Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Psychological

  • psychological abuse
  • psychological adaptation
  • psychological adjustment
  • psychological aggression
  • psychological approach
  • psychological aspect
  • psychological assessment
  • psychological association
  • psychological barrier
  • psychological benefit
  • psychological burden
  • psychological capital
  • psychological care
  • psychological challenge
  • psychological change
  • psychological characteristic
  • psychological comfort
  • psychological comorbidity
  • psychological concept
  • psychological condition
  • psychological consequence
  • psychological construct
  • psychological consultation
  • psychological contract
  • psychological contract breach
  • psychological control
  • psychological correlate
  • psychological counselling
  • psychological data
  • psychological demand
  • psychological development
  • psychological difficulty
  • psychological dimension
  • psychological discomfort
  • psychological disorders
  • psychological distance
  • psychological distress
  • psychological distress scale
  • psychological disturbance
  • psychological domain
  • psychological dysfunction
  • psychological effects
  • psychological empowerment
  • psychological engagement
  • psychological evaluation
  • psychological evidence
  • psychological experience
  • psychological factor
  • psychological feature
  • psychological finding
  • psychological first aid
  • psychological function
  • psychological functioning
  • psychological growth
  • psychological harm
  • psychological health
  • psychological help
  • psychological impact
  • psychological intervention
  • psychological inventory
  • psychological issues
  • psychological job demand
  • psychological literature
  • psychological meaning
  • psychological measure
  • psychological mechanism
  • psychological models
  • psychological morbidity
  • psychological need
  • psychological need satisfaction
  • psychological outcome
  • psychological ownership
  • psychological perspective
  • psychological phenomenoN
  • psychological practice
  • psychological problem
  • psychological process
  • psychological profile
  • psychological reaction
  • psychological recovery
  • psychological research
  • psychological resource
  • psychological response
  • psychological safety
  • psychological science
  • psychological screening
  • psychological sequelae
  • psychological services
  • psychological significance
  • psychological state
  • psychological states
  • psychological status
  • psychological stress
  • psychological stressor
  • psychological structure
  • psychological studies
  • psychological study
  • psychological support
  • psychological symptom
  • psychological term
  • psychological test
  • psychological testing
  • psychological theory
  • psychological therapy
  • psychological trauma
  • psychological treatment
  • psychological variable
  • psychological well-being
  • psychological wellbeing

  • Selected Abstracts

    Postpartum depression without delivering a child?

    G. Manfredi
    Objective:, Depression in people related to delivering women is documented in their mates, but only anecdotal in other family members. We describe a case of depression in a woman who had previously experienced postpartum depression after the birth of her nephew. Method:, A clinical description of the case. Results:, A 53-year-old woman, hysterectomized at age 47 years, was admitted for attempted suicide. She developed major depressive episode 1 month after her daughter had delivered a son. She had a past history of two postpartum depressive episodes clinically identical to the current episode. The episode resolved after 5 weeks. At 1-year follow-up, the patient is still asymptomatic. Conclusion:, Psychological and cultural factors were at play in this case more than hormonal and biopsychosocial ones. [source]

    Psychological and emotional aspects of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    T. Kamolz
    SUMMARY. A synergy exists between the psychological and physiological aspects of esophageal and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Based on a biopsychosocial model of disease, several multidisciplinary concepts of interventions in gastrointestinal disorders have been evaluated. The role of psychological factors in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been under study. This article reviews psychological and emotional factors influencing GERD symptoms and treatment. [source]

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents with bulimia nervosa,

    G. Terence Wilson
    Abstract Psychological and pharmacological treatments for bulimia nervosa (BN) have been studied extensively in adults, but there are no published controlled treatment studies of adolescents with BN. One option for treating adolescents with BN is to adapt cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for younger individuals. The rationale for developing CBT for adolescents with BN is three-fold: the efficacy of CBT for adult patients with BN, the efficacy of CBT in treating adolescents with other clinical disorders, and the conceptual fit between CBT and adolescent eating disorders. CBT should be tailored to the treatment of adolescents, with particular focus on domains of development, including: motivation, cognitive processing, interpersonal functioning, and family involvement. A recently described new version of CBT for BN (Fairburn, Cooper, & Shafran, 2003) is well-suited for adapting manual-based CBT from adults to adolescents. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of CBT for the treatment of adolescents with BN and related eating disorders. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Evaluation of the impact of information about treatment-related risks in patients receiving blood-derived or recombinant medications

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2004
    D. Magli-Barioz
    Summary., The aims of the study were to evaluate the impact of a written information about treatment related risks in patient receiving blood derived or recombinant medications. Haemophiliac patients and patients with constitutional or acquired immune deficiencies are concerned by this treatment and these information. Our objectives are to evaluate the efficacy of the written information, the knowledge of the patients about these medications and the psychological, emotional impact if these information. The study is based on questionnaires which specified how the patient treat bleeding episodes, their knowledge about viral safety of blood products, the patient's perception of his or her health status and relationship with the physician. Psychological and emotional status are evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The results show the difficulty to inform patients: if the information generate only limited anxiety in patients with haemophilia or immune deficiencies, we observe that the delivery of a written information got a mediocre effect on overall knowledge. We think that this information must be appropriate for patients and be communicated orally within the patient,physician relationship. [source]

    Psychological and social issues

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 4 2002
    Article first published online: 19 MAY 200
    First page of article [source]

    Psychological and psychophysiological considerations regarding the maternal,fetal relationship

    Janet A. DiPietro
    Abstract The earliest relationship does not begin with birth. Pregnant women construct mental representations of the fetus, and the feelings of affiliation or ,maternal,fetal attachment' generally increase over the course of gestation. While there is a fairly substantial literature on the development and moderation of psychological features of the maternal,fetal relationship, including the role of ultrasound imaging, relatively little is known about the manner in which maternal psychological functioning influences the fetus. Dispositional levels of maternal stress and anxiety are modestly associated with aspects of fetal heart rate and motor activity. Both induced maternal arousal and relaxation generate fairly immediate alterations to fetal neurobehaviors; the most consistently observed fetal response to changes in maternal psychological state involves suppression of motor activity. These effects may be mediated, in part, by an orienting response of the fetus to changes in the intrauterine environment. Conversely, there is evidence that fetal behaviors elicit maternal physiological responses. Integration of this finding into a more dynamic model of the maternal,fetal dyad, and implications for the postnatal relationship are discussed. Research on the period before birth affords tremendous opportunity for developmental scientists to advance understanding of the origins of the human attachment. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The effect of tadalafil on psychosocial outcomes in Swedish men with erectile distress: a multicentre, non-randomised, open-label clinical study

    Summary A multicentre, non-randomised, open-label study assessed whether personal distress caused by erectile dysfunction (ED) affected psychosocial outcomes of tadalafil treatment. Eligible Swedish men at least 18 years old reporting ,3-month history of ED were stratified into two groups (manifest or mild/no distress) based upon a distress question administered at enrolment. Tadalafil 20 mg was taken as needed for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the difference between the two distress groups in change from baseline in the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales (PAIRS) spontaneity domain. Secondary outcome measures were PAIRS sexual self-confidence and time concerns domains, Life Satisfaction (LiSat-11) checklist and a Global Assessment of Treatment Response. The study also assessed tolerability. Of 662 men enrolled, 88% had manifest distress and 12% had mild/no distress. Baseline-to-endpoint changes for PAIRS domains were not significantly different between groups. Baseline-to-endpoint changes in LiSat-11 items were not significantly different between groups except for satisfaction with sexual life. Compared with men without ED, below normal baseline satisfaction with partner relationship and family life were normalised at endpoint. Over 90% of men reported improved erection and ability to engage in sexual activity. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were headache, myalgia, dyspepsia, flushing and back pain. One man discontinued because of myalgia; 630 (95%) completed the study. In conclusion, erectile distress levels vary among patients with ED and distress can affect intra-familiar aspects of life, which may have implications for clinical practise. However, distress does not appear to hinder improvement in both mechanical and psychosocial outcomes of tadalafil treatment. [source]

    Handbook of Dementia: Psychological, Neurological and Psychiatric Perspectives.

    Alan M. Mellow., Daniel L. Murman, Edited by Peter A. Lichtenberg
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Rethinking Crowd Violence: Self-Categorization Theory and the Woodstock 1999 Riot

    According to self-categorization theory (SCT), incidents of crowd violence can be understood as discrete forms of social action, limited by the crowd's social identity. Through an analysis of the riot at Woodstock 1999, this paper explores the uses and limitations of SCT in order to reach a more complex psychology of crowd behavior, particularly those instances that appear unmotivated, irrational, and destructive. Psychological and sociological literature are synthesized to explore the role of communication in establishing social norms within the crowd. Several modifications to current crowd psychology are proposed, including a false consensus effect of motivation and the mediation of personal and social identities. [source]

    Assisted Human Reproduction, Psychological and Ethical Dilemmas

    Sue Snoxall
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The impact of residential context on adolescents' Subjective Well being

    Elvira Cicognani
    Abstract The study investigates the impact of residential context on stressful events and Subjective Well being (Emotional and Psychological) in young people living in a deprived geographical area, and the mediating role of personal (Self-Efficacy) and social (Social Support, Sense of Community) variables. A questionnaire was submitted to 297 subjects (48.5% males): 203 adolescents (14,19 years old) and 94 young adults (20,27 years old), from different socio-economic (SES) levels. Results confirm the significant impact of the residential context on youngsters' perceived residential quality, Stress and Subjective Well being outcomes; such effect partly differs according to participants' gender and age. Adolescents are less satisfied of their living context and enjoy lower well being than young adults. Social resources (Friend and Family Support) significantly buffer the effect of a deprived residential context of youngsters' Well being, whereas personal resources (Self-Efficacy) directly increase Well being levels. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    On the meaning of meaning when being mean: commentary on Berkowitz's "On the Consideration of Automatic as Well as Controlled Psychological Processes in Aggression"

    Kenneth A. Dodge
    Abstract Berkowitz (this issue) makes a cogent case for his cognitive neo-associationist (CNA) model that some aggressive behaviors occur automatically, emotionally, and through conditioned association with other stimuli. He also proposes that they can occur without "processing," that is, without meaning. He contrasts his position with that of social information processing (SIP) models, which he casts as positing only controlled processing mechanisms for aggressive behavior. However, both CNA and SIP models posit automatic as well as controlled processes in aggressive behavior. Most aggressive behaviors occur through automatic processes, which are nonetheless rule governed. SIP models differ from the CNA model in asserting the essential role of meaning (often through nonconscious, automatic, and emotional processes) in mediating the link between a stimulus and an angry aggressive behavioral response. Aggr. Behav. 34:133,135, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Yoga During Pregnancy on Maternal Psychological and Physical Distress

    Amy E. Beddoe
    ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the feasibility and level of acceptability of a mindful yoga intervention provided during pregnancy and to gather preliminary data on the efficacy of the intervention in reducing distress. Design: Baseline and post-treatment measures examined state and trait anxiety, perceived stress, pain, and morning salivary cortisol in a single treatment group. Postintervention data also included participant evaluation of the intervention. Setting: The 7 weeks mindfulness-based yoga group intervention combined elements of Iyengar yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction. Participants: Sixteen healthy pregnant nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies between 12 and 32 weeks gestation at the time of enrollment. Methods: Outcomes were evaluated from pre- to postintervention and between second and third trimesters with repeated measures analysis of variance and post hoc nonparametric tests. Results: Women practicing mindful yoga in their second trimester reported significant reductions in physical pain from baseline to postintervention compared with women in the third trimester whose pain increased. Women in their third trimester showed greater reductions in perceived stress and trait anxiety. Conclusions: Preliminary evidence supports yoga's potential efficacy in these areas, particularly if started early in the pregnancy. [source]

    Psychological and Physiological Stress: Impact on Preterm Birth

    FAAN professor, Susan Gennaro DSN
    Stress increases corticotropin-releasing hormone and may ultimately result in increased uterine contractility. Stress also increases cytokine production, which independently may lead to preterm birth or increase susceptibility to infection, thereby increasing the risk of preterm birth. Finally, stress may change health behaviors that lead to preterm birth. Research findings on the relationship between stress and preterm birth have been contradictory. In this article, the authors propose a model of the relationship between stress and preterm birth, evaluate the research on stress and pregnancy outcomes, and discuss the implications for nursing practice and research. [source]

    Implementation of a Coordinated School Health Program in a Rural, Low-Income Community

    BSHRM, Lisa Cornwell RN
    ABSTRACT Background:, Coordinated school health programs (CSHPs) bring together educational and community resources in the school environment. This method is particularly important in rural areas like Kansas, where resources and trained health professionals are in short supply. Rural Stafford County, Kansas, struggles with health professional shortages and a low-income, high-need population. Methods:, In 2001, Stafford County's Unified School District 349 began a multiyear CSHP development process, which required adaptations for implementation in a rural area. First, a CSHP team was formed of community and administrative stakeholders as well as school system representatives. Next, the CSHP team assessed school district demographics so the program framework could be targeted to health needs. During a yearlong planning phase, the CSHP team determined 4 priority areas for program development, as limited staff and funds precluded developing programs in all 8 traditional CSHP areas. Program activities were tailored to the population demographics and available resources. Results:, Program outcomes were supported by School Health Index (SHI) data. Of the 8 CSHP focus areas, the SHI found high scores in 3 of the Stafford CSHP's priority areas: Health Services; Psychological, Counseling, and Social Services; and Physical Education. The fourth Stafford CSHP priority area, Nutrition Services, scored similarly to the less prioritized areas. Conclusions:, The process by which the Stafford school district modified and implemented CSHP methods can serve as a model for CSHPs in other rural, high-need areas. [source]

    The (Multiple) Realization of Psychological and other Properties in the Sciences

    MIND & LANGUAGE, Issue 2 2009
    To resolve these problems, we focus on concrete examples from the sciences to provide precise accounts of the scientific concepts of ,realization' and ,multiple realization' that have played key roles in recent debates in the philosophy of science and philosophy of psychology. We illustrate the advantages of our view over a prominent rival account (Shapiro, 2000 and 2004) and use our work to rebut recent objections to the long-standing claim that psychological properties are multiply realized. For we use scientific evidence, in combination with our more precise theoretical framework, to show that we have strong reason to believe that psychological properties are indeed multiply realized both at the biochemical and neuronal levels. [source]

    A Demonstration of a Presurgical Behavioral Medicine Evaluation for Categorizing Patients for Implantable Therapies: A Preliminary Study

    NEUROMODULATION, Issue 4 2008
    Kimberly Gardner Schocket PhD
    ABSTRACT Objectives., The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of a presurgical behavioral medicine evaluation screening algorithm with patients undergoing evaluation for implantable pain management devices. Methods., Sixty patients were evaluated for prognostic recommendations regarding outcomes from surgery for spinal cord stimulators and intrathecal pumps. Diagnostic interviews, review of medical charts, and psychosocial and functional measures were used in the initial evaluation. Results., Patients were classified into one of four prognostic groups, from low to increasing risks: Green, Yellow I, Yellow II, and Red. The Green group showed the most positive biopsychosocial profile, while the Red groups showed the worst profiles. Conclusions., This preliminary study suggests that the presurgical behavioral medicine evaluation algorithm may be an effective method for categorizing patients into prognostic groups. Psychological and adverse clinical features appear to have the most power in the classification of such patients. [source]

    Renal transplantation in children: Psychological and donation-related aspects from the parental perspective

    Helena M. E. Kärrfelt
    Abstract: Parent(s) accompanying their 18 children to the annual medical follow-up after renal transplantation were interviewed by a child psychiatric social worker. Thirteen of the children had received their grafts from one of their parents, two from other relatives, and three from cadaveric donors. The aims of this interview were to study the decision-making process regarding donation, and the consequences, reflections, and psychological reactions from the parental perspective. Although most parents reported improved psychosocial functioning of the family, many parents also reported significant psychological distress, in many cases complicated by unemployment related to the care of the child. Most parent donors reported that the relationship with their child had improved. For most parents, the decision about the donation seemed to have been a matter of course. However, the process may have induced suffering in those parents who had felt obliged to donate. Thus, questions regarding donation must be approached in a professional and non-judgmental manner when parents are informed about the preconditions of transplantation. The present results indicate a need of psychosocial support for all families during the transplantation process. Therefore, a psychologist and a social worker have been included in the pediatric nephrology team at our unit. The donors also require further information concerning the operative details as well as in regard to the post-operative pain. [source]

    Nurture: The Fundamental Significance of Relationship as a Paradigm for Mental Health Nursing

    Bonnie Raingruber PhD
    TOPIC Whether nature or nurture is the most appropriate paradigm for mental health nursing practice, education, and research. PURPOSE To present detailed information that nurture is the most inclusive and sustaining paradigm for mental health nursing. SOURCES Published literature. CONCLUSIONS Psychological, social, cultural, environmental, biological, and experience-based problems are the root of mental illness. Mental health nursing must have a comprehensive paradigm that honors the relational nature of the nurse-patient relationship, the critical influence of environment, the importance of biological factors, and the way that narrative understanding and history shape behavior. [source]

    Association between psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms among Iranian nurses

    Ramin Mehrdad MD
    Abstract Background While psychosocial factors have been associated with musculoskeletal symptoms among nurses in some countries, previous studies of Iranian nurses show little association using a demand and control questionnaire. The aim of this study is to assess and evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and to assess their relationships with psychosocial factors among nurses in Iran. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 347 hospital nurses completed a self-reported questionnaire containing the Standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal symptoms and the General Nordic questionnaire for Psychological and Social factors at work (QPS Nordic 34+ Questionnaire). Results Prevalence of low back pain, knee pain, shoulder pain, and neck pain were 73.2%, 68.7%, 48.6%, and 46.3%, respectively. Middle and high stress groups had higher crude and adjusted odds than the low stress group for all body sites. The association for neck, wrist/hand, and upper back and ankle/foot reports (adjusted odds ratio for high stress ranging from 2.4 to 3.0) were statistically significant. Conclusions We observed a high prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms at a number of body sites, which were associated with psychosocial factors and specifically stress as defined by the QPS Nordic 34+ Questionnaire. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:1032,1039, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Relations Between Social Support and Psychological and Parental Distress for Lesbian, Single Heterosexual by Choice, and Two-Parent Heterosexual Mothers

    Tomer Shechner
    Relations between family type and psychological and parental distress and the moderating role of social support were studied for 90 Israeli lesbian mothers, single heterosexual mothers by choice and 2-parent heterosexual mothers who completed measures of psychological distress, well-being, parental distress, and direct and indirect social support. Findings indicated differences on psychological and parental outcome between mothers from the two heterosexual groups. Social support was higher for lesbian than single heterosexual mothers and was correlated with psychological and parental indices. Unique because of the distinctive demographics of Israeli society (especially in relation to Western Europe and North America), this study highlights ways in which social and individual processes affect psychological outcomes among minority groups. [source]

    Unwanted Infants: Psychological and Physical Consequences of Inadequate Orphanage Care 50 Years Later

    John J. Sigal PhD
    Studies of the effects in middle-aged adults of institutionalization at birth or early childhood are rare. The results of this study show that members of a randomly selected, middle-aged group of orphans, most of whom were institutionalized at birth, were significantly more psychosocially dysfunctional and had significantly more chronic illnesses that could be stress related than a randomly selected, matched community sample. [source]

    Psychological and fitness changes associated with exercise participation among women with breast cancer

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Bernardine M. Pinto
    Exercise participation has been shown to improve cardiovascular fitness and reduce psychological distress among women receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the changes in distress and body image, and fitness following exercise participation among 24 women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer within the previous 3 years. The women were randomly assigned to participate in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise program in a hospital setting or a wait-list control group. Assessments of distress and body image were conducted at pre- and post-treatment. Data showed that the women in the exercise group improved significantly in body image (Physical Condition and Weight Concerns subscales) vs control group participants at post-treatment. Reductions in distress were also noted in the exercise group, but these were nonsignificant. At post-treatment, there were modest improvements in fitness in the exercise group. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Populations at Risk Across the Lifespan: Case Studies: Psychological and Physical Abuse Among Pregnant Women in a Medicaid-Sponsored Prenatal Program

    Jennifer E. Raffo
    ABSTRACT Objectives: To document psychological and physical abuse during pregnancy among women enrolled in enhanced prenatal services (EPS); explore the associations between maternal risk factors and type of abuse; and examine the relationship between abuse and EPS participation. Design and Sample: Cross-sectional study utilizing screening data collected between 2005 and 2008. Convenience sample of Medicaid-insured pregnant women enrolled in EPS selected from urban and rural providers. Measures: A prenatal screening tool that included measures such as Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale-4, Patient Health Questionnaire-2, and Abuse Assessment Screen was used. Results: Logistic regressions showed that high perceived stress and lack of father support were associated with all types of abuse and abuse history. Women with risk factors, such as a positive depression screen (odds ratio [OR]=2.36), were associated with psychological abuse but not with physical abuse during pregnancy. Less than a 12th-grade education was associated with physical abuse (OR=1.64) but not psychological abuse during pregnancy. The amount or the timing of EPS participation was not significantly associated with abuse history or abuse during pregnancy. Conclusions: Risk factors, such as high perceived stress and lack of father support, may alert nurses to further explore abuse during pregnancy. Additional research is needed for understanding the relationship between abuse and EPS participation. [source]

    Changes of psychiatric parameters and their relationships by oral isotretinoin in acne patients

    Bong Jin HAHM
    ABSTRACT Oral isotretinoin is a highly effective agent for the treatment of moderate to severe acne, but ever since oral isotretinoin was introduced as a modality for acne, the relationship between oral isotretinoin therapy and psychiatric problems, especially depression, has been controversial. The purposes of this study were to know the acute effects of oral isotretinoin therapy on psychiatric symptoms and to investigate the relationships among them, which have not been reported in the published work. This cohort study included 38 acne patients who started oral isotretinoin therapy. Individual patients were examined before administering oral isotretinoin and 2 and 8 weeks after commencement. Acne severity was graded using the Leeds revised acne grading system. Acute psychiatric effects of oral isotretinoin were assessed using a questionnaire authorized by two psychiatrists. This questionnaire included assessments of acne-related quality of life (Assessment of the Psychological and Social Effects of Acne [APSEA]), depression (Beck's depression inventory [BDI]), anxiety (Beck's anxiety inventory [BAI]) and psychopathology (Symptomchecklist-90-revised [SCL-90-R]). Acne grading and APSEA showed similar change patterns. Both improved after 8 weeks of oral isotretinoin treatment. On the other hand, the severity of depression decreased after 2 weeks of treatment. A significant correlation was found between BDI and APSEA, but no correlation was found between BDI and acne grade. These results indicate that oral isotretinoin therapy alleviates depressive symptoms. Improvements in depression are directly related to acne-related life quality improvements rather than to improvement in acne grade. [source]

    Prevalence of Sexual Problems and Its Association with Social, Psychological and Physical Factors among Men in a Malaysian Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Kia Fatt Quek PhD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Sexual problems are common in the general population. Studies have shown that most of these sexual problems are related to their social lives, medical illnesses, and psychological status. Among the sexual problems in men, premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most frequent, yet it is the least well-understood of the sexual dysfunctions of men. Aim., To determine the prevalence of sexual problem particularly PE and erectile dysfunction (ED) among people living in urban areas and to investigate the characteristics associated with these sexual problems in a Malaysian population. Main Outcome Measure., The PE which is defined as an intravaginal ejaculation latency time less than 2 minutes was assessed in the ED and non-ED group. Methods., The Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale is used as a measure of the psychological status [30]. The ED status was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire. Results., The prevalence of self-reported sexual problems for ED and PE were 41.6% and 22.3%, respectively. In those subjects with ED, 33.5% reported to have PE. Of the total of 430 subjects, anxiety was present in 8.1%, while depression was 5.3%. The prevalence of PE accounted for 25% anxiety and 14.6% for depression respectively in the population. EDs were associated with diabetes and hypertension (OR [95% CI]: 5.33 [2.33, 10.16], 3.40 [1.76, 6.57], P < 0.05), respectively, while factors associated with PE were anxiety and depression (OR [95% CI]: 1.29 [0.68, 2.45], 1.39 [0.69, 2.78]), respectively. Conclusion., Prevalence of ED is associated with medical symptoms such as diabetes and hypertension and a rise in the prevalence of age while psychological distress such as anxiety and depression also contribute to a higher PE rate. Quek KF, Sallam AA, Ng CH, and Chua CB. Prevalence of sexual problems and its association with social, psychological and physical factors among men in a Malaysian Population: A cross-sectional study. J Sex Med 2008;5:70,76. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ED PHARMACOTHERAPY: Psychosocial Outcomes and Drug Attributes Affecting Treatment Choice in Men Receiving Sildenafil Citrate and Tadalafil for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Label, Crossover Study

    FRCGP, John Dean MBBS
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Although sildenafil citrate (sildenafil) and tadalafil are efficacious and well-tolerated treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED), preference studies have shown that patients may favor one medication over the other. Aim., To determine whether psychosocial outcomes differed when men with ED received tadalafil compared with sildenafil. Main Outcome Measures., Measures included a treatment preference question, Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales (PAIRS), and Drug Attribute Questionnaire. Methods., Randomized, open-label, crossover study. After a 4-week baseline, men with ED (N = 367; mean age = 54 years; naïve to type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor therapy) were randomized: tadalafil for 12 weeks then sildenafil for 12 weeks or vice versa (8-week dose optimization/4-week assessment phases). During dose optimization, patients started with 10 mg tadalafil, or 25 or 50 mg sildenafil and could titrate to their optimal dose (10 or 20 mg tadalafil; 25, 50, or 100 mg sildenafil). Medications were taken as needed. Patients completing both 12-week periods chose which medication to continue during an 8-week extension. Results., Of 291 men completing both treatment periods, 71% (N = 206) chose tadalafil and 29% (N = 85) chose sildenafil (P < 0.001) for the 8-week extension. When taking tadalafil compared with sildenafil men had higher mean endpoint scores on PAIRS Sexual Self-Confidence (tadalafil = 2.91 vs. sildenafil = 2.75; P < 0.001) and Spontaneity (tadalafil = 3.32 vs. sildenafil = 3.17; P < 0.001) Domains and a lower mean endpoint score on Time Concerns Domain (tadalafil = 2.2 vs. sildenafil = 2.59; P < 0.001). The two most frequently chosen drug attributes to explain treatment preference were ability to get an erection long after taking the medication and firmness of erections. Tadalafil and sildenafil were well tolerated with 12 (3.3%) patients discontinuing for an adverse event. Conclusions., As measured with PAIRS, men with ED had higher sexual self-confidence and spontaneity and less time concerns related to sexual encounters when treated with tadalafil compared with sildenafil. These psychosocial outcomes may help explain why more men (71%) preferred tadalafil for the treatment of ED in this clinical trial. Dean J, Hackett GI, Gentile V, Pirozzi-Farina F, Rosen RC, Zhao Y, Warner MR, and Beardsworth A. Psychosocial outcomes and drug attributes affecting treatment choice in men receiving sildenafil citrate and tadalafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: Results of a multicenter, randomized, open-label, crossover study. J Sex Med 2006;3:650,661. [source]

    Factors Influencing Value of Children and Intergenerational Relations in Times of Social Change: Analyses From Psychological and Socio-Cultural Perspectives: Introduction to the Special Issue

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Gisela Trommsdorff
    First page of article [source]

    The development of decision-making capacities in children and adolescents: Psychological and neurological perspectives and their implications for juvenile defendants

    Praveen Kambam M.D.
    The development of decision-making capacities in children and adolescents has been a topic of interest for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. Questions regarding the development of decision-making capacities (and moral reasoning) of youth frequently arise in juvenile justice settings, other forensic settings, and sometimes in treatment settings. This article attempts to review the latest and most relevant research on the development of decision-making capacities likely to be relevant in children and adolescents who are defendants. We distinguish cognition versus judgment in decision-making and briefly review adolescent decision-making in laboratory and real world conditions. We review a theoretical framework of two different systems, a cognitive-control system and socio-emotional system, and potentially correlated neurobiological and psychological findings. Implications for selected aspects of the juvenile adjudicative process are discussed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Psychological therapies for bipolar disorder: the role of model-driven approaches to therapy integration

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 1 2005
    Steven H Jones
    Objectives:, The psychological and social aspects of bipolar disorder are receiving increasing recognition. Recently, there have been promising developments in psychological interventions, but there is scope for further improvement of therapeutic outcomes. This paper argues for the use of more detailed psychological models of bipolar disorder to inform the further development of therapeutic approaches. Method:, Evidence for psychological, family and social factors in bipolar disorder is reviewed. The efficacy of current individual and family interventions are discussed. A model, which has potential to synthesize group and individual approaches, is outlined. Results:, Psychological, social and family factors have important influences on the onset, course and outcome of bipolar disorder. Interventions based on vulnerability stress models have proved effective. However, to enhance efficacy future developments need to be based on models that integrate current understandings of the multiple levels at which mood fluctuations occur. A particular recent model is discussed which leads to specific proposals for future intervention research. Conclusions:, Psychological and family approaches to BD have much potential. They clearly have a role in conjunction with appropriate pharmacological treatment. If this potential is to be fully realized future developments need to be based on psychological models that can accommodate the complexity of this illness. [source]