACT This paper investigates some aspects of consciousness by drawing on the psychology of meditation. Three states of mind are described: semiconsciousness, consciousness and, following the mystics, the possibility of a consciousness which transcends ordinary ego awareness. Some experiences of three authorities on Christian spirituality - Augustine of Hippo, Evagrius of Pontus and Teresa of Avila - are explored in the light of psychoanalytic reflections provided by Erikson, Jung, and Winnicott. [source]

    Archetypal Psychologies: Reflections in Honour of James Hillman edited by Marlan, Stanton

    David Trappler
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Psychology brings justice: the science of forensic psychology,

    Gisli H. Gudjonsson Professor of Forensic Psychology
    In this paper the focus is on one aspect of forensic psychology: the development of psychological instruments, a social psychological model and assessment procedures for evaluating the credibility of witnesses and police detainees during interviewing. Clinically grounded case work and research has impacted on police interviewing and practice, the admissibility of expert psychological testimony and the outcome of cases of miscarriage of justice. After describing the research that laid the foundations for advancement of scientific knowledge in this area, a brief review is presented of 22 high-profile murder cases where convictions based on confession evidence have been quashed on appeal between 1989 and 2001, often primarily on the basis of psychological evidence. The review of the cases demonstrates that psychological research and expert testimony in cases of disputed confessions have had a profound influence on the practice and ruling of the Court of Appeal for England and Wales and the British House of Lords. The cases presented in this paper show that it is wrong to assume that only persons with learning disability or those who are mentally ill make unreliable or false confessions. Personality factors, such as suggestibility, compliance, high trait anxiety and antisocial personality traits, are often important in rendering a confession unreliable. Future research needs to focus more on the role of personality factors in rendering the evidence of witnesses and suspects potentially unreliable. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Developmental psychopathology in adolescence: findings from a Swiss study , the NAPE Lecture 2005

    H.-C. Steinhausen
    Objective:, Presentations of selective findings coming from the Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study with two major aims: i) the study of the prevalence, course, and correlates of mental disorders in adolescence, and ii) the study of the determinants and processes of mental disorders in adolescence. Method:, A representative sample of n = 1964 children and adolescents was studied in the canton of Zurich in 1994. Additional waves of data collection took place in 1997 and 2000/2001. Mean ages at these three assessments were 13, 16, and 20 years. Each wave contained a two-stage procedure of assessment with screening by questionnaires and consecutive interviewing. The main constructs used were general and specific measures of psychopathology, life events, coping styles, self-related cognitions, and quality of the social network. Results:, Prevalence rates of any mental disorder in school-age at the time of assessment was 22.5% fitting into a transcultural range of 18,26% based on DSM-III-R criteria. Furthermore, the derivation and validation of a four-group adolescent drinker typology was demonstrated. Additionally, the prevalence and continuity of functional-somatic symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood was shown. Another piece of the research tested for the identification of risk, compensatory, vulnerability, and protective factors influencing behaviour problems and found remarkably different frequencies across the four types of moderating factors. Conclusion:, The presented findings provide further understanding of the developmental psychology and psychopathology of adolescence and the service, intervention, and prevention needs of this age-group. [source]

    Toward a Psychology of Large-Scale Educational Achievement Testing: Some Features and Capabilities

    Steve Ferrara
    First page of article [source]

    Stakeholders in Comprehensive Validation of Standards-Based Assessments: A Commentary

    Linda Crocker
    Linda Cracker is a Professor of Educational Psychology, University ofFlorida, P.O. Box 11 7047 Gainesville, FL 32611-7043. Her areas of specialization are assessment development, validation, and test-taking behavior. [source]

    Notes on the origins of Epilepsia and the International League Against Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2009
    Simon D. Shorvon
    Summary The recent discovery of archival material has shed interesting light on the origins of Epilepsia and also the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The idea of an international journal devoted to epilepsy seems first to have arisen from talks between Dr. L. J. J. Muskens and Dr. W. Aldren Turner in 1905. A protracted series of subsequent letters between Muskens and a Haarlem publisher show how the idea slowly took shape. The committee of patronage, editorial board, and editorial assistants was probably first approached at the First International Congress of Psychiatry, Neurology, Psychology, and Nursing of the Insane, held in Amsterdam in 1907. At this meeting, the concept of an international organization to fight epilepsy (to become the ILAE) was also first proposed in public, again by Muskens. The concept of the ILAE was clearly modeled on another international organization,the International Commission for the Study of the Causes of Mental Diseases and Their Prophylaxis. This Commission had been first publicly proposed in 1906 by Ludwig Frank, at the Second International Congress for the Care and Treatment of the Insane. The proposed Commission and ILAE shared many features, aims, and personnel. Despite an auspicious start, the International Commission was prevented by personal and political differences from ever actually coming into being. However, the first issue of Epilepsia appeared in March 1909 and the ILAE was inaugurated in August 1909; and both have flourished and celebrate their centenaries this year. [source]

    Applied Developmental Psychology: Theory, Practice and Research from Japan.

    ETHOS, Issue 1 2010
    Barbara J. Shwalb., David W., Jun Nakazawa, Shwalb
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Bruner's Search for Meaning: A Conversation between Psychology and Anthropology

    ETHOS, Issue 1 2008
    Cheryl Mattingly
    The articles in this special issue situate Bruner's meaning-centered approach to psychology and his groundbreaking work on narrative in the broader context of the developmental trajectory of both of fields of inquiry. Bruner's work has been enormously influential in the subfields of cultural psychology and psychological anthropology, especially because of his important contributions to our understanding of the intimate relationship between culture and mind. We examine Bruner's past and ongoing engagement with such luminary figures as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Alfred Kroeber, Claude Lťvi-Strauss, and Clifford Geertz to highlight points of convergence and tension between his version of cultural psychology and contemporary theorizing and practice in psychological anthropology. We also review his practical and theoretical contributions to the fields of medicine, law, and education. [Jerome Bruner, cultural psychology, psychological anthropology, meaning, narrative, mind, culture] [source]

    Dream Play and Discovering Cultural Psychology

    ETHOS, Issue 2 2001
    Associate Professor Jeannette Marie Mageo
    Dream play is a method of dream analysis I crafted to help fathom the cultural psychology of Samoan dreams. Drawing on Samoan aptitude for performance, this method combines elements of Gestalt role-playing and Jungian active imagination. What I discovered through the method was a Samoan "kea complex," a bipolar constellation of ideas and feelings that reveals pivotal aspects of postcolonial psychocultural dynamics in Samoa and probably in other locations as well. This dynamic revolves around notions of relationality, engagement, and self that hybridize indigenous Samoan psychological schemata with Western Christian models of care. [source]

    Confabulation Views from Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Psychology and Philosophy

    K. A. Jellinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Consciousness Reconnected: Missing Links Between Self, Neuroscience, Psychology and the Arts

    K. A. Jellinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Discussion on ,Personality psychology as a truly behavioural science' by R. Michael Furr

    Article first published online: 14 JUL 200
    Yes We Can! A Plea for Direct Behavioural Observation in Personality Research MITJA D. BACK and BORIS EGLOFF Department of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany Furr's target paper (this issue) is thought to enhance the standing of personality psychology as a truly behavioural science. We wholeheartedly agree with this goal. In our comment we argue for more specific and ambitious requirements for behavioural personality research. Specifically, we show why behaviour should be observed directly. Moreover, we illustratively describe potentially interesting approaches in behavioural personality research: lens model analyses, the observation of multiple behaviours in diverse experimentally created situations and the observation of behaviour in real life. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Categories of Behaviour Should be Clearly Defined PETER BORKENAU Department of Psychology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany The target paper is helpful by clarifying the terminology as well as the strengths and weaknesses of several approaches to collect behavioural data. Insufficiently considered, however, is the clarity of the categories being used for the coding of behaviour. Evidence is reported showing that interjudge agreement for retrospective and even concurrent codings of behaviour does not execeed interjudge agreement for personality traits if the categories being used for the coding of behaviour are not clearly defined. By contrast, if the behaviour to be registered is unambiguously defined, interjudge agreement may be almost perfect. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviour Functions in Personality Psychology PHILIP J. CORR Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Furr's target paper highlights the importance, yet under-representation, of behaviour in published articles in personality psychology. Whilst agreeing with most of his points, I remain unclear as to how behaviour (as specifically defined by Furr) relates to other forms of psychological data (e.g. cognitive task performance). In addition, it is not clear how the functions of behaviour are to be decided: different behaviours may serve the same function; and identical behaviours may serve different functions. To clarify these points, methodological and theoretical aspects of Furr's proposal would benefit from delineation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. On the Difference Between Experience-Sampling Self-Reports and Other Self-Reports WILLIAM FLEESON Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Furr's fair but evaluative consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of behavioural assessment methods is a great service to the field. As part of his consideration, Furr makes a subtle and sophisticated distinction between different self-report methods. It is easy to dismiss all self-reports as poor measures, because some are poor. In contrast, Furr points out that the immediacy of the self-reports of behaviour in experience-sampling make experience-sampling one of the three strongest methods for assessing behaviour. This comment supports his conclusion, by arguing that ESM greatly diminishes one the three major problems afflicting self-reports,lack of knowledge,and because direct observations also suffer from the other two major problems afflicting self-reports. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What and Where is ,Behaviour' in Personality Psychology? LAURA A. KING and JASON TRENT Department of Psychology, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA Furr is to be lauded for presenting a coherent and persuasive case for the lack of behavioural data in personality psychology. While agreeing wholeheartedly that personality psychology could benefit from greater inclusion of behavioural variables, here we question two aspects of Furr's analysis, first his definition of behaviour and second, his evidence that behaviour is under-appreciated in personality psychology. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Naturalistic Observation of Daily Behaviour in Personality Psychology MATTHIAS R. MEHL Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA This comment highlights naturalistic observation as a specific method within Furr's (this issue) cluster direct behavioural observation and discusses the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) as a naturalistic observation sampling method that can be used in relatively large, nomothetic studies. Naturalistic observation with a method such as the EAR can inform researchers' understanding of personality in its relationship to daily behaviour in two important ways. It can help calibrate personality effects against act-frequencies of real-world behaviour and provide ecological, behavioural personality criteria that are independent of self-report. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Measuring Behaviour D. S. MOSKOWITZ and JENNIFER J. RUSSELL Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada Furr (this issue) provides an illuminating comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of various methods for assessing behaviour. In the selection of a method for assessing behaviour, there should be a careful analysis of the definition of the behaviour and the purpose of assessment. This commentary clarifies and expands upon some points concerning the suitability of experience sampling measures, referred to as Intensive Repeated Measurements in Naturalistic Settings (IRM-NS). IRM-NS measures are particularly useful for constructing measures of differing levels of specificity or generality, for providing individual difference measures which can be associated with multiple layers of contextual variables, and for providing measures capable of reflecting variability and distributional features of behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviours, Non-Behaviours and Self-Reports SAMPO V. PAUNONEN Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada Furr's (this issue) thoughtful analysis of the contemporary body of research in personality psychology has led him to two conclusions: our science does not do enough to study real, observable behaviours; and, when it does, too often it relies on ,weak' methods based on retrospective self-reports of behaviour. In reply, I note that many researchers are interested in going beyond the study of individual behaviours to the behaviour trends embodied in personality traits; and the self-report of behaviour, using well-validated personality questionnaires, is often the best measurement option. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. An Ethological Perspective on How to Define and Study Behaviour LARS PENKE Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK While Furr (this issue) makes many important contributions to the study of behaviour, his definition of behaviour is somewhat questionable and also lacks a broader theoretical frame. I provide some historical and theoretical background on the study of behaviour in psychology and biology, from which I conclude that a general definition of behaviour might be out of reach. However, psychological research can gain from adding a functional perspective on behaviour in the tradition of Tinbergens's four questions, which takes long-term outcomes and fitness consequences of behaviours into account. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What is a Behaviour? MARCO PERUGINI Faculty of Psychology, University of Milan,Bicocca, Milan, Italy The target paper proposes an interesting framework to classify behaviour as well as a convincing plea to use it more often in personality research. However, besides some potential issues in the definition of what is a behaviour, the application of the proposed definition to specific cases is at times inconsistent. I argue that this is because Furr attempts to provide a theory-free definition yet he implicitly uses theoretical considerations when applying the definition to specific cases. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Is Personality Really the Study of Behaviour? MICHAEL D. ROBINSON Department of Psychology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA Furr (this issue) contends that behavioural studies of personality are particularly important, have been under-appreciated, and should be privileged in the future. The present commentary instead suggests that personality psychology has more value as an integrative science rather than one that narrowly pursues a behavioural agenda. Cognition, emotion, motivation, the self-concept and the structure of personality are important topics regardless of their possible links to behaviour. Indeed, the ultimate goal of personality psychology is to understanding individual difference functioning broadly considered rather than behaviour narrowly considered. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Linking Personality and Behaviour Based on Theory MANFRED SCHMITT Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany My comments on Furr's (this issue) target paper ,Personality as a Truly Behavioural Science' are meant to complement his behavioural taxonomy and sharpen some of the presumptions and conclusions of his analysis. First, I argue that the relevance of behaviour for our field depends on how we define personality. Second, I propose that every taxonomy of behaviour should be grounded in theory. The quality of behavioural data does not only depend on the validity of the measures we use. It also depends on how well behavioural data reflect theoretical assumptions on the causal factors and mechanisms that shape behaviour. Third, I suggest that the quality of personality theories, personality research and behavioural data will profit from ideas about the psychological processes and mechanisms that link personality and behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Apparent Objectivity of Behaviour is Illusory RYNE A. SHERMAN, CHRISTOPHER S. NAVE and DAVID C. FUNDER Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA It is often presumed that objective measures of behaviour (e.g. counts of the number of smiles) are more scientific than more subjective measures of behaviour (e.g. ratings of the degree to which a person behaved in a cheerful manner). We contend that the apparent objectivity of any behavioural measure is illusory. First, the reliability of more subjective measures of behaviour is often strikingly similar to the reliabilities of so-called objective measures. Further, a growing body of literature suggests that subjective measures of behaviour provide more valid measures of psychological constructs of interest. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Personality and Behaviour: A Neglected Opportunity? LIAD UZIEL and ROY F. BAUMEISTER Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Personality psychology has neglected the study of behaviour. Furr's efforts to provide a stricter definition of behaviour will not solve the problem, although they may be helpful in other ways. His articulation of various research strategies for studying behaviour will be more helpful for enabling personality psychology to contribute important insights and principles about behaviour. The neglect of behaviour may have roots in how personality psychologists define the mission of their field, but expanding that mission to encompass behaviour would be a positive step. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Moral Psychology and Expressivism

    Robert Dunn
    First page of article [source]

    Books and Materials Reviews

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2001
    Article first published online: 19 FEB 200
    Baumeister, R. F. (Ed.). (1999). The Self in Social Psychology. Carter, B., & McGoldrick, M. (1999). The Expanded Family Life Cycle: Individual, Family, and Social Perspectives. Dwyer, D. (2000). Interpersonal Relationships. Knauer, S. (2000). No Ordinary Life: Parenting the Sexually Abused Child and Adolescent. McNair-Blatt, S. (2000). A Guidebook for Raising Foster Children. Stafford-Upshaw, F., & Myers-Walls, J. A. (1999). Learning Centers in Child Care Settings. Seymour, S. C. (1999). Women, Family and Child Care in India: A World in Transition. Berger, R. (1998). Stepfamilies: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective. [source]

    Learning from research on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals: a review of the literature 2004,2008 with a focus on emotion

    Ina Fourie
    Objective:, A review, focusing on emotion, was conducted of reported studies on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals (2004,2008). Findings were intended to offer guidelines on information services and information literacy training, to note gaps in research and to raise research interest. Method:, Databases were searched for literature published from January 2004 to December 2008 and indexed on eric, Library and Information Science Abstracts, medline, PsycINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts; Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection; Social Work Abstracts; SocINDEX with Full Text; SPORTDiscus; cinhal; and the ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Key journals were manually scanned and citations followed. Literature was included if reporting on issues concerning emotion. Results:, Emotion in information behaviour in healthcare contexts is scantily addressed. This review, however, offers some insight into the difficulty in identifying and expressing information needs; sense making and the need to fill knowledge gaps; uncertainty; personality and coping skills; motivation to seeking information; emotional experiences during information seeking; self-confidence and attitude; emotional factors in the selection of information channels; and seeking information for psychological or emotional reasons. Conclusion:, Suggestions following findings, address information literacy programs, information services and research gaps. [source]

    Transitory Connections: The Reception and Rejection of Jean Piaget's Psychology in the Nursery School Movement in the 1920s and 1930s

    Barbara Beatty
    First page of article [source]

    Psychology at High School in Late Imperial Russia (1881,1917)

    Andy Byford
    First page of article [source]

    Brown -ing the American Textbook: History, Psychology, and the Origins of Modem Multiculturalism

    Jonathan Zimmerman
    First page of article [source]