Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Protection

  • additional protection
  • adequate protection
  • agricultural protection
  • american grave protection
  • antioxidant protection
  • appropriate protection
  • best protection
  • biodiversity protection
  • boc protection
  • brain protection
  • cancer protection
  • cardiac protection
  • cardiovascular protection
  • cathodic protection
  • cell protection
  • cellular protection
  • cerebral protection
  • child protection
  • complete protection
  • confer protection
  • consumer protection
  • copyright protection
  • corrosion protection
  • crop protection
  • cross protection
  • disease protection
  • effective protection
  • embolic protection
  • employment protection
  • enhanced protection
  • environmental protection
  • financial protection
  • fire protection
  • full protection
  • good protection
  • grave protection
  • greater protection
  • habitat protection
  • health protection
  • heat protection
  • highest protection
  • host protection
  • human right protection
  • immune protection
  • investor protection
  • la protection
  • legal protection
  • liver protection
  • long-term protection
  • mechanical protection
  • mucosal protection
  • myocardial protection
  • native american grave protection
  • nest protection
  • neuronal protection
  • optimal protection
  • organ protection
  • partial protection
  • patent protection
  • path protection
  • personal protection
  • physical protection
  • plant protection
  • privacy protection
  • property right protection
  • radiation protection
  • renal protection
  • respiratory protection
  • ribonuclease protection
  • right protection
  • rnase protection
  • selective protection
  • shareholder protection
  • significant protection
  • similar protection
  • skin protection
  • social protection
  • special protection
  • species protection
  • statutory protection
  • stress protection
  • strong protection
  • sun protection
  • surface protection
  • temporary protection
  • thermal protection
  • tissue protection
  • trade protection
  • uv protection
  • uva protection
  • vascular protection
  • water protection

  • Terms modified by Protection

  • protection agency
  • protection agent
  • protection analysis
  • protection area
  • protection case
  • protection device
  • protection factor
  • protection intervention
  • protection law
  • protection legislation
  • protection level
  • protection material
  • protection measure
  • protection mechanism
  • protection policy
  • protection practice
  • protection procedure
  • protection products
  • protection program
  • protection scheme
  • protection services
  • protection strategy
  • protection system
  • protection work

  • Selected Abstracts


    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 2 2008
    Since the 1980s, the pharmaceutical industry has benefited substantially from a series of policy changes that have strengthened the patent protection for brand-name drugs as a result of the industry's political influence. This paper incorporates special interest politics into a quality-ladder model to analyze the policy-makers' tradeoff between the socially optimal patent length and campaign contributions. The welfare analysis suggests that the presence of a pharmaceutical lobby distorting patent protection is socially undesirable in a closed-economy setting but may improve social welfare in a multi-country setting, which features an additional efficiency tradeoff between monopolistic distortion and international free riding on innovations. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Young-Seok Han
    The green macroalga Ulva pertusa Kjellman produced UV-B absorbing compounds with a prominent absorption maximum at 294 nm in response only to UV-B, and the amounts induced were proportional to the UV-B doses. Under a 12:12-h light:dark regime, the production of UV-absorbing compounds occurred only during the exposure periods with little turnover in the dark. There was significant reduction in growth in parallel with the production of UV-B absorbing compounds. The polychromatic action spectrum for the induction of UV-B absorbing compounds in U. pertusa exhibits a major peak at 292 nm with a smaller peak at 311.5 nm. No significant induction was detected above 354.5 nm, and radiation below 285 nm caused significant reduction in the levels of UV-B absorbing compounds. After UV-B irradiation at 1.0 W·m,2 for 9 h, the optimal photosynthetic quantum yield of the samples with UV-B absorbing compounds slightly increased relative to the initial value, whereas that of thalli lacking the compounds declined to 30%,34% of the initial followed by subsequent recovery in dim light of up to 84%,85% of the initial value. There was a positive and significant relationship between the amount of UV-B absorbing compounds with antioxidant activity as determined by the ,,,-diphenyl-,-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. In addition to mat-forming characteristics and light-driven photorepair, the existence and antioxidant capacity of UV-B absorbing compounds may confer U. pertusa a greater selective advantage over other macroalgae, thereby enabling them to thrive in the presence of intense UV-B radiation. [source]


    Stephen B. Allen
    ABSTRACT. We investigated the relationships between levee damage and woody corridor along a 353-mile segment of the Missouri River in Missouri during the flood of 1993. Results indicated that woody corridors between riverbanks and primary levees played a significant role in the reduction or prevention of flood related damage to levees. Forty-one percent of levee failures in this segment occurred in areas with no woody corridor, while 74 percent and 83 percent of failures occurred where woody corridor widths were less than 300 feet and less than 500 feet, respectively. Median failure lengths with a woody corridor present were 50.3 percent shorter than median failure lengths with no woody corridor present. Levees without failures had significantly wider median woody corridor widths than levees that failed. Eligibility for the Corps of Engineers levee maintenance program was not a significant factor in the reduction of levee damage. Discontinuities in woody corridors played a role in 27.5 percent of the levee failures in the study segment. Smaller segments of the river valley were studied to determine if geomorphic differences influenced variations in the protective value of woody corridors. [source]


    Keith W. Ryan
    ABSTRACT: Several chlorinated solvent plumes threaten the sole-source aquifer underlying the Massachusetts Military Reservation at the western end of Cape Cod. Sensitive surface water features including ponds, cranberry bogs, and coastal wetlands are hydraulically connected to the aquifer. For one of the plumes (CS-10 the original remedy of 120 extraction and reinjection wells has the potential for significant disruption of surface water hydrology, through the localized drawdown and mounding of the water table. Recirculating wells with in-well air stripping offer a cost-effective alternative to conventional pump-and-treat technology that does not adversely affect the configuration of the water table. Pilot testing of a two well system, pumping 300 gpm, showed a capture radius of > 200 feet per well, in-well trichloroethylene (TCE) removal efficiencies of 92 to 98 percent per recirculation cycle, an average of three recirculation cycles within the capture zone, and no measurable effect on water table elevations at any point within the recirculation/treatment zone. During 120 days of operation, the mean concentration of TCE in the treatment zone was reduced by 83 percent, from 1,111 ,g/l to 184 ,g/l. Full-scale design projections indicate that 60 wells at an average spacing of 160 feet, having an aggregate recirculation 11 MGD, can contain the CS-b plume without ground water extraction or adverse hydraulic effects on surface water resources. The estimated capital costs for such a system are about $7 million, and annual operations-and-maintenance costs should be about $1.4 million, 40 percent of those associated with a pump and treat system over a 20-year period. [source]


    Steven R. TABOR
    First page of article [source]


    Few economics articles have achieved the celebrity that still attaches to the paper, "Protection and Real Wages", by Wolfgang Stolper and Paul Samuelson in (1941). In this paper I discuss how the Stolper-Samuelson theorem has been re-interpreted over subsequent decades, and how attempts to generalize the theorem to higher dimensions have met with qualified results. The theorem leads to a simple proposition in political economy: in competitive models any productive factor can have its real return increased by a non-transparent policy whereby relative commodity prices are altered if there are enough commodities and joint production, is not too severe. [source]

    Front and Back Covers, Volume 25, Number 3.

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 3 2009
    June 200
    Front & back cover caption, volume 25 issue 3 Front & back cover HERITAGE PROTECTION Created in the aftermath of World War II, UNESCO was mandated to engage in a worldwide educational campaign aimed at establishing the conditions for lasting peace. This involved working out and disseminating a new world view based on a revised conception of human diversity. The founders of UNESCO argued that prejudice relating to human diversity is the main cause of war, and hoped that a radical modification of the existing vision of that diversity would help to guarantee of peace. Over the 60 years of its history UNESCO's doctrine has been subject to numerous modifications. Initially, cultural diversity was often described in terms of unequal economic progress and presented as an obstacle to be overcome. But in the 1960s ,progress', and the resulting cultural homogenization, began to be considered a major threat to human diversity, particularly diversity of culture. Co-ordinated by UNESCO, the international salvage of the Abu Simbel temples, threatened with submersion in Lake Nasser, became a symbol of a new moral obligation, incumbent upon all humans, to safeguard a common ,world heritage' (exemplified in the images on the back and front covers of this issue). Over the last decade, the notion of common heritage of humanity has been extended to all expressions of cultural traditions, thought to be endangered by the deleterious effects of globalization. UNESCO has chosen to put its support behind local identities and the right of the minorities to conserve their traditional differences. Alongside the principle of the equality of individuals, UNESCO now also upholds the equality of cultures, suggesting that the charter of human rights needs to be supplemented by a charter of cultural rights. The major challenge to UNESCO's current ideology is the compatibility of universal human rights with particular cultural rights. If all traditions deserve to be protected, should this privilege be bestowed equally on masterpieces of the past as on traditional practices. Wearing the burqa need not be controversial, but what about practices like genital mutilation or ,honour killings'? As Wiktor Stoczkowski argues in his article, such issues are intensely anthropological challenges deserving our attention. [source]


    Ben-Jian Zhang
    SUMMARY 1The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of berberine, an alkaloid extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine coptis, on rat liver fibrosis induced by multiple hepatotoxic factors. 2Male Wistar rats were separated into five groups, a normal control group, a fibrotic control group and fibrotic groups treated with three different doses of berberine. The fibrotic models were established by introduction of multiple hepatotoxic factors, including CCl4, ethanol and high cholesterol. Rats in the treatment groups were administered 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg berberine, intragastrically, daily for 4 weeks. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and hepatic hydroxyproline (Hyp) content were determined. Liver biopsies were obtained for histological and immunohistochemical studies to detect the expressions of a-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1. 3The results showed that, compared with the fibrotic control group, serum levels of ALT and AST and hepatic content of MDA and Hyp were markedly decreased, but the activity of hepatic SOD was significantly increased in berberine-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, histopathological changes, such as steatosis, necrosis and myofibroblast proliferation, were reduced and the expression of a-SMA and TGF-b1 was significantly downregulated in the berberine-treated groups (P < 0.01). 4These results suggest that berberine could be used to prevent experimental liver fibrosis through regulation of the anti-oxidant system and lipid peroxidation. [source]


    NS Ahmad
    SUMMARY 1.,Free radicals generated by ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA) can activate osteoclastic activity and this is associated with elevation of the bone resorbing cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2 mg/kg FeNTA (2 mg iron/kg) on the levels of serum IL-1 and IL-6 with or without supplementation with a palm oil tocotrienol mixture or ,-tocopherol acetate in Wistar rats. 2.,The FeNTA was found to elevate levels of IL-1 and IL-6. Only the palm oil tocotrienol mixture at doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg was able to prevent FeNTA-induced increases in IL-1 (P < 0.01). Both the palm oil tocotrienol mixture and ,-tocopherol acetate, at doses of 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg, were able to reduce FeNTA-induced increases in IL-6 (P < 0.05). Therefore, the palm oil tocotrienol mixture was better than pure ,-tocopherol acetate in protecting bone against FeNTA (free radical)-induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. 3.,Supplementation with the palm oil tocotrienol mixture or ,-tocopherol acetate at 100 mg/kg restored the reduction in serum osteocalcin levels due to ageing, as seen in the saline (control) group (P < 0.05). All doses of the palm oil tocotrienol mixture decreased urine deoxypyridinoline cross-link (DPD) significantly compared with the control group, whereas a trend for decreased urine DPD was only seen for doses of 60 mg/kg onwards of ,-tocopherol acetate (P < 0.05). 4.,Bone histomorphometric analyses have shown that FeNTA injections significantly lowered mean osteoblast number (P < 0.001) and the bone formation rate (P < 0.001), but raised osteoclast number (P < 0.05) and the ratio of eroded surface/bone surface (P < 0.001) compared with the saline (control) group. Supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent all these FeNTA-induced changes, but a similar dose of ,-tocopherol acetate was found to be effective only for mean osteoclast number. Injections of FeNTA were also shown to reduce trabecular bone volume (P < 0.001) and trabecular thickness (P < 0.05), whereas only supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent these FeNTA-induced changes. [source]

    Safety and effectiveness of the INVATEC MO.MA® proximal cerebral protection device during carotid artery stenting: Results from the ARMOUR pivotal trial,

    Gary M. Ansel MD
    Abstract Objective: The multicenter ARMOUR (ProximAl PRotection with the MO.MA Device DUring CaRotid Stenting) trial evaluated the 30-day safety and effectiveness of the MO.MA® Proximal Cerebral Protection Device (Invatec, Roncadelle, Italy) utilized to treat high surgical risk patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). Background: Distal embolic protection devices (EPD) have been traditionally utilized during CAS. The MO.MA device acts as a balloon occlusion "endovascular clamping" system to achieve cerebral protection prior to crossing the carotid stenosis. Methods: This prospective registry enrolled 262 subjects, 37 roll-in and 225 pivotal subjects evaluated with intention to treat (ITT) from September 2007 to February 2009. Subjects underwent CAS using the MO.MA device. The primary endpoint, myocardial infarction, stroke, or death through 30 days (30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events [MACCE]) was compared to a performance goal of 13% derived from trials utilizing distal EPD. Results: For the ITT population, the mean age was 74.7 years with 66.7% of the cohort being male. Symptomatic patients comprised 15.1% and 28.9% were octogenarians. Device success was 98.2% and procedural success was 93.2%. The 30-day MACCE rate was 2.7% [95% CI (1.0,5.8%)] with a 30-day major stroke rate of 0.9%. No symptomatic patient suffered a stroke during this trial. Conclusions: The ARMOUR trial demonstrated that the MO.MA® Proximal Cerebral Protection Device is safe and effective for high surgical risk patients undergoing CAS. The absence of stroke in symptomatic patients is the lowest rate reported in any independently adjudicated prospective multicenter registry trial to date. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Protection of the young child's brain: personal observations and thoughts in postwar stress syndrome and in natural catastrophes

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2000
    6 May 199, The Nils Rosén von Rosenstein Lecture at Uppsala University
    This paper calls attention to the plight of children exposed to various traumas associated with wars and other natural disasters around the world. Little systematic attention has been paid to the mental health needs of child survivors of armed conflict. Our observations since 1968 and experiences around the world suggest that there are significant differences in the degree to which children have been prepared in anticipation of exposure to violence and in interventions applied after their exposure. It is the author's impression that prevention and intervention can be quite powerful when employed in these situations. [source]

    Expanding the Global Network of Protected Areas to Save the Imperiled Mediterranean Biome

    análisis de disparidad; áreas protegidas; biodiversidad; ecosistemas Mediterráneos; pérdida de hábitat Abstract:,Global goals established by the Convention on Biological Diversity stipulate that 10% of the world's ecological regions must be effectively conserved by 2010. To meet that goal for the mediterranean biome, at least 5% more land must be formally protected over the next few years. Although global assessments identify the mediterranean biome as a priority, without biologically meaningful analysis units, finer-resolution data, and corresponding prioritization analysis, future conservation investments could lead to more area being protected without increasing the representation of unique mediterranean ecosystems. We used standardized analysis units and six potential natural vegetation types stratified by 3 elevation zones in a global gap analysis that systematically explored conservation priorities across the mediterranean biome. The highest levels of protection were in Australia, South Africa, and California-Baja California (from 9,11%), and the lowest levels of protection were in Chile and the mediterranean Basin (<1%). Protection was skewed to montane elevations in three out of five regions. Across the biome only one of the six vegetation types,mediterranean shrubland,exceeded 10% protection. The remaining vegetation types,grassland, scrub, succulent dominated, woodland, and forest,each had <3% protection. To guard against biases in future protection efforts and ensure the protection of species characteristic of the mediterranean biome, we identified biodiversity assemblages with <10% protection and subject to >30% conversion and suggest that these assemblages be elevated to high-priority status in future conservation efforts. Resumen:,Las metas globales establecidas por la Convención sobre Diversidad Biológica estipulan que 10% de las regiones ecológicas del mundo deberán estar conservadas efectivamente en 2010. Para alcanzar esa meta en el bioma mediterráneo, por lo menos 5% más de superficie debe estar protegida formalmente en los próximos años. Aunque las evaluaciones globales identifican al bioma mediterráneo como una prioridad, sin unidades de análisis biológicamente significativas, datos de resolución más fina y los correspondientes análisis de priorización, las inversiones futuras en conservación pudieran conducir a la protección de más superficie sin incrementar la representación de los ecosistemas mediterráneos únicos. Utilizamos unidades de análisis estandarizadas y seis tipos potenciales de vegetación natural estratificados en tres zonas de elevación en un análisis global de disparidad que exploró sistemáticamente las prioridades de conservación en el bioma mediterráneo. Los niveles de protección más altos se localizaron en Australia, África del Sur y California-Baja California (de 9,11%) y los niveles de protección más bajos se localizaron en Chile y la Cuenca del mediterráneo (<1%). La protección estaba sesgada hacia elevaciones altas en tres de las cinco regiones. En todo el bioma, solo uno de los seis tipos de vegetación,matorral mediterráneo,excedió 10% de protección. Los tipos de vegetación restantes,pastizal, matorral, dominio de suculentas, y bosques,tenían <3% de protección cada uno. Para evitar sesgos en futuros esfuerzos de protección y asegurar la protección de especies características del bioma mediterráneo, identificamos ensambles de biodiversidad con <10% de protección y sujetos a >30% de conversión y sugerimos que estos ensambles sean elevados a un estatus de alta prioridad en esfuerzos de conservación en el futuro. [source]

    Metropolitan Open-Space Protection with Uncertain Site Availability

    acceso público; Chicago; modelo de selección de sitio; optimización; representación de especies Abstract:,Urban planners acquire open space to protect natural areas and provide public access to recreation opportunities. Because of limited budgets and dynamic land markets, acquisitions take place sequentially depending on available funds and sites. To address these planning features, we formulated a two-period site selection model with two objectives: maximize the expected number of species represented in protected sites and maximize the expected number of people with access to protected sites. These objectives were both maximized subject to an upper bound on area protected over two periods. The trade-off between species representation and public access was generated by the weighting method of multiobjective programming. Uncertainty was represented with a set of probabilistic scenarios of site availability in a linear-integer formulation. We used data for 27 rare species in 31 candidate sites in western Lake County, near the city of Chicago, to illustrate the model. Each trade-off curve had a concave shape in which species representation dropped at an increasing rate as public accessibility increased, with the trade-off being smaller at higher levels of the area budget. Several sites were included in optimal solutions regardless of objective function weights, and these core sites had high species richness and public access per unit area. The area protected in period one depended on current site availability and on the probabilities of sites being undeveloped and available in the second period. Although the numerical results are specific for our study, the methodology is general and applicable elsewhere. Resumen:,Planificadores urbanos adquieren espacios abiertos para proteger áreas naturales y proporcionar acceso público a oportunidades de recreación. Debido a presupuestos limitados y a la dinámica de los mercados de terrenos, las adquisiciones se llevan a cabo secuencialmente en función de la disponibilidad de fondos y sitios. Para atender estas características de la planificación, formulamos un modelo de selección de sitios de dos períodos con dos objetivos: maximizar el número esperado de especies representado en sitios protegidos y maximizar el número esperado de personas con acceso a sitios protegidos. Ambos objetivos fueron maximizados con un límite superior en la superficie protegida en los dos períodos. El balance entre la representación de especies y el acceso público fue generado por el método de ponderación de programación de multiobjetivos. La incertidumbre fue representada con un conjunto de escenarios probabilísticos de la disponibilidad de sitios en una formulación lineal-integral. Para demostrar el modelo, utilizamos datos para 27 especies raras en 31 sitios potenciales en el oeste del Condado Lake, cerca de la ciudad de Chicago. Cada curva tenía forma cóncava y la representación de especies descendió a medida que incrementó la accesibilidad pública, con un menor equilibrio en niveles altos del presupuesto para el área. Varios sitios fueron incluidos en soluciones óptimas independientemente de las funciones de ponderación de los objetivos, y estos sitios tuvieron alta riqueza de especies y acceso público por unidad de área. La superficie protegida en el período uno dependió de la disponibilidad de sitios y de las probabilidades de que los sitios no fueran desarrollados y de su disponibilidad en el segundo período. Aunque los resultados numéricos son específicos a nuestro estudio, la metodología es general y aplicable en otros sitios. [source]

    Targeting Conservation Action through Assessment of Protection and Exurban Threats

    I developed a methodology to assess the level of threat to conservation of biodiversity to help guide conservation action. This method incorporates socioeconomic indicators of risk, including developed and roaded areas, and measures the proportion of conservation lands affected by developed areas. In addition, I developed a metric called conservation potential to measure the degree of fragmentation of patches caused by development. As an illustration I applied this methodology to Colorado (U.S.A.). Protection levels were determined by examining land ownership, resulting in protected lands (status levels 1 and 2) and unprotected lands (status levels 3 and 4). Areas were considered threatened (at risk) if a land-cover patch had >20% roaded area, >15% developed area, or was highly fragmented. Although 24 of 43 natural land-cover types were unprotected (49% of the state), 9 additional types were threatened. Combining conservation-status protection levels with patterns of threat targets the geographic area where conservation action is needed, provides a way to determine where so-called protected areas are at risk, and allows conservation strategies to be better refined. Resumen: Las evaluaciones de biodiversidad a nivel de paisaje se esfuerzan por proporcionar información para la planificación del uso del suelo y actividades de conservación mediante datos sobre áreas de alto valor de biodiversidad y bajo estatus de protección. Desarrollé una metodología para evaluar el nivel de amenaza para la conservación de la biodiversidad para ayudar a guiar acciones de conservación. Este método incorpora indicadores socioeconómicos de riesgo, incluyendo áreas desarrolladas y con caminos, y mide la proporción de tierras de conservación afectadas por áreas desarrolladas. Adicionalmente, desarrollé una medida llamada potencial de conservación para cuantificar el grado de fragmentación debido al desarrollo. Como un ejemplo, apliqué esta metodología a Colorado (E. U. A). Los niveles de protección se determinaron examinando la propiedad, resultando en tierras protegidas (niveles 1 y 2) y no protegidas (niveles 3 y 4). Las áreas se consideraron amenazadas (en riesgo) si tenían >20% de su superficie con caminos, >15% del área desarrollada o si estaban muy fragmentadas. Aunque 24 de los 43 tipos de cobertura natural no estaban protegidos (49% del estado), 9 más estaban amenazados. La combinación de estatus de conservación y niveles de protección con patrones de amenazas identifica al área geográfica donde se requieren acciones de conservación, proporciona una forma de examinar donde están en riesgo las llamadas áreas protegidas y permite que las estrategias de conservación sean mejor ajustadas. [source]

    Managing Fire Regimes for Conservation and Property Protection: an Australian Response

    Robert J. Whelan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Environmental Narratives on Protection and Production: Nature-based Conflicts in R7iacute;o San Juan, Nicaragua

    Anja Nygren
    This article focuses on local processes and global forces in the struggle over the fate of forests and over the contested claims of protection and production in a protected area buffer zone of Río San Juan, Nicaragua. The struggle over control of local natural resources is seen as a multifaceted process of development and power involving diverse social actors, from agrarian politicians and development agents to a heterogeneous group of local settlers, absentee cattle raisers, timber dealers, transnational corporations, and non-governmental organizations. The initial interest is in the local resource-related discourses and actions; the analysis then broadens to include the larger political-economic processes and environment-development discourses that affect the local systems of production and systems of signification. The article underlines environmental resource conflicts as one of the major challenges in subjecting structures of social power to critical analysis. [source]

    Helping South Asia Cope Better with Natural Disasters: The Role of Social Protection

    Rasmus Heltberg
    Social protection (income) support to households in the wake of major natural disasters is assuming a growing role for the World Bank, and major cash transfers in Turkey, Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Pakistan are reviewed in this article. Such support is usually best provided directly as cash to affected households; it complements other relief and reconstruction efforts, is demanded by client countries and has a positive impact on short-term food security and long-term recovery. It could be geared for greater impact and more efficient delivery in future by the use of a best-practice toolkit and a right-on-time technical assistance facility, and its integration in emergency preparedness and capacity-building for implementing agencies. [source]

    Rights and Access to Plant Genetic Resources under India's New Law

    Anitha Ramanna
    Recognition of ,Farmer's Rights' is an attempt by developing countries to evolve a counterclaim to breeders' Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) promoted under the TRIPs Agreement of the WTO. India is one of the first countries to have granted rights to both breeders and farmers under the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act, 2001. This multiple rights system aims to distribute rights equitably, but may pose the threat of an ,anticommons tragedy' i.e. too many parties independently possessing the right to exclude others from utilising a resource. If under-utilisation of plant genetic resources results, the Act will have negative consequences for sustaining crop productivity and for the welfare of the very farming communities it seeks to compensate. [source]

    Social Protection: Defining the Field of Action and Policy

    Andy Norton
    This article reviews recent developments in the concept of social protection, beginning with an attempt to establish a working definition of the term. This is set in the context of globalisation and new thinking on connections between the management of vulnerability, risk and poverty on the one hand and long,term economic and social development on the other. The article identifies aspects of the debate which require further development, by exploring the relationship between social protection, equality, social cohesion and rights. It also reviews contemporary definitions of social protection in the policies of donors and international organisations, and summarises lessons to be learnt from experience to date with civil society practices and state policies in the developing world. [source]

    Differing aspects of insulin resistance in diabetes complications: the shape of things to come.

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 12 2002
    RD Lawrence lecture 2000
    Abstract The anticipated global epidemic of diabetes, largely as a consequence of increased rates of obesity, will particularly impact on people of South Asian and African Caribbean descent, two populations at elevated risk of insulin resistance. This article contrasts the consequent heightened risk of heart disease on the one hand in South Asians, and the paradoxical protection from heart disease in African Caribbeans on the other. Protection from the hypertriglyceridaemic effects of insulin resistance is likely to account for much of the African Caribbean paradox, although the mechanisms remain unclear. The growing evidence that insulin resistance is commonly observed in people with Type 1 diabetes, as well as those with Type 2 diabetes, and that features of insulin resistance may play a crucial role in the development of microvascular, as well as macrovascular complications, is also discussed. This indicates novel targets for the prevention and treatment of diabetes complications. Diabet. Med. 19, 973,977 (2002) [source]

    "The Devil's Apostle": Jonas King's Trial against the Greek Hierarchy in 1852 and the Pressure to Extend U.S. Protection for American Missionaries Overseas

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 5 2009
    Angelo Repousis
    First page of article [source]

    Slope dynamics of Lake Albano (Rome, Italy): insights from high resolution bathymetry

    Francesca Bozzano
    Abstract New detailed data about the morphology of the submerged slopes of Lake Albano (Rome, Italy) have been collected by a sonar multibeam survey financed by the Italian Department of Civil Protection. These data allow for investigation of the subaqueous slope dynamics of the lake, which partially fills a volcanic depression, and the elucidation of the relationships between subaqueous and subaerial slope processes. Subaerial, submerged and combined subaerial/submerged landslide-related morphologies were detected around the inner slopes of the lake. In the submerged slopes, several gravity-induced landforms were recognized: landslide scar areas, landslide accumulations, erosional chutes and channels, block fields, isolated blocks, scarps and slope breaks. An attempt to evaluate the state of activity of the submerged slopes was carried out by taking into consideration the relative freshness of some selected landforms. Interpretation of bathymetric data, as well as direct surveys of the subaerial slopes, was used to assess the morphometric features and interpret the type of movement of the landslides. We propose a comprehensive classification based on the landslide's size and type of movement. We recognized rock fall/topples, debris flows, rock slides and slump, complex rock slides/channelled flows and debris slide and slump. The volume of the main landslides ranged between 101 and 103 m3, while a few rock and debris slides have volumes ranging between 103 and 105 m3. Two large palaeo-landslides with volumes on the order of 106 m3 were identified in the southern and northern part of the lake, respectively. Velocities of the recognized landslides range from rapid to extremely rapid. Two main landslide hazard scenarios have been depicted from the results of the integrated analysis of both subaerial and submerged gravity-induced landforms. The most hazardous scenario involves extremely rapid large volume events (>106 m3) that could, if they interacted with water, induce catastrophic tsunamis. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Protection of seismic structures using semi-active friction TMD

    Chi-Chang Lin
    Abstract Although the design and applications of linear tuned mass damper (TMD) systems are well developed, nonlinear TMD systems are still in the developing stage. Energy dissipation via friction mechanisms is an effective means for mitigating the vibration of seismic structures. A friction-type TMD, i.e. a nonlinear TMD, has the advantages of energy dissipation via a friction mechanism without requiring additional damping devices. However, a passive-friction TMD (PF-TMD) has such disadvantages as a fixed and pre-determined slip load and may lose its tuning and energy dissipation abilities when it is in the stick state. A novel semi-active-friction TMD (SAF-TMD) is used to overcome these disadvantages. The proposed SAF-TMD has the following features. (1) The frictional force of the SAF-TMD can be regulated in accordance with system responses. (2) The frictional force can be amplified via a braking mechanism. (3) A large TMD stroke can be utilized to enhance control performance. A non-sticking friction control law, which can keep the SAF-TMD activated throughout an earthquake with an arbitrary intensity, was applied. The performance of the PF-TMD and SAF-TMD systems in protecting seismic structures was investigated numerically. The results demonstrate that the SAF-TMD performs better than the PF-TMD and can prevent a residual stroke that may occur in a PF-TMD system. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dismissal Protection and Worker Flows in Small Establishments

    ECONOMICA, Issue 296 2007
    Based on a large employer,employee matched data-set, the paper investigates the effects of variable enforcement of German dismissal protection legislation on the employment dynamics in small establishments. Specifically, using a difference-in-differences approach, we study the effect of changes in the threshold scale exempting small establishments from dismissal protection provisions on worker flows. In contrast to the predictions of the theory, our results indicate that there are no statistically significant effects of dismissal protection legislation on worker turnover. [source]

    Protection versus Promotion: An Empirical Investigation

    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 2 2004
    Devashish Mitra
    Using Turkish industry-level data from 1983 to 1990, we find that politically organized industries receive both higher protection and promotion than unorganized ones. Tariff rates are decreasing (increasing) in the import-penetration ratio and the absolute value of the import-demandelasticity for organized (unorganized) industries. Subsidy rates are decreasing (increasing) in the output-supply elasticity for organized (unorganized) industries. The results are consistent with the predictions of the Grossman,Helpman model and its extension in this paper. The mix of protection and promotion is inversely related to the ratio of their respective marginal deadweight cost measures. [source]

    On the Endogenous Choice between Protection and Promotion

    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 1 2000
    D. Mitra
    In a model of strategic interaction between firms in lobbying activity, I show that capitalists might prefer tariffs (protection) to production subsidies (promotion). This is due to the congestion problem arising from the government's convex welfare costs of providing subsidies as opposed to both the free-rider problem and the congestion problem acting in opposite directions in the case of tariffs. If an industry association exists, coordination can be achieved when lobbying for tariffs, but not in the case of production subsidies. [source]

    Emergency department personal protective equipment requirements following out-of-hospital chemical biological or radiological events in Australasia

    Guy W Sansom
    Abstract Recent events have led to a revision in ED equipment, preparedness and training for disasters. However, clinicians must still decide when, and what level of personal protection is required when a toxic threat exists. If possible, clear, simple and achievable protocols are required in such situations. Following an off-site Australasian chemical biological or radiological incident, current evidence indicates that the initial receiving ED staff will be adequately protected from all known chemical biological and radiological inhalational threats by wearing a properly fitted P2 (N95) mask, or its equivalent. Protection from serious contact injury is offered by wearing double gloves, disposable fluid-repellent coveralls or gown, eye protection, surgical mask, and ideally, a cap and shoe covers; in conjunction with universal precautions and procedures. [source]

    Protection of lodgepole pines from mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, with nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone

    D.P.W. Huber
    Abstract A number of angiosperm nonhost volatiles (NHVs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) were tested alone and as supplements to the antiaggregation pheromone, verbenone, for their ability to disrupt attack by the mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), on lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engel. Preliminary experiments led to a refined NHV blend [benzyl alcohol, guaiacol, benzaldehyde, nonanal, salicylaldehyde, and conophthorin] and a refined GLV blend [(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol]. In a 20-replicate experiment, NHV and GLV groups both singly, and verbenone alone, significantly reduced MPB mass attack on pheromone-baited trees and on trees within 5 m of the pheromone-baited trees. Both blends in combination with verbenone reduced the number of mass attacked, baited trees to three out of 20 compared to 20 out of 20 of the baited controls. Each binary combination was also effective at reducing mass attack. In these experiments, all tested repellents were released from devices stapled to trees at the same point as the pheromone bait, suggesting that the repellency could have been to a point source, rather than to the whole tree. Therefore, in two further experiments bands of release devices were wrapped around the treated trees and the pheromone bait was removed from the treated trees. In one experiment, when the aggregation pheromone bait was suspended between pairs of trees treated with the NHV blend plus GLV blend plus verbenone, only three out of 25 treated pairs had mass attack on at least one member of the pair. In the other 60-replicate experiment, with no pheromone baits present, attack occurred on 13 untreated and 11 banded trees, all in the path of a large advancing infestation. However, the mean attack density on the banded trees was significantly reduced to a level below the 40 attacks m,2 of bark surface required to kill a healthy lodgepole pine. As a result of these experiments, operational trials are recommended. [source]

    Environmental Protection and Financial Policies in China

    Tan Li
    First page of article [source]

    Long-term trends in liver neoplasms in brown bullhead in the Buffalo River, New York, USA

    Darrel J. Lauren
    Abstract The Buffalo River area of concern (AOC) was assigned an impaired status for the fish tumors and other deformities beneficial use impairment category by the New York State Department of Environmental Protection in 1989. This was initially based on an inadequately documented brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) feeding study using river sediment extracts. The presence of liver tumors was subsequently supported by reports of a 19 to 27% prevalence in wild brown bullhead between 1983 and 1988 and a 4.8% prevalence in 1998. However, neither fish size (or age) nor sample locations were given, and histopathological definitions were inconsistent in these previous studies. Therefore, in 2008, we re-evaluated the prevalence of hepatocellular and chloangiocellular tumors (as well as other gross indicators of fish health) in brown bullhead averaging 25,cm in length collected from three reaches of the Buffalo River and recorded our collection sites by global positioning system. Among the 37 fish of appropriate size collected, only three exhibited liver tumors (8%). The tumors were evenly distributed within the three reaches, and only hepatocellular tumors were found. There were no differences in the prevalence of hepatic foci of alteration, body weight, length, or hepatosomatic index among the three reaches, but the conditions factor was significantly lower in fish from reach 2. Natural attenuation of water and sediment quality are the most likely causes for the decrease in liver tumors. The prevalence of liver tumors between 1998 and 2008 in the Buffalo River is similar to that found in recovery-stage AOCs and some Great Lakes reference areas. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010; 29:1748,1754. © 2010 SETAC [source]