Protein Kinase C Isozymes (protein + kinase_c_isozyme)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Role of atypical protein kinase C isozymes and NF-,B in IL-1,-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human myometrial smooth muscle cells

Sara V. Duggan
Increased myometrial expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) at term results from elevated local levels of inflammatory cytokines, and its inhibition provides a potential route for intervention in human pre-term labor. We have identified a role for atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in IL-1,-induced Cox-2 expression in human myometrial smooth muscle cells (HMSMC). The PKC inhibitor GF109203X (10 M) inhibited IL-1,-induced Cox-2 protein and RNA expression, which were also reduced by MAPK and nuclear factor ,B (NF-,B) inhibitors. GF109203X did not affect MAPK activities, and neither did it replicate the effect of p38 MAPK inhibition on Cox-2 mRNA stability, suggesting that PKC operates through an independent mechanism. The effect of GF109203X remained intact after depletion of conventional and novel PKC isozymes by phorbol ester pre-treatment. In contrast LY379196 (10 M), which at micromolar concentrations inhibits all but atypical PKCs, did not affect Cox-2 expression. A peptide corresponding to the pseudosubstrate sequence of atypical PKCs blocked Cox-2 protein expression, whereas the sequence from conventional PKCs was ineffective. GF109203X did not affect NF-,B binding to nuclear proteins, but strongly reduced NF-,B-dependent transcription in luciferase reporter assays. Our findings indicate that IL-1,-induced Cox-2 expression in HMSMC in culture requires p38-MAPK-mediated mRNA stabilization and an independent activation of Cox-2 transcription which is dependent on the action of atypical PKCs, probably through direct stimulation of the transactivating activity of NF-,B. J. Cell. Physiol. 210: 637,643, 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Subcellular redistribution of protein kinase C isozymes is associated with rat liver cirrhotic changes induced by carbon tetrachloride or thioacetamide

Da-Hee Jeong
Abstract Background and Aims: Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a key role in the alteration of signal transduction in the liver, which may contribute to the development of liver cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to examine the subcellular redistribution of PKC isozymes in rat liver cirrhosis, which is induced by two different cirrhotic chemical agents, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide (TAA). Methods and Results: Thioacetamide and CCl4 were administered to rats for 8 and 30 weeks, respectively before rats were killed and autopsies performed at 9, 20 and 30 weeks later. The TAA induced a fibrotic pattern in the liver that differed from that produced by CCl4, notably in the formation of fibrous connective tissue and the proliferation of bile ductule cells. Cholangiofibrosis and clear-cell foci were also observed in TAA-treated rats at 30 weeks. Histological examination revealed that severe cirrhotic changes were present 9 weeks after the commencement of CCl4 treatment and 30 weeks after TAA treatment. Discussion: When the subcellular redistribution of PKC isozymes (PKC,, -,1, -,, and -,) was examined, all the PKC isozymes in CCl4 -treated rats were found to be translocated to the membrane fraction, which may mean PKC activation, and then downregulated by proteolytic degradation after 9 weeks of treatment, which coincided with peak cirrhotic changes. All rats treated with CCl4 recovered to the control level after 20 weeks of treatment. In the case of TAA-treated rats, PKC isozymes were translocated to the particulate fraction of the liver after 9 weeks of treatment and this persisted in most of the rats for the duration of the experiment. Conclusions: From these results, it would appear that PKC translocation preceded morphologic changes, and that an altered subcellular distribution of the PKC isozyme may be associated with the response to liver damage and carcinogenesis. [source]

Toward the development of new medicinal leads with selectivity for protein kinase C isozymes

Kazuhiro Irie
Abstract Tumor promoters such as phorbol esters bind strongly to protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes to induce their activation. Since each PKC isozyme is involved in diverse biological events in addition to tumor promotion, the isozymes serve as promising therapeutic targets. Tumor promoters bind to the C1A and/or C1B domain of conventional (,, ,I, ,II, and ,) and novel PKC isozymes (,, ,, ,, and ,). As these C1 domains play differential roles in PKC activation and their translocation in cells, the development of agents with binding selectivity for individual C1 domains is a pressing need. For this purpose, we established a synthetic C1 peptide library of all PKC isozymes. The library enabled us to identify indolactam-V (1) as a promising lead compound. Our diverse structure,activity studies on 1 indicated that the position of the hydrophobic substituent on the indole ring dominates the PKC isozyme- and C1 domain-selective binding rather than conformation of the nine-membered lactam. Moreover, we suggested that the indole ring of 1 could be involved in the CH/, interaction with Pro-11 of the C1B domain of PKC,. This invaluable information will lead to the structural optimization of the PKC, ligand as exemplified by the design and synthesis of naphtholactam-V8 (21). 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Chem Rec 5: 185,195; 2005: Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/tcr.20044 [source]

Sensitivity of human glioma U-373MG cells to radiation and the protein kinase C inhibitor, calphostin C

M. Acevedo-Duncan
We assessed the radiosensitivity of the grade III human glioma cell line U-373MG by investigating the effects of radiation and the specific protein kinase C inhibitor, calphostin C on the cell cycle and cell proliferation. Irradiated glioma U-373MG cells progressed through G1 -S and underwent an arrest in G2 -M phase. The radiosensitivity of U-373MG cells to graded doses of either photons or electrons was determine by microculture tetrazolium assay. The data was fitted to the linear-quadratic model. The proliferation curves demonstrated that U-373MG cells appear to be highly radiation resistant since 8 Gy was required to achieve 50% cell mortality. Compared to radiation alone, exposure to calphostin C (250 n m) 1 h prior to radiation decreased the proliferation of U-373MG by 76% and calphostin C provoked a weakly synergistic effect in concert with radiation. Depending on the time of application following radiation, calphostin C produced an additive or less than additive effect on cell proliferation. We postulate that the enhanced radiosensitivity observed when cells are exposed to calphostin C prior to radiation may be due to direct or indirect inhibition of protein kinase C isozymes required for cell cycle progression. [source]