Protein Kinase C Substrate (protein + kinase_c_substrate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Calcium dynamics are altered in cortical neurons lacking the calmodulin-binding protein RC3

Jacqueline J. W. Van Dalen
Abstract RC3 is a neuronal calmodulin-binding protein and protein kinase C substrate that is thought to play an important regulatory role in synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity. Two molecules known to regulate synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity are Ca2+ and calmodulin, and proposed mechanisms of RC3 action involve both molecules. However, physiological evidence for a role of RC3 in neuronal Ca2+ dynamics is limited. In the current study we utilized cultured cortical neurons obtained from RC3 knockout (RC3,/,) and wildtype mice (RC3+/+) and fura-2-based microscopic Ca2+ imaging to investigate a role for RC3 in neuronal Ca2+ dynamics. Immunocytochemical characterization showed that the RC3,/, cultures lack RC3 immunoreactivity, whereas cultures prepared from wildtype mice showed RC3 immunoreactivity at all ages studied. RC3+/+ and RC3,/, cultures were indistinguishable with respect to neuron density, neuronal morphology, the formation of extensive neuritic networks and the presence of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. However, the absence of RC3 in the RC3,/, neurons was found to alter neuronal Ca2+ dynamics including baseline Ca2+ levels measured under normal physiological conditions or after blockade of synaptic transmission, spontaneous intracellular Ca2+ oscillations generated by network synaptic activity, and Ca2+ responses elicited by exogenous application of N-methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) or class I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists. Thus, significant changes in Ca2+ dynamics occur in cortical neurons when RC3 is absent and these changes do not involve changes in gross neuronal morphology or neuronal maturation. These data provide direct physiological evidence for a regulatory role of RC3 in neuronal Ca2+ dynamics. [source]

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits Schwann cell proliferation by up-regulating Src-suppressed protein kinase C substrate expression

Tao Tao
Abstract Src-suppressed protein kinase C substrate (SSeCKS) is a protein kinase C substrate protein, which plays an important role in mitogenic regulatory activity. In the early stage of nerve injury, expression of SSeCKS in the PNS increases, mainly in Schwann cells (SCs). However, the exact function of SSeCKS in the regulation of SC proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we found that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,) induced both SSeCKS , isoform expression and SC growth arrest in a dose-dependent manner. By knocking down SSeCKS , isoform expression, TNF-,-induced growth arrest in SCs was partially rescued. Concurrently, the expression of cyclin D1 was reduced and the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 was decreased. A luciferase activity assay showed that cyclin D1 expression was regulated by SSeCKS at the transcription level. In addition, the cell fragments assay and immunofluorescence revealed that TNF-, prevented the translocation of cyclin D1 into the nucleus, while knocking down SSeCKS , isoform expression prompted cyclin D1 redistribution to the nucleus. In summary, our data indicate that SSeCKS may play a critical role in TNF-,-induced SC growth arrest through inhibition of cyclin D1 expression thus preventing its nuclear translocation. [source]

CaM kinase II and protein kinase C activations mediate enhancement of long-term potentiation by nefiracetam in the rat hippocampal CA1 region

Shigeki Moriguchi
Abstract Nefiracetam is a pyrrolidine-related nootropic drug exhibiting various pharmacological actions such as cognitive-enhancing effect. We previously showed that nefiracetam potentiates NMDA-induced currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. To address questions whether nefiracetam affects NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, we assessed effects of nefiracetam on NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) by electrophysiology and LTP-induced phosphorylation of synaptic proteins by immunoblotting analysis. Nefiracetam treatment at 1,1000 nM increased the slope of fEPSPs in a dose-dependent manner. The enhancement was associated with increased phosphorylation of ,-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor through activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) without affecting synapsin I phosphorylation. In addition, nefiracetam treatment increased PKC, activity in a bell-shaped dose,response curve which peaked at 10 nM, thereby increasing phosphorylation of myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate and NMDA receptor. Nefiracetam treatment did not affect protein kinase A activity. Consistent with the bell-shaped PKC, activation, nefiracetam treatment enhanced LTP in the rat hippocampal CA1 region with the same bell-shaped dose,response curve. Furthermore, nefiracetam-induced LTP enhancement was closely associated with CaMKII and PKC, activation with concomitant increases in phosphorylation of their endogenous substrates except for synapsin I. These results suggest that nefiracetam potentiates AMPA receptor-mediated fEPSPs through CaMKII activation and enhances NMDA receptor-dependent LTP through potentiation of the post-synaptic CaMKII and protein kinase C activities. Together with potentiation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function, nefiracetam-enhanced AMPA and NMDA receptor functions likely contribute to improvement of cognitive function. [source]

Microarray Analysis of Ethanol-Treated Cortical Neurons Reveals Disruption of Genes Related to the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Protein Synthesis

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2004
Ramana Gutala
Background: Chronic ethanol abuse results in deleterious behavioral responses such as tolerance, dependence, reinforcement, sensitization, and craving. The objective of this research was to identify transcripts that are differentially regulated in ethanol-treated cortical neurons compared with controls by using a pathway-focused complementary DNA microarray. Methods: Cortical neurons were isolated from postconception day 14 C57BL/6 mouse fetuses and cultured according to a standard protocol. The cortical neuronal cells were treated with 100 mM ethanol for five consecutive days with a change of media every day. A homeostatic pathway-focused microarray consisting of 638 sequence-verified genes was used to measure transcripts differentially regulated in four ethanol-treated cortical neuron samples and four control samples. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to verify the mRNA expression levels of genes of interest detected from the microarray experiments. Results: We identified 56 down-regulated and 10 up-regulated genes in ethanol-treated cortical neurons relative to untreated controls at a 5% false-discovery rate. The expression of many genes involved in ubiquitin-proteasome and protein synthesis was decreased by ethanol, including ubiquitin B, ubiquitin-like 3, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E3A, 20S proteasome ,- and ,-subunits, and members of the ribosomal proteins. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of heat shock proteins, myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10, and FK506 binding protein rapamycin-associated protein (FKBP) (mTOR) was also decreased in ethanol-treated cortical neurons. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of genes involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome cascade revealed a down-regulation of these genes, thereby corroborating our microarray results. Conclusions: Our results indicate that chronic ethanol treatment of cortical neurons resulted in decreased mRNA expression of genes involving the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and ribosomal proteins together with mTOR expression leading to disruption of protein degradation mechanism and impairment of protein synthesis machinery. [source]