Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Province

  • Aire province
  • Bueno Aire province
  • Far province
  • anhui province
  • biogeographical province
  • canadian province
  • cape province
  • chinese province
  • eastern province
  • frontier province
  • fujian province
  • gansu province
  • guangdong province
  • guizhou province
  • hainan province
  • hebei province
  • heilongjiang province
  • henan province
  • hubei province
  • hunan province
  • jiangsu province
  • jiangxi province
  • jilin province
  • la province
  • limpopo province
  • other province
  • physiographic province
  • shaanxi province
  • shandong province
  • shanxi province
  • sichuan province
  • southern province
  • volcanic province
  • western cape province
  • western province
  • xinjiang province
  • yunnan province
  • zhejiang province

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT Shaanxi Province in China has been exposed to climate variability and dramatic land-use policies. The aim here is to examine vegetation changes in this area on a regional scale from 2000 to 2004 in relation to land-use changes and climate traits. The data in this assessment include remote sensing information from moderate-resolution imaging spectro-radiometer normalized difference vegetation index from 2000 to 2004, and climate data (precipitation and temperature) from 1956 to 2000. The results show an increase in vegetation production from 2000 to 2004, particularly in the north, which cannot be explained solely by climate impacts. Since the vegetation in the north is more dependent on climate variation than the other parts of Shaanxi due to more serious water limitation, the results suggest that the large-scale land-use policy implemented over the last decade, with a focus on northern Shaanxi, is possibly having an impact on the overall vegetation. [source]


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 4 2000
    ZHENG Zhe-min
    Abstract, A new species of the genus Formosatettix Tinkham 1937, Formosatettix tiantangensis sp. nov. from Dabie Mountains in Hubei Province is described. The new species is allied to Formosatettix henanensis Liang, but differs in: 1) width of vertex about 1.6 times the width of an eye; 2) length of antennae about 1.6,1.7 times the length of anterior femora; 3) upper margin of pronotum distinctively arched; 4) ventral margin of posterior pronotal process arched, lateral carinae curvingigly arched and 5) posterior margin of subgenital plate of female concave, median keel present on the plate. The type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University and Department of Biology, Huanggang Normal College, Hubei Province respectively. [source]


    Bruce D. Lindsey
    ABSTRACT: A study of stream base flow and NO3 -N concentration was conducted simultaneously in 51 subwatersheds within the 116-square-kilometer watershed of East Mahantango Creek near Klingerstown, Pennsylvania. The study was designed to test whether measurable results of processes and observations within the smaller watersheds were similar to or transferable to a larger scale. Ancillary data on land use were available for the small and large watersheds. Although the source of land-use data was different for the small and large watersheds, comparisons showed that the differences in the two land-use data sources were minimal. A land use-based water-quality model developed for the small-scale 7.3-square-kilometer watershed for a previous study accurately predicted NO3 -N concentrations from sampling in the same watershed. The water-quality model was modified and, using the imagery-based land use, was found to accurately predict NO3 -N concentrations in the subwatersheds of the large-scale 116-square-kilometer watershed as well. Because the model accurately predicts NO3 -N concentrations at small and large scales, it is likely that in second-order streams and higher, discharge of water and NO3 -N is dominated by flow from smaller first-order streams, and the contribution of ground-water discharge to higher order streams is minimal at the large scale. [source]


    Summary An interpretation of the features surrounding the complex and deliberate closure ritual in several collective Middle Neolithic tombs of the Ambrona Valley (Soria) is offered, where fire and quicklime played a major role in the rituals. The problems involved in the excavation and the understanding of this complex burial evidence are examined. The roles they might have played in the context of the important social and economic transformations of the local Neolithic groups around the end of the fourth millennium cal BC are also analysed. It is argued that the burial rituals tried to reinforce group solidarity at a time when the community was beginning to fragment, as the economic systems began to yield a surplus production whose management would have altered political structures. [source]


    Ingrid Nielsen
    This paper employs a household production function framework to examine the determinants of school attendance among migrant children using a unique dataset collected in China's Jiangsu province. The study finds that the main predictors of school attendance among migrant children in the sample were household income, mother's education, the length of residence of the child's mother in the city and whether both parents were working in the same city. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Abstract:,Eshanosaurus deguchiianus is based on a single left dentary from the Lower Lufeng Formation (Lower Jurassic) of Yunnan Province, China. It was originally identified as the earliest known member of Therizinosauroidea (Theropoda: Coelurosauria), a conclusion that results in a significant downward range extension for this clade (>65 million years) and for many other major lineages within Coelurosauria. However, this interpretation has been questioned and several authors have proposed that the anatomical features used to refer Eshanosaurus to Therizinosauroidea are more consistent with attribution to a basal sauropodomorph dinosaur. Detailed consideration of the holotype specimen suggests that several features of the dentary and dentition exclude Eshanosaurus from Sauropodomorpha and support its inclusion within Therizinosauroidea. If accepted as an Early Jurassic coelurosaur, Eshanosaurus has important implications for understanding the timing and tempo of early theropod diversification. Moreover, its provenance also suggests that substantial portions of the coelurosaur fossil record may be missing or unsampled. However, the Early Jurassic age of Eshanosaurus requires confirmation if this taxon is to be fully incorporated into broader evolutionary studies. [source]


    Toshiyuki KAKO
    First page of article [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 4 2010
    J. F. CUI
    Through the use of MC,ICP,MS, this study analyses the lead isotope ratios of 19 Tang Sancai pottery glazes unearthed from the Gongyi and Huangbao kiln sites. According to their different lead isotope ratios, the two kilns can be grouped separately. The research also suggests that the Gongyi and Huangbao kilns are independent production centres of Tang Sancai in the Tang Dynasty. The data from the Huangbao kiln indicates that the lead in the glazes originates from the Northern China geochemical province, while the data from Gongyi kiln suggests its source as the Yangtze geochemical province. Furthermore, the results obtained for the Tang Sancai pottery indicate that the lead sources for glaze making of these two kilns were very consistent, which suggests that lead isotope analysis could be a helpful method to identify the kilns producing Tang Sancai artefacts. [source]

    Estimating Diversity in Unsampled Habitats of a Biogeographical Province

    Michael L. Rosenzweig
    A number of methods have been developed to overcome sample-size limits within a single habitat. We evaluated six of these methods to see whether they could also compensate for incomplete habitat samples. We applied them to the butterfly species of the 110 ecoregions of Canada and the United States. Two of the methods use the frequency of species that occur in a few of the sampled ecoregions. These two methods did not work. The other four methods estimate the asymptote of the species-accumulation curve ( the graph of "number of species in a set of samples" versus "number of species occurrences in those samples" ). The asymptote of this curve is the actual number of species in the system. Three of these extrapolation estimators produced good estimates of total diversity even when limited to 10% of the ecoregions. Good estimates depend on sampling ecoregions that are hyperdispersed in space. Clustered sampling designs ruin the usefulness of the three successful methods. To ascertain their generality, our results must be duplicated at other scales and for other taxa and in other provinces. Resumen: La estimación del número de especies en una provincia biogeográfica puede ser problemático. Se ha desarrollado un número de métodos para superar los límites del tamaño de muestra dentro de un solo hábitat. Evaluamos seis de estos métodos para ver si podrían compensar por muestras incompletas de hábitat. Aplicamos estos métodos a especies de mariposas de las 110 ecoregiones de Canadá y los Estados Unidos. Dos de los métodos usan la frecuencia de las especies que ocurren en algunas de las ecoregiones muestreadas. Estos dos métodos no sirvieron. Los otros cuatro métodos estimaron la asíntota de la curva de acumulación de especies ( la gráfica de "el número de especies en un juego de muestras" contra el "número de ocurrencias de especies en éstas muestras" ). La asíntota de ésta curva es el número real de especies en el sistema. Tres de éstos estimadores de extrapolación produjeron buenas estimaciones de la diversidad total aún cuando se limitaron al 10% de las ecoregiones. Las buenas estimaciones dependen del muestreo de ecoregiones altamente dispersas en el espacio. Los diseños de muestreos en agrupamientos arruinan la utilidad de los tres métodos exitosos. Para asegurar su generalidad, nuestros resultados deben ser duplicados a otras escalas y para otros taxones en otras provincias. [source]

    ,Model Tribes' and Iconic Conservationists?

    The Makuleke Restitution Case in Kruger National Park
    ABSTRACT This article investigates how the Makuleke community in Limpopo Province achieved iconic status in relation to land reform and community-based conservation discourses in South Africa and beyond. It argues that the situation may be more complex than it first appears, and the ways in which the Makuleke story has been deployed by NGOs, activists, academics, conservationists, the state and business may be too simplistic. The authors discuss historical representations of the Makuleke ,tribe' against the backdrop of their experiences of living in the borderland Pafuri region of the Kruger National Park prior to their forced removal. After investigating the ways in which the chieftaincy, and its relation to communal land, has been strengthened by local mobilizations against threats from the neighbouring Mhinga Tribal Authority, the authors suggest that a central tension in the Makuleke area is the conflict between democratic principles governing the legal entity in control of the land (i.e., the Communal Property Association), and traditionalist patriarchal principles of the Tribal Authority. The article shows how these restitution-linked processes became implicated in the establishment in 2002 of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. The authors also argue that the image of the Makuleke as a ,model tribe' is both a product of changing historical circumstances and a contributor to contemporary discourses on land restitution and conservation. [source]

    In Situ Urbanization in Rural China: Case Studies from Fujian Province

    Yu Zhu
    In most parts of the developing world, the urbanization process has been dominated by rural,urban migration and the growth of existing cities. However, case-studies in China's Fujian Province suggest that this process can also be achieved mainly by in situ transformation in rural areas. Such in situ transformation of rural areas has been driven mainly by two forces, the development of township and village enterprises (TVEs) and the inflow of foreign investment; and facilitated by the relevant policies adopted by the Chinese government since 1978. The former has been very effective in the transformation of rural employment structure, while the latter has brought many physical changes to the previously rural landscape. Being mutually complementary, these two ways of rural transformation have not only benefited and urbanized the rural areas, but kept many farmers in their hometowns, replacing the dominant role of rural,urban migration and the growth of existing cities in the urbanization process. [source]

    Generalised and Particularistic Thinking in Policy Analysis and Practice: The Case of Governance Reform in South Africa

    Olle Frödin
    This article is concerned with the relationship between generalised and particularistic knowledge in the context of policy-making and policy analysis. It argues that it is problematic to assume that a reform model will generate similar outcomes across a wide variety of contexts. It presents a conceptual framework, including the concepts of transaction domain and domain consensus, that enables context-sensitive analyses. The argument is exemplified by South Africa's introduction in the 1990s of an Integrated Development Planning model, based on British reform experience and various international public-management models. With a case study of such planning in Lukhanji Municipality in the Eastern Cape Province, it illustrates how the conceptual framework may be used in policy research and analysis. [source]

    Effects of iodine supplementation during pregnancy on child growth and development at school age

    Karen J O'Donnell MEd PhD
    Growth and development of 207 children (49% males; mean age 5.4 years [SD 0.2], range 4 to 7.3 years whose mothers received iodine during pregnancy, and children who received iodine first in their 2nd year, were examined in 1996; 192 children(49% males; mean age 6.5 years[SD 0.2], range 5.8 to 6.9 years) whose mothers received iodine while pregnant were seen in 1998. Children were from the southern part of China's Xinjiang Province which has the lowest levels of iodine in water and soil ever recorded. Head circumference but not height was improved for those who received iodine during pregnancy (compared with those receiving iodine at age 2) and for those supplemented before the end of the 2nd trimester (relative to those supplemented during the 3rd trimester). Iodine before the 3rd trimester predicted higher psychomotor test scores for children relative to those provided iodine later in pregnancy or at 2 years. Results from the test for cognitive development resulted in trend only differences between those children supplemented during pregnancy versus later. The results address the question of when maternal iodine supplements should begin in public health programs world wide. Findings may be relevant to the treatment of maternal and newborn thyroid deficiency in industrialized countries, particularly for those infants delivered before the end of the second trimester. [source]

    Suicidal feelings run high among mothers in refugee camps: a cross-sectional survey

    A. Rahman
    Objective: To study levels of mental distress in a sample of Afghan mothers caring for children in two refugee camps in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. Method: Cross-sectional survey of 297 consecutive mothers with young children, attending primary care centres, using a psychiatric screening instrument, the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Results: One hundred and six (36%) of women in the sample screened positive for a common mental disorder. Ninety-six (91%) of those screening positive had had suicidal thoughts in the previous month, and nine (8%) rated suicidal feeling as their topmost concern. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and severity of mental distress in Afghan mothers caring for young children in refugee camps. This may have serious long-term effects on the psychological and physical development of their children. [source]

    Integrating DNA data and traditional taxonomy to streamline biodiversity assessment: an example from edaphic beetles in the Klamath ecoregion, California, USA

    Ryan M. Caesar
    ABSTRACT Conservation and land management decisions may be misguided by inaccurate or misinterpreted knowledge of biodiversity. Non-systematists often lack taxonomic expertise necessary for an accurate assessment of biodiversity. Additionally, there are far too few taxonomists to contribute significantly to the task of identifying species for specimens collected in biodiversity studies. While species level identification is desirable for making informed management decisions concerning biodiversity, little progress has been made to reduce this taxonomic deficiency. Involvement of non-systematists in the identification process could hasten species identification. Incorporation of DNA sequence data has been recognized as one way to enhance biodiversity assessment and species identification. DNA data are now technologically and economically feasible for most scientists to apply in biodiversity studies. However, its use is not widespread and means of its application has not been extensively addressed. This paper illustrates how such data can be used to hasten biodiversity assessment of species using a little-known group of edaphic beetles. Partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I was sequenced for 171 individuals of feather-wing beetles (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae) from the Klamath ecoregion, which is part of a biodiversity hotspot, the California Floristic Province. A phylogram of these data was reconstructed via parsimony and the strict consensus of 28,000 equally parsimonious trees was well resolved except for peripheral nodes. Forty-two voucher specimens were selected for further identification from clades that were associated with many synonymous and non-synonymous nucleotide changes. A ptiliid taxonomic expert identified nine species that corresponded to monophyletic groups. These results allowed for a more accurate assessment of ptiliid species diversity in the Klamath ecoregion. In addition, we found that the number of amino acid changes or percentage nucleotide difference did not associate with species limits. This study demonstrates that the complementary use of taxonomic expertise and molecular data can improve both the speed and the accuracy of species-level biodiversity assessment. We believe this represents a means for non-systematists to collaborate directly with taxonomists in species identification and represents an improvement over methods that rely solely on parataxonomy or sequence data. [source]

    A new articulated hybodontoid from Late Permian of northwestern China

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2009
    N.-Z. Wang
    Abstract A new genus and species of hybodontoid elasmobranchs, Gansuselache tungshengi, is described on the basis of an articulated skeleton from the Fangshankou Formation (Late Permian) of the Mazongshan Mountain of Gansu Province, northwestern China. All dermal skeletons including dorsal fin-spines, cephalic spines, dermal denticles and one tooth are well preserved in their natural position. It is a shark of about 490 mm total length with a fusiform body. The braincase has large, downturned postorbital processes and otic capsules, no postorbital articulation, long palatoquadrate and large triangular Meckel's cartilage. It bears two dorsal fins and two pairs of heteromorphic cephalic spines. The tooth is of low-crowned, multicuspid type; the elongate tooth crown has stout crown shoulder and well-developed, rounded labial peg; the cusp and cusplets are moderately tumid, and have a few strong and curved folds; the tooth root is higher on the labial face than the lingual face. The dermal denticle is placoid scale-like, with its crown surface ornamented with some parallel ridges. Gansuselache, the first articulated hybodontiform from Asia, also represents the first complete hybodontiform from the Permian. [source]

    Channel sedimentation and erosion of the Jiangsu reach of the Yangtze River during the last 44 years

    Wang Jian
    Abstract River channel sedimentation in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River can be affected by both changes in sea level and changes in solid discharge from the upper river. To evaluate dynamic changes of sedimentation and erosion in the Jiangsu reach of the Yangtze River (about 330 km in length) from 1959 to 2003, databases were designed and constructed using a digital elevation model (DEM) of channel topography based on the Jiangsu River Relief Map for 1959, 1970, 1985, 1992, and 2003. The results indicated that the main course of the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province had experienced an obvious switch from sedimentation to erosion status around 1985 because of the decreasing amount of solid load from the upper parts of the river channel after that year. The sedimentation process in the main course of the Jiangsu reach of the Yangtze River demonstrated the propulsive process of ,downstream-ward aggradations.' Between 1985 and 2003, the erosion rate of the lower segment was greater than those of the middle and upper segments; this is probably because both channel flow and tide current had influenced the lower segment. When channel flow combines with tide current in the same direction, channel erosion can be intensified, especially if there is a solid load shortage in the channel. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Population viability and perturbation analyses in remnant populations of the Andean catfish Astroblepus ubidiai

    L. A. Vélez-Espino
    Abstract ,Astroblepus ubidiai (Actinopterygii; Siluriformes), which is the only native fish of the highlands of the Province of Imbabura, Ecuador, was abundant in the past in the Imbakucha watershed and adjacent drainages but currently it is restricted to a few isolated refuges. Population viability analysis (PVA) was used to detect critical aspects in the ecology and conservation biology of this unique fish. The annual population growth rate (,) was estimated for six remnant populations of this Andean catfish using a deterministic matrix population model. Sensitivity and elasticity analyses complemented the PVA by providing constructive insights into vital rates affecting projections and extinction probabilities. Positive population growth rates were found in all the study populations. The high contributions of juvenile survival to the variance of , and its high elasticity indicated that A. ubidiai population dynamics are highly sensitive to the transition values of this vital rate, which can promptly respond to management or antagonistic perturbations. Allowing fish to survive until the age of first reproduction and permitting the successful reproduction of these individuals will facilitate positive population growth rates, however the very small areas of occupancy, small extent of occurrence and severe fragmentation may still contribute to the extinction risk. Resumen 1. Astroblepus ubidiai (Actinopterygii; Siluriformes), el único pez nativo de los altos Andes en la Provincia de Imbabura, Ecuador, era abundante en el pasado en la cuenca de Imbakucha y en las cuencas adyacentes, pero actualmente existe en unos cuantos refugios geográficamente aislados. 2. Un Análisis de Viabilidad Poblacional (AVP) fue necesario para detectar los aspectos críticos en la ecología y biología de conservación de la especie. La tasa anual de crecimiento poblacional (,) se estimó en seis poblaciones remanentes de este pez andino usando un modelo matricial de población. Análisis de sensitividad y elasticidad permitieron la complementación de interpretaciones derivadas del AVP mediante la facilitación de exploraciones constructivas de los efectos relativos de las tasas vitales en proyecciones demográficas y probabilidades de extinción. 3. Todas las poblaciones estudiadas presentaron tasas positivas de crecimiento poblacional a pesar de que factores determinísticos tales como la pérdida de hábitat y fragmentación han llevado la ocurrencia de esta especie a pequeños fragmentos. La alta contribución a la varianza de , y la alta elasticidad de la supervivencia juvenil indicaron que las dinámicas poblacionales de A. ubidiai son altamente sensibles a los valores de transición de esta tasa vital, la cual puede responder con facilidad a actividades de manejo o perturbaciones antagónicas. 4. Facilitando que los peces sobrevivan hasta la edad de primera reproducción y permitiendo la reproducción exitosa de estos individuos son condiciones determinantes para mantener tasas positivas de crecimiento. Sin embargo, aún existe la necesidad de confrontar el riesgo de extinción derivado de pequeñas áreas de ocupación, limitada extensión de ocurrencia, y fragmentación severa. En este artículo también se discute la manera en que el conocimiento de estas circunstancias específicas es esencial para tomar acciones efectivas de conservación. [source]

    The Paradoxes of Environmental Policy and Resource Management in Reform-Era China,

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2000
    Joshua Muldavin
    Abstract: Over the last 5,000 years serious environmental problems,deforestation, desertification, erosion, and widespread pollution of air, land, and water,have prevailed throughout most of China, brought about by a diverse set of social and political contexts. In this paper I focus on an enduring contradiction associated with the post-1978 reforms, namely accelerated environmental resource degradation in rural areas amid unprecedented national economic growth. Declining entitlements to assets and social capital in China's rural village populations are a crucial aspect of altered state-peasant relations, as these are increasingly mediated by the market during China's transition to a hybrid economy. This has resulted in changing patterns of resource use, impacting both the environment and peasant livelihoods. A brief assessment of China's postrevolutionary environmental policy and management practices provides the context for detailed case studies in Henan Province. These examples highlight the relationship between political-economic changes and environmental policy and management. Contrary to reform rhetoric, rural peasants' embracing of reform policies does not necessarily optimize their welfare or promote sustainable use of resources. The case studies reveal alternative pathways for villages, ones that ought to be brought into the policy debate spotlight. [source]

    Rural hospital generalist and emergency medicine training in Papua New Guinea

    David Symmons
    Abstract The present paper describes the role of the hospital generalist in rural Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the contribution of emergency medicine training to that practice. Generalist practice in Tinsley District Hospital in Western Highlands Province is described, with emphasis on emergency surgery and anaesthesia. The potential of the PNG emergency medicine training programme for preparing generalists is discussed. Tinsley Hospital served a population of 40 000 people, with 4000 admissions and 300,400 operations performed annually. Two doctors and 50 nurses and community health workers provided care with minimal resources. The doctors provided supervision and teaching for nurses, community health workers, hospital administrators and primary health carers, including on long range medical patrols. Over 16 months, doctors performed 243 emergency surgical procedures including orthopaedics, general surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology. The generalist in rural hospitals is required to perform a wide variety of medical tasks in isolated settings yet there is no active postgraduate training programme. The Master of Medicine, Emergency Medicine programme includes rotations through the major disciplines of surgery, anaesthesia, internal medicine, paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology. It has the potential to train doctors in PNG for a generalist role as graduates will learn the foundations of the required skills. [source]

    Population genetics analysis of the origin of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), in northern Yunnan Province, China

    Jianhong LIU
    Abstract We examined genetic variation in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), using six populations in two regions of Yunnan Province, China, to determine the distribution and likely mechanism for the dispersal of this fly. A 501-bp portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene was sequenced from a minimum of eight individuals from each population, and 43 haplotypes were observed in the six Bactrocera dorsalis populations. When comparing the genetic diversity of populations in the northern and southern regions, which differ with respect to elevation, climate and plant phenology, we found a significantly greater haplotype diversity in the southern region (permutation test; P < 0.05), suggesting that the northern populations, those at Kunming and Qujing, probably originated from somewhere in the southern region. FST and number of pairwise differences revealed a high level of differentiation between the Panxi population and the other populations (permutation test; P < 0.05). Although the difference was marginally insignificant, the Shuitang population seemed to have differentiated from both northern populations. The Mantel test did not detect any isolation due to geographic distance. An amova analysis found that 2.56% of the variance was caused by the Panxi population. Haplotype network analysis showed that none of the six populations had a specific genetic lineage. Together, these analyses suggest that long-distance dispersal has occurred for this species, and the species most probably took advantage of both a mountain pass and prevailing air currents. The Panxi population was significantly isolated from the others, probably because of its distinguishing habitat features, host plants or the recent reduction of the population size. [source]

    Antiepileptic Therapies in the Mifi Province in Cameroon

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2000
    P.-M. Preux
    Summary: Purpose: To evaluate the availability and accessibility of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in two health districts in Cameroon. Methods: The study included 33 patients with epilepsy, 26 physicians, 13 private pharmacists, eight hospital pharmacists, three distributors, and eight traditional healers. Structured questionnaires were used to assess the knowledge of the disease, treatment accessibility, the methods of prescriptions, and the availability and the frequency of delivery of drugs. Results: Only one of 33 patients did not take modern treatment; 91% of the patients were followed up by a traditional healer, and 78%, by an hospital physician. Phenobarbitone (PB) was the most frequently prescribed drug by 69% of the doctors; 54% of the physicians considered the traditional therapies to be incompatible with modern drug treatment. By pharmacists, PB was delivered regularly. Other drugs went out of stock frequently. The number of packages in stock varied significantly directly with the frequency of delivery. The mean price per package and the mean number of packages in stock were higher in the public hospital pharmacies than in the private pharmacies. A majority of healers explained epilepsy as the presence of excess foam in the abdomen. The remedies proposed were to stop foam secretion. Conclusions: Availability of AEDs was quite high, but with no strict correspondence between the rate of prescriptions and the supply of the drugs. [source]

    Prediction studies supported by computer on potato late blight in central Anatolia in Turkey,

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 2 2007
    E. Cakir
    Prediction of potato late blight epidemics, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary, was studied in three different villages of Bolu Province having large potato growing areas with the Winstel and Ullrich Schrodter models in the years 2002,05. During these years, a late blight outbreak was observed only in 2005 with the disease being less apparent in the other years. The Ullrich Schrodter model was found to poorly predict potato late blight epidemics in 2005. The Winstel model gave first warnings too early but correctly predicted late infections. Both the A1 and A2 mating types were found in Central Anatolia for the first time, in Bolu province. [source]

    Alcohol abuse in a metropolitan city in China: a study of the prevalence and risk factors

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2004
    Zhang Jiafang
    ABSTRACT Aims To investigate the prevalence of alcohol abuse in modern China and to explore the risk factors that may be associated with alcohol abuse. Design A face-to-face interview was carried out in a random sample with 2327 respondents. Setting Respondents were selected randomly from Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, between May and June 2002. Participants Fifteen,65-year-old urban Chinese adults. Measurements Scores for alcohol abuse and related risk factors were the main measures. Findings (1) Nearly 15% of urban Chinese adults aged 15,65 were alcohol abusers. (2) Deviant drinking habits of mother, schoolmates, colleagues or friends all had a negative impact on the respondent's alcohol drinking behaviours, and higher economic status, current smokers, being male and being older were identified as risk factors related to alcohol abuse. In particular, if a drinker's mother used alcohol frequently then this drinker was more likely to become an alcohol abuser than those drinkers whose mothers did not use alcohol frequently (P = 0.0001). Fathers' drinking behaviours do not have a significant impact on the alcohol abusers. Conclusions In addition to common risk factors such as economic status, deviant peers' and fellows' drinking behaviours and negative attitudes to alcohol drinking, maternal alcohol drinking habit influenced significantly the offspring's drinking habits. Therefore, efficient intervention and education of healthy drinking habits in early motherhood is necessary for Chinese women. [source]

    Dental erosion in Cuban children associated with excessive consumption of oranges

    Walter Künzel
    Marked erosion at the mesial edges of upper front teeth was observed during an examination of Cuban children. The preferential erosion of mesial edges produced characteristic V-shaped defects on upper central incisors, and the aim of the present study, carried out on 12-yr-old children (N=1010) in 10 communities in the Province of Havana was to establish the frequency of dental erosion and explain its occurrence. The symmetrical erosion of teeth 11 and 21 (excluding crown injuries and attrition) were clinically classified into four grades: 0.5=objectionable; 1=abnormal mesial shortening of incisal edges; 2=V-shaped defect of cutting edges; 3=exposure of dentine and extension of the erosive defect to the lateral incisors. In four of the communities, children did not show or rarely showed incisal erosion. In the other six communities, the frequency was surprisingly high (16.6,40.9%). Overall, 17.4% of children exhibited erosion, and the occurrence was significantly higher in girls (20.7%) than in boys (15.0%). The typical V-shaped pattern of erosion seems to be a consequence of the manner in which citrus fruits are eaten. There was also a positive correlation between the frequency of dental erosion and the proximity of citrus plantations, which presumably related to the extent of (daily) orange consumption. [source]

    Fate of microbial residues in sandy soils of the South African Highveld as influenced by prolonged arable cropping

    W. Amelung
    Summary Long-term cultivation of former grassland soils results in a significant decline of both living and dead microbial biomass. We evaluated the effect of duration of cropping on the preservation of fungal and bacterial residues in the coarse-textured soils of the South African Highveld. Composite samples were taken from the top 20 cm of soils (Plinthustalfs) that have been cropped for periods varying from 0 to 98 years in each of three different agro-ecosystems in the Free State Province. Amino sugars were determined as markers for the microbial residues in bulk soil and its particle-size fractions. Long-term cultivation reduced N in the soil by 55% and the contents of amino sugars by 60%. Loss rates of amino sugars followed bi-exponential functions, suggesting that they comprised both labile and stable fractions. With increased duration of cropping the amino sugars attached to silt dissipated faster than those associated with the clay. This dissipation was in part because silt was preferentially lost through erosion, while clay particles (and their associated microbial residues) remained. Erosion was not solely responsible for the reduction in amino sugar concentrations, however. Bacterial amino sugars were lost in preference to fungal ones as a result of cultivation, and this effect was evident in both silt- and clay-sized separates. This shift from fungal to bacterial residues was most pronounced within the first 20 years after converting the native grassland to arable cropland, but continued after 98 years of cultivation. [source]

    The origins of food production in north China: A different kind of agricultural revolution,

    Robert L. Bettinger
    Abstract By roughly 8,000 calendar years before the present (calBP), hunter-gatherers across a broad swath of north China had begun small-scale farming of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica).1,6 According to traditional wisdom, this early millet farming evolved from the intensive hunter-gatherer adaptation represented by the late Pleistocene microblade tradition of northern China,2, 7 termed here the North China Microlithic. The archeological record of this hunter-gatherer connection is poorly documented, however, and as a result the early agricultural revolution in north China is not as well understood as those that occurred in other parts of the world. The Laoguantai site of Dadiwan, in the western Loess Plateau, Gansu Province, PRC, furnishes the first complete record of this transition, which unfolded quite differently from other, better known, agricultural revolutions. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2000
    The Changing Family in the New Millennium
    A year ago, our journal had the opportunity to publish the inaugural Meyer Elkin Address by Jonah, Peter, and Marian Wright Edelman. This past summer, the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts was honored to have George Thomson speak at its conference in Vancouver, British Columbia. Thomson was presented with this honor for his hard work and dedication to family law in Canada and throughout the world. The Family and Conciliation Courts Review is honored to publish this speech by Thomson. Described by his colleagues as a "miracle worker" and "superman", Thomson has led a fascinating career that has followed several different paths. As an undergraduate student, Thomson attained a B.A. in philosophy and English from Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. He remained at Queen's University and received an LL.B., then completed his formal education with an LL.M. from the University of California. Thomson has had a diverse background in the legal field, serving as an educator, a judge, and a government official. From 1968 until 1971, he worked as both an associate professor and assistant dean at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario. After his brief stint with the university, he was appointed judge of the Provincial Court for the Province of Ontario. Thomson held this position for five years before becoming an associate deputy minister of Community and Social Services, where he served as the head of the Children's Services Division. In the 1980s, Thomson returned to the bench in the provincial court. Additionally, he was the director of education for the Law Society of Upper Canada. Most notably, however, Thomson chaired a provincial committee on social welfare reform. By 1989, Thomson had moved from the bench into governmental work. He briefly served as the deputy minister of citizenship for Ontario. He was then appointed the deputy minister of labor until 1992. From 1992 until 1994, Thomson served as Ontario's deputy attorney general. He then became the deputy minister of justice and deputy attorney general of Canada. Most recently, Thomson has been a special advisor to the minister of justice and attorney general of Canada. The following Meyer Elkin address was presented at the annual Convention of the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts in Vancouver, Canada, in June 1999. [source]

    The identity of Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch (Paeoniaceae), with special reference to its relationship with P. mascula (L.) Mill.

    FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 1-2 2006
    Hong De-Yuan
    The taxonomy of the genus Paeonia in central Mediterranean islands has been controversial, with number of recognized taxa changing greatly from one species without infraspecific division to three species or five infraspecific taxa in one species, and with the number of synonyms as great as 30. In the present work, the taxonomic history is thoroughly reviewed and a taxonomic revision is made based on extensive field work, chromosome observation, population sampling, examination of a large amount of herbarium specimens, and subsequent statistic analysis. As a result of the studies P. corsica Sieber ex Tausch, an ignored specific name, is restored at specific rank, and the species is found distinct from all the three subspecies of P. mascula in this region in having mostly nine (vs , 10) leaflets/segments, shorter hairs (1.5 mm vs 3 mm long) on carpels, rather densely holosericeous (vs glabrous or very sparsely hirsute) on the lower surface of leaves. It is a diploid, confined to Corsica France), Sardinia (Italy), Ionian Islands and Akarnania Province of Greece, whereas P. mascula is a tetraploid, widely distributed from Spain to Turkey and Iraq, but not in Corsica, Sardinia and W Greece. In addition, type specimens of four taxa are designated, and 29 botanic names are listed as synonyms of P. corsica in this paper. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Die Identität von Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch (Paeoniaceae), mit besonderem Bezug auf ihre Verwandtschaft mit P. mascula (L.) Mill. Die Taxonomie der Gattung Paeonia auf den zentralen Mittelmeerinseln ist stets kontrovers gewesen. Die Anzahl der Taxa wechselte zwischen einer Art ohne infraspezifische Differenzierung bis zu drei oder fünf infraspezifische Taxa innerhalb einer Art. Die Anzahl der Synonyme beträgt bis zu 30 Taxa. In vorliegender Arbeit wird die Geschichte der Taxonomie sorgfältig betrachtet und eine taxonomische Revision auf der Basis extensiver Feldstudien, Chromosomen-Bewertung, Sammlungen von Populationen, der Untersuchung zahlreicher Herbarproben und abschließender statistischer Analysen vorgenommen. Im Ergebnis dieser Untersuchungen wird Paeonia corsica Sieber ex Tausch, ein bislang unbeachteter Artname, erneut in den Rang einer Art erhoben. Diese in dieser Region gefundene Spezies wurde als verschieden von den drei Unterarten von Paeonia mascula befunden. Sie hat meist neun (, 10) Blättchen, kürzere Haare (1.5 mm vs 3 mm lang) auf dem Karpell dichtere holoserios (vs glabrous oder selten hirsut) auf der Blattunterseite. Paeoniacorsica ist diploid auf Korsika (Frankreich), Sardinien (Italien), den Ionischen Inseln und der Provinz Akarnania in Griechenland, während Paeonia mascula tetraploid ist und weit verbreitet von Spanien bis in die Türkei und den Irak, fehlt aber auf Korsika, Sardinien und in Westgriechenland. Außerdem werden Typspecimen für 4 Taxa festgelegt. Als Synonyme von P. corsica wurden 29 Namen aufgelistet. [source]

    Metschnikowia arizonensis and Metschnikowia dekortorum, two new large-spored yeast species associated with floricolous beetles

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 2 2002
    Marc-André Lachance
    Abstract Two new haplontic heterothallic species of Metschnikowia were discovered in flowers and associated beetles. Metschnikowia arizonensis was recovered from flowers of cholla cactus (Opuntia echinocarpa) and a specimen of Carpophilus sp. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) found in these flowers, in Arizona. Metschnikowia dekortorum was isolated in specimens of the nitidulid beetle Conotelus sp. captured in flowers of two species of Ipomoea in northwestern Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. The sexual cycle of these yeasts is typical of the large-spored Metschnikowia species, but the asci and spores are intermediate in size between these and other members of the genus. The physiology is consistent with that of most Metschnikowia species except that both species fail to utilize lysine as sole nitrogen source. Also, M. arizonensis utilizes fewer carbon compounds than most species and exhibits considerable variability among strains at this level. Partial ribosomal DNA large-subunit (D1/D2) sequences suggest that M. arizonensis and M. dekortorum are moderately related sister species whose positions are intermediate between the large-spored species Metschnikowia and Metschnikowia hibisci. The type cultures are: M. arizonensis, strains UWO(PS)99-103.3.1=CBS 9064=NRRL Y-27427 (h+, holotype) and UWO(PS)99-103.4=CBS 9065=NRRL Y-27428 (h,, isotype); and M. dekortorum, strains UWO(PS)01-142b3=CBS 9063=NRRL Y-27429 (h+, holotype) and UWO(PS)01-138a3=CBS 9062=NRRL Y-27430 (h,, isotype). [source]