Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Psychologists

  • clinical psychologist
  • cognitive psychologist
  • community psychologist
  • developmental psychologist
  • educational psychologist
  • health psychologist
  • many psychologist
  • personality psychologist
  • social psychologist

  • Selected Abstracts


    Eric Wiland
    In particular, Michael Smith and Nomy Arpaly have in different ways related the notion of advice to the notion of a reason for action. Here I argue that both accounts are flawed, because each operates with a simplistic picture of the way advice works. I conclude that it would be wise to take more time to analyze what advice is and how it in fact works, before putting it to particular philosophical uses. [source]


    The purpose of this multilevel study was to test whether regulatory focus mechanisms (promotion focus and prevention focus; Higgins, 1997, American Psychologist, 52, 1280,1300; Higgins, 2000, American Psychologist, 55, 1217,1230) can help explain how group safety climate and individual differences in Conscientiousness relate to individual productivity and safety performance. Results, based on a sample of 254 employees from 50 work groups, showed that safety climate and conscientiousness predicted promotion and prevention regulatory focus, which in turn mediated the relationships of safety climate and Conscientiousness with supervisor ratings of productivity and safety performance. Implications for theory and research on climate, motivation, and performance and avenues for future research are discussed. [source]

    A survey investigating school psychologists' measurement of treatment integrity in school-based interventions and their beliefs about its importance

    Wendy S. Cochrane
    A survey of individuals holding the Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) credential was conducted via the Internet to gather information regarding their measurement of treatment integrity in school-based interventions and their beliefs about its importance. A sample of 806 self-selected professionals holding the NCSP credential provided data about the extent to which they measure treatment integrity and the methods they used to measure it when developing interventions via one-to-one and group/team consultation. Results showed that 97.6% agreed that measurement of treatment integrity was a key factor to consider and to include when evaluating interventions and when using intervention data for special education eligibility decisions. Few, however, reported regularly documenting it in one-to-one (only 11.3%) or group/team consultation (only 1.9%). Recommendations for how school psychologists and other school staff can increase their measurement of treatment integrity in school-based interventions are offered. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    The Vulnerability and sexual abuse of people with learning disabilities

    Nicholas Guy Peckham
    Accessible summary ,,People with learning disabilities are more likely to experience sexual things happening to them when they do not want them to. This is called sexual abuse. ,,A group was started to help some women who have been sexually abused. ,,Women who wanted to attend the group were given information about it and asked on three separate occasions if they wanted to attend. Their carers helped them and went to a different group upstairs in the same building. ,,We found that the group helped the women feel less scared and depressed and helped the women's carers understand them better. ,,This research matters because it helped the women move on with their lives and will help others who want to start a group. Summary In his capacity as a Clinical Psychologist the author provides psychological support to people with learning disabilities living in hospital and in the community. Frequently, the problem behaviour highlighted in referral letters (such as sexualized behaviour, anger management or self-harm) is formulated as relating to a past history of abuse and neglect which they had experienced. In view of increasing client referrals and a limited research literature the author established a small team, developed and then piloted a survivors' group for women with a learning disability. The pilot achieved ethical approval and the survivors' group ran concurrently with an educational support group for their carers. For more details about this pilot study see Peckham (2005)Developing, delivering and evaluating a survivors group pilot in Northumberland for women with significant learning disabilities who have been sexually abused. Unpublished DClinPsych Thesis, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne; and Peckham et al. (2007). These articles summarize the research literature in the area of sexual abuse and describe, in detail, the problem of delivering and evaluating a survivors' group for women with learning disabilities. [source]

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorder in children attending a school for pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties

    Elizabeth Cassidy
    The research presented in this article suggests that young people attending schools for pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties are more likely to experience concurrent psychiatric disorders (comorbidity) than their peers in mainstream schools. Dr Cassidy (Consultant in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry), Dr James (Consultant and Honorary Senior Lecturer in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry) and Dr Wiggs (Research Psychologist) used questionnaires and interviews with parents and teachers, together with pupil self-reporting, to gather their data. The two-stage investigation suggested that 89% of the adolescents in one school for pupils with EBD met established criteria for the diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) emerged as the most common psychiatric difficulties, but emotional disorders were also prominent in the data. These untreated problems are likely to have significant long-term implications for the psychological and educational development of the pupils concerned, and the authors speculate on some of the ways in which psychiatric and education services might work together in order to improve the outlook. [source]

    The clinical psychologist's role in the OOKP clinic.

    A one year review
    OOKP Surgery places complex Physical and Psychological demands on patients. Attention to Psychological factors is likely to facilitate good outcome and improve Quality of Life. This presentation outlines an innovative addition to the OOKP service at Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton UK, incorporating a Clinical Psychologist as a member of the OOKP medical team. It will describe the first year's work including a study which has identified four subgroups of patients presenting for OOKP and the psychological needs of each group. The presentation describes how the service aims to address the particular psychological needs of these patient groups from assessment to psychological follow up. The presentation will also include a summary of a second Qualitative Interview study looking at patients' reports of their experiences of undergoing OOKP from a bio-psychosocial perspective. The National Health Service, UK seeks to use patient experience and feedback to shape clinical services and the implications of the outcomes of the research for the service will be discussed. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2007
    Steven K. Erickson
    Psychologists are frequently consulted by the courts to provide forensic evaluations in a variety of family court proceedings. As part of their evaluations, psychologists often use psychological tests to assess parents, guardians, and children. These tests can have profound effects on how psychologists arrive at their opinions and are often cited in their reports to the court. However, psychological tests vary substantially in their suitability for these purposes. Most projective tests in particular appear to possess little scientific merit for evaluations within family court proceedings. Despite these serious limitations, expert testimony derived from evaluations using both projective and objective tests is often admitted uncontested. This article reviews the psychometric properties of psychological tests that are widely used in family court proceedings, cautions against their unfettered use, and calls upon attorneys to inform themselves of the limitations of evaluations that incorporate these tests. [source]

    Psychogastroenterology: a call for psychological input in Australian gastroenterology clinics

    A. Mikocka-Walus
    Abstract Gastroenterologists should be able to refer patients directly to psychologists with full Medicare reimbursement. Psychological comorbidities are frequently seen in patients with gastrointestinal conditions. However, time pressure and lack of expertise in non-medical therapies of psychological problems prevent gastroenterologists from initiating psychological treatment although such treatment may improve patients' outcomes and reduce health-care utilization. Psychologists are needed as part of the multidisciplinary team in gastroenterology clinics in Australia to take the leading role in the psychological management of those patients by contributing to screening, faster diagnosis and treatment of depression and anxiety disorders in particular. [source]

    Comparison of the WAIS-III and WISC-IV in 16-Year-Old Special Education Students

    Shirley Gordon
    Background, Previous research with earlier versions of the WISC and WAIS has demonstrated that when administered to people who have intellectual disabilities, the WAIS produced higher IQ scores than the WISC. The aim of this study was to examine whether these differences still exist. A comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale , Third Edition (WAIS-III) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children , Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was conducted with individuals who were 16 years old and receiving special education. Materials and Methods, All participants completed the WAIS-III (UK) and WISC-IV (UK). The order of administration was counterbalanced; the mean Full Scale IQ and Index scores on the WAIS-III and WISC-IV were compared. Results, The WAIS-III mean Full Scale IQ was 11.82 points higher than the mean Full Scale IQ score on the WISC-IV. Significant differences were also found between the Verbal Comprehension Index, Perceptual Reasoning/Organization Index and Processing Speed Index on the WAIS-III and WISC-IV, all with the WAIS-III scoring higher. Conclusions, The findings suggest that the WAIS-III produces higher scores than the WISC-IV in people with intellectual disabilities. This has implications for definitions of intellectual disability and suggests that Psychologists should be cautious when interpreting and reporting IQ scores on the WAIS-III and WISC-IV. [source]

    Heavy Metal, identity and the social negotiation of a community of practice

    Dave Snell
    Abstract Psychologists have raised concerns about Heavy Metal music and possible links with substance misuse and youth suicide. This paper moves beyond this traditional disciplinary focus on negative messages to document the media-related practices through which a Heavy Metal community is negotiated. Six participants contributed to ethnographic observations, interviews and photo-voice projects. Results illustrate how socio-material practices such as dressing a certain way, frequenting a bar and dancing are central to community maintenance and the reaffirmation of shared identities. Findings highlight the need for community psychology research to document the material and symbolic nature of contemporary communal life. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ethical Issues for Psychologists in Pain Management

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2001
    Mary Lou Taylor PhD
    Pain management is relatively young as a specialty. Although increasing attention is being paid to issues such as pain at the end of life and pain in underserved populations, only recently has an open discussion of ethical issues in chronic pain treatment come to the fore. Psychologists specializing in pain management are faced with a myriad of ethical issues. Although many of these problems are similar to those faced by general clinical psychologists or other health psychologists, they are often made more complex by the multidisciplinary nature of pain management and by the psychologists' relationships to third-party payers (health maintenance organizations, workers' compensation), attorneys, or other agencies. An open forum exploring ethical issues is needed. This article outlines major ethical considerations faced by pain management psychologists, including patient autonomy and informed consent, confidentiality, reimbursement and dual relationships, patient abandonment, assessment for medical procedures, clinical research, and the interface of psychology and medicine. American Psychological Association ethical principles and principles of biomedical ethics need to be considered in ethical decision making. Further exploration and discussion of ethics for pain management psychologists are recommended. [source]

    Innovative Ways to Address the Mental Health and Medical Needs of Marginalized Patients: Collaborations Between Family Physicians, Family Therapists, and Family Psychologists

    Warren L. Holleman PhD
    This article describes an innovative program to meet the needs of homeless women, children, and families residing at a transitional living center in an urban setting. The program involves collaboration between medical and mental health professionals to address the multiple problems and unmet needs of this population. Recommendations for future work in expanding collaborative practice are discussed. [source]

    Historically Black Colleges and University students' and faculties' views of school psychology: Implications for increasing diversity in higher education,

    Scott L. Graves Jr.
    This study investigates Historically Black Colleges and University (HBCU) students' and faculties' knowledge related to school psychology. A total of 165 students and 14 faculty members completed inventories that assessed the understanding and views of various psychological disciplines. Results indicated that HBCU students rated their perceived knowledge of school psychology significantly lower than all psychological disciplines. In addition, these students have significantly fewer sources of information for school psychology than comparable disciplines. Although more than 90% of students stated that they would attend graduate school, the majority was only somewhat interested in school psychology as a career choice. Furthermore, HBCU psychology faculty members stated that the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists do not actively recruit or provide information to their students. Results are discussed in terms of increasing the number of African American school psychologists. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Grade retention: Current decision-making practices and involvement of school psychologists working in public schools

    Britton L. Schnurr
    Research examining student outcomes (e.g., achievement, adjustment) after grade retention reveals that it does not result in long-term improvements for students; however, grade retention continues to be used as an intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine retention decision-making practices, as well as school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, and opinions regarding retention. Actual and ideal roles of school psychologists in grade retention decisions were also examined. Participants included 250 school psychologists randomly selected from the membership of the National Association of School Psychologists. Results revealed that the decision to retain is a subjective one, typically made by a team. Responding school psychologists did not support retention and found the research moderately applicable to practice. However, most school psychologists indicated that they were not centrally involved in decision making. Findings also revealed a desire among school psychologists for increased involvement in developing and/or implementing programs aimed at improving performance and consulting on the effects of retention. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Suicide intervention: Training, roles, and knowledge of school psychologists

    Jennifer Debski
    Practitioner-members of the National Association of School Psychologists (N = 162) completed questionnaires regarding their suicide prevention and postvention roles, training, preparedness, and knowledge. Most were crisis team members, yet less than one-half reported graduate training in suicide risk assessment and less than one-fourth in postvention. Compared to nondoctoral-level practitioners, doctoral-trained practitioners felt better prepared to handle suicidal students. Most respondents had participated in a suicide risk assessment in the past 2 years, with few using standardized measures. Performance was moderately strong on questions about knowledge of risk factors, warning signs, and appropriate steps to respond to a suicidal student, but respondents showed less familiarity with postvention recommendations intended to discourage contagion. Training suggestions were identified. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 44: 157,170, 2007. [source]

    Cognitive-existential group psychotherapy for women with primary breast cancer: A randomised controlled trial

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    David W. Kissane
    Background. We conducted a randomised, controlled trial of cognitive-existential group therapy (CEGT) for women with early stage breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with the aim of improving mood and mental attitude to cancer. Methods. Women were randomised to 20 sessions of weekly group therapy plus 3 relaxation classes or to a control arm receiving 3 relaxation classes. Assessments, independently done at baseline, 6 and 12 months, included a structured psychiatric interview and validated questionnaires covering mood, attitudes to cancer, family relationships, and satisfaction with therapy. Results. Three hundred and three of 491 (62%) eligible patients participated over 3 years. Distress was high pre-intervention: 10% were diagnosed as suffering from major depression, 27% from minor depression and 9% from anxiety disorders. On an intention-to-treat analysis, there was a trend for those receiving group therapy (n=154) to have reduced anxiety (p=0.05, 2-sided) compared to controls (n=149). Women in group therapy also showed a trend towards improved family functioning compared to controls (p=0.07, 2-sided). The women in the groups reported greater satisfaction with their therapy (p<0.001, 2-sided), appreciating the support and citing better coping, self-growth and increased knowledge about cancer and its treatment. They valued the CEGT therapy. Overall effect size for the group intervention was small (d=0.25), with cancer recurrence having a deleterious effect in three of the 19 therapy groups. Psychologists as a discipline achieved a moderate mean effect size (d=0.52). Conclusion. CEGT is a useful adjuvant psychological therapy for women with early stage breast cancer. Interaction effects between group members and therapists are relevant to outcome. Group-as-a-whole effects are powerful, but the training and experience of the therapist is especially critical to an efficacious outcome. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Psychologists and the Use of Torture in Interrogations

    Mark Costanzo
    This article argues that psychologists should not be involved in interrogations that make use of torture or other forms of cruel, inhumane, or degrading treatment. The use of torture is first evaluated in light of professional ethics codes and international law. Next, research on interrogations and false confessions is reviewed and its relevance for torture-based interrogations is explored. Finally, research on the negative mental health consequences of torture for survivors and perpetrators is summarized. Based on our review, we conclude that psychologists' involvement in designing, assisting with, or participating in interrogations that make use of torture or other forms of cruel, inhumane, or degrading treatment is a violation of fundamental ethical principles, a violation of international and domestic law, and an ineffective means of extracting reliable information. Torture produces severe and lasting trauma as well as other negative consequences for individuals and for the societies that support it. The article concludes with several recommendations about how APA and other professional organizations should respond to the involvement of psychologists in interrogations that make use of torture or other forms of cruel, inhumane, or degrading treatment. [source]

    Commentary on "Psychologists and the Use of Torture in Interrogations"

    Stephen H. Behnke
    First page of article [source]

    Meaningful Voices: How Psychologists, Speaking as Psychologists, Can Inform Social Policy

    David M. Frost
    Kitzinger and Wilkinson (2004) posit that social advocacy can be argued for within both a discourse of equal rights and a discourse of mental health. They suggest that psychological evidence, because it is bound to a discourse of mental health, is currently not useful in advancing the campaigns for equal marriage rights. In our response to their argument, we (1) agree that the currently available psychological evidence is limited; (2) make the case that it is still important for psychologists to produce evidence that speaks to this debate; and (3) suggest how psychologists, still speaking as psychologists, can produce evidence that speaks to this debate through underutilized theoretical and methodological approaches to relevant issues. The authors analyze a key statement by United States President George W. Bush on the meaning of marriage and the available psychological literature on same-sex relationships to support their position. [source]

    Parenting plan evaluation standards and guidelines for psychologists: Setting the frame

    Mary Connell Ed.D.
    This article explores how various sources of authority interact to govern psychologists' parenting plan evaluations (child custody evaluations), and remedies that are available when an evaluation is poorly conducted. The law in some jurisdictions may establish specific elements to be included in such evaluations; the professional associations to which psychologists belong may set forth enforceable standards, aspirational guidelines, and white papers; and learned treatises may describe ideal practices. Psychologists may rely on these sources of authority to shape their evaluations, and, finally, may consult with colleagues for guidance. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    On Genes, Brains, and Behavior: Why Should Developmental Psychologists Care About Brain Development?

    Joan Stiles
    Abstract, The past several decades have seen tremendous progress in understanding mammalian brain development. The models that have emerged suggest that this development is dynamic and, from the very beginning, involves the continuous interaction of genetic, organismic, and environmental factors. The central question posed in this article is whether these models of brain development should be of import to developmental psychologists. It is argued that the key debates in psychology are founded on assumptions that are integrally related to questions of biology and biological inheritance. The construct of innateness, in particular, is central to these debates, and the biological system most critically implicated in claims about innate behaviors is the brain. However, as this article attempts to show, the underlying assumptions of contemporary psychological models reflect largely outdated ideas about what it means for something to be innate. Contemporary models of brain development challenge the foundational constructs of the nature versus nurture formulation, emphasizing that the processes of brain development engage both inherited and environmental factors and rely upon their continuous interaction. These models also emphasize that the relationship between brain and behavioral development is one of interdependence and reciprocity: Behaviors influence brain development and the brain mediates all behavior. Thus, the key to understanding the origins and emergence of both the brain and behavior lies in understanding how genetic, organismic, and environmental factors are engaged in the dynamic and interactive processes that define development of the neurobehavioral system. [source]

    Probing Predispositions: The Pragmatism of a Process Perspective

    David S. Moore
    Abstract, As J. P. Spencer et al. (2009) argue, the theories of some developmental psychologists continue to be nativistic, even though nativism is an inherently nondevelopmental school of thought. Psychologists interested in development study the emergence of human characteristics,including predispositions,and are not content to simply catalogue competences that characterize human newborns; instead, they recognize that all human characteristics, including those present at birth, reflect the circumstances of development. A truly developmental science of behavior requires rejecting the nativism,empiricism debate outright, abandoning ideas such as "core knowledge" and psychological "endowments," and adopting a process perspective that focuses on how traits emerge from the co-actions of biological and experiential factors. Unlike nativism, the process perspective advocated by J. P. Spencer et al. encourages research that can reveal the developmental origins of psychological characteristics of interest. [source]

    Creating a Culture of Self-Care

    Jeffrey E. Barnett
    Psychologists are vulnerable to the effects of distress, which if left unchecked may lead to burnout, vicarious traumatization, and impaired professional competence. Smith and Moss (2009) provide a convincing call to action for the profession of psychology to give adequate attention to these important issues. This commentary adds to their excellent review and provides specific recommendations for individual psychologists for those who train graduate students, and for professional associations. A rationale is provided for the recommendations made and further guidance is provided for creating a culture of self-care in the profession of psychology. The importance of this approach as an ethical imperative is presented and strategies and recommendations are provided. [source]

    Wellness and Impairment: Moving Beyond Noble Us and Troubled Them

    Glenn E. Good
    Psychologists tend to view wellness and impairment in dangerous dualities. In actuality, our level of functioning varies continuously due to multiple factors. We examine factors influencing psychologists' level of functioning, and offer recommendations for individuals and the profession. In addition, we explore topics too often considered taboo in discussions of psychologist impairment, such as depression and suicide, with the hope that such discussions can help prevent future problems. In sum, wellness and impairment should not be viewed as an "Us and Them" issue, but rather as an "Us and When" issue. [source]

    Comorbidity and Psychological Science: Does One Size Fit All?

    Nancy A. Piotrowski
    Psychologists need a thorough understanding of comorbidity involving physical health, substance use, and other mental health problems for clinical research, practice, and training. Comorbidity affects case management from treatment entry through follow-up, touching the work of psychologists in all related settings and at varying levels of training. Conceptualizations of comorbidity, however, are heterogeneous and may vary by training and employment experiences and settings. As such, there is a need to examine the concept of comorbidity more methodically. This article argues that current knowledge and developing language challenges a one-size-fits-all approach to comorbidity. The article outlines and discusses relevant considerations for research, treatment, and training regarding comorbidity. [source]

    Overcoming Barriers to Increase the Contribution of Clinical Psychologists to Work With Persons With Severe Mental Illness

    David Roe
    Psychosocial treatments for persons with severe mental illness (SMI) have been developing rapidly over the past decade. Despite the fact that people with SMI are often in the greatest need of care, clinical psychologists are not currently playing a major role in their treatment and are underrepresented compared to other disciplines in this area such as nursing, social work, and psychiatry. In this article, we present possible reasons for clinical psychologists' underrepresentation and discuss motivators, potential opportunities, and ways for clinical psychologists to take a greater role in the provision of services for persons with SMI. Implications for the training of clinical psychologists are discussed. [source]

    It Is Time for a Moratorium on Legislation Enabling Prescription Privileges for Psychologists

    Elaine M. Heiby
    The prescription privileges proposal may be one of the most widely debated and divisive issues organized psychology has ever faced. I argue that the concerns raised and evidence presented by Robiner et al. in this issue's article opposing prescription privileges justify an immediate review of American Psychological Association (APA) policy on prescription privileges and an accompanying moratorium on enabling legislation. It is critical that both basic and applied psychologists appreciate that the proposal is not just a professional and consumer protection issue, but fundamentally a training issue that would overhaul the nature of the entire discipline. Concerns raised include the viability of university-based departments of psychology and thereby the maintenance of psychological science and its evidence-based applications. [source]

    Conceptualizing Religion and Spirituality: Points of Commonality, Points of Departure

    Peter C. Hill
    Psychologists' emerging interest in spirituality and religion as well as the relevance of each phenomenon to issues of psychological importance requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of each construct. On the basis of both historical considerations and a limited but growing empirical literature, we caution against viewing spirituality and religiousness as incompatible and suggest that the common tendency to polarize the terms simply as individual vs. institutional or ,good, vs. ,bad, is not fruitful for future research. Also cautioning against the use of restrictive, narrow definitions or overly broad definitions that can rob either construct of its distinctive characteristics, we propose a set of criteria that recognizes the constructs' conceptual similarities and dissimilarities. Rather than trying to force new and likely unsuccessful definitions, we offer these criteria as benchmarks for judging the value of existing definitions. [source]

    Responding to society's needs: Prescription privileges for psychologists

    Mary Ann Norfleet
    The health care revolution has contributed to the natural evolution of the role of psychologists. This has led to the necessity for future psychologists to have the authority to prescribe psychotropic medications in order to offer the best-available, comprehensive treatment to the public. Psychologists' training gives them a unique role in addressing the psychosocial aspects of medical problems, in collaboration with primary-care physicians. Prescribing psychologists are cost-effective, many practice in rural areas where people have no other access to mental health care, and they will be able to treat other underserved populations such as the poor, the elderly, the chronically mentally ill, children, and prisoners in the criminal justice system. Prescribing psychologists will have an increasingly prominent role in future health care policy decisions and practice. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 58: 599,610, 2002. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    This study analyzes the work of William H. Sheldon, the psychologist, physician, and advocate of the study of body types. It investigates how he arrived at his much-repeated finding that a correlation exists between mesomorphy (a stocky, muscular body build) and delinquency and how his ideas were validated and perpetuated. It reviews what Sheldon actually said about the causes of crime; identifies his goals in searching for a relationship between body shape and criminality; explains how he found audiences for his biological theory at a time when sociological approaches dominated criminology; and attempts to understand the current criminological ambivalence about the scientific status of Sheldon's work, despite its discreditation decades ago. I argue that the tripartite structure of Sheldon's thought attracted three different audiences,methodologists, social scientists, and supporters,and that it encouraged the supporters to fund his research without reference to the critiques of the social scientists. I also argue that somatotyping was part of a broader antimodernist reaction within international scientific communities against the dislocations of twentieth-century life. To understand the origins, acceptance, and maintenance of criminological ideas, we need a historical perspective on figures of the past. Positivism may inform us about what is true and false, but we also need to know how truth and falsity have been constructed over time and how the ideas of earlier criminologists were shaped by their personal and social contexts. [source]