ATPase Activity (atpase + activity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of ATPase Activity

  • k+ atpase activity


  • Selected Abstracts


    ATPASE ACTIVITY, SURFACE HYDROPHOBICITY, SULFHYDRYL CONTENT AND PROTEIN DEGRADATION IN REFRIGERATED SEABASS MUSCLE IN MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2004
    PAYAP MASNIYOM
    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (80% CO2, 10% O2, 10% N2) on ATPase activity, surface hydrophobicity, sulfhydryl content and degradation of proteins in seabass muscle during storage at 4C was investigated. No changes in Ca2+ -, Mg2+ -, Mg2+ -Ca2+ -ATPase activities of natural actomyosin (NAM) in seabass slices kept under MAP were observed throughout the storage for up to 21 days (P > 0.05). However, a slightly increased Mg2+ -EGTA-ATPase was found. For seabass slices stored under air atmosphere, Ca2+ -ATPase activity decreased, whereas Mg2+ -EGTA-ATPase activity increased (P < 0.05) with a concomitant loss in Ca2+ -sensitivity. Lower decreases in total sulfhydryl content but higher increases in surface hydrophobicity were observed in samples stored under MAP, compared to those kept under air atmosphere. No marked autolytic degradation in samples kept under MAP was observed throughout the storage as monitored by no changes in myosin heavy chain, free ,-amino acid and trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide. Conversely, a considerable degradation was found in samples kept under air atmosphere, especially after 9 days of storage. Therefore, MAP is a promising means to retard the changes in muscle proteins, especially degradation. [source]


    NTPDase1 governs P2X7 -dependent functions in murine macrophages

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Sbastien A. Lvesque
    Abstract P2X7 receptor is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated ion channel within the multiprotein inflammasome complex. Until now, little is known about regulation of P2X7 effector functions in macrophages. In this study, we show that nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (NTPDase1)/CD39 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by murine peritoneal macrophages and that it regulates P2X7 -dependent responses in these cells. Macrophages isolated from NTPDase1-null mice (Entpd1,/,) were devoid of all ADPase and most ATPase activities when compared with WT macrophages (Entpd1+/+). Entpd1,/, macrophages exposed to millimolar concentrations of ATP were more susceptible to cell death, released more IL-1, and IL-18 after TLR2 or TLR4 priming, and incorporated the fluorescent dye Yo-Pro-1 more efficiently (suggestive of increased pore formation) than Entpd1+/+ cells. Consistent with these observations, NTPDase1 regulated P2X7 -associated IL-1, release after synthesis, and this process occurred independently of, and prior to, cytokine maturation by caspase-1. NTPDase1 also inhibited IL-1, release in vivo in the air pouch inflammatory model. Exudates of LPS-injected Entpd1,/, mice had significantly higher IL-1, levels when compared with Entpd1+/+ mice. Altogether, our studies suggest that NTPDase1/CD39 plays a key role in the control of P2X7 -dependent macrophage responses. [source]


    Complete reconstitution of an ATP-binding cassette transporter LolCDE complex from separately isolated subunits

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 12 2007
    Kyoko Kanamaru
    The LolCDE complex of Escherichia coli belongs to the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily and mediates the detachment of lipoproteins from the inner membrane, thereby initiating lipoprotein sorting to the outer membrane. The complex is composed of one copy each of membrane subunits LolC and LolE, and two copies of ATPase subunit LolD. To establish the conditions for reconstituting the LolCDE complex from separately isolated subunits, the ATPase activities of LolD and LolCDE were examined under various conditions. We found that both LolD and LolCDE were inactivated on incubation at 30 C in a detergent solution. ATP and phospholipids protected LolCDE, but not LolD. Furthermore, phospholipids reactivated LolCDE even after its near complete inactivation. LolD was also protected from inactivation when membrane subunits and phospholipids were present together, suggesting the phospholipid-dependent reassembly of LolCDE subunits. Indeed, the functional lipoprotein-releasing machinery was reconstituted into proteoliposomes with E. coli phospholipids and separately purified LolC, LolD and LolE. Preincubation with phospholipids at 30 C was essential for the reconstitution of the functional machinery from subunits. Strikingly, the lipoprotein-releasing activity was also reconstituted from LolE and LolD without LolC, suggesting the intriguing possibility that the minimum lipoprotein-releasing machinery can be formed from LolD and LolE. We report here the complete reconstitution of a functional ATP-binding cassette transporter from separately purified subunits. [source]


    AAA+ superfamily ATPases: common structure,diverse function

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 7 2001
    Teru Ogura
    The AAA+ superfamily of ATPases, which contain a homologous ATPase module, are found in all kingdoms of living organisms where they participate in diverse cellular processes including membrane fusion, proteolysis and DNA replication. Recent structural studies have revealed that they usually form ring-shaped oligomers, which are crucial for their ATPase activities and mechanisms of action. These ring-shaped oligomeric complexes are versatile in their mode of action, which collectively seem to involve some form of disruption of molecular or macromolecular structure; unfolding of proteins, disassembly of protein complexes, unwinding of DNA, or alteration of the state of DNA,protein complexes. Thus, the AAA+ proteins represent a novel type of molecular chaperone. Comparative analyses have also revealed significant similarities and differences in structure and molecular mechanism between AAA+ ATPases and other ring-shaped ATPases. [source]


    Diphenyl diselenide protects against glycerol-induced renal damage in rats

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 7 2009
    Ricardo Brando
    Abstract In this study we evaluated the effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 on glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats. Rats were pre-treated by gavage every day with (PhSe)2 (7.14 mg kg,1) for 7 days. On the eighth day, rats received an intramuscular injection of glycerol (8 mL kg,1). Twenty-four hours afterwards, rats were euthanized and the levels of urea and creatinine were measured in plasma. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S -transferase (GST), , -aminolevulinate dehydratase (, -ALA-D) and Na+, K+ -ATPase activities and ascorbic acid levels were evaluated in renal homogenates. Histopathological evaluations were also performed. The results demonstrated that (PhSe)2 was able to protect against the increase in urea and creatinine levels and histological alterations in kidney induced by glycerol. (PhSe)2 protected against the inhibition in , -ALA-D, CAT and GPx activities and the reduction in ascorbic acid levels induced by glycerol in kidneys of rats. In conclusion, the present results indicate that (PhSe)2 was effective in protecting against acute renal failure induced by glycerol. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    ATPASE ACTIVITY, SURFACE HYDROPHOBICITY, SULFHYDRYL CONTENT AND PROTEIN DEGRADATION IN REFRIGERATED SEABASS MUSCLE IN MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2004
    PAYAP MASNIYOM
    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (80% CO2, 10% O2, 10% N2) on ATPase activity, surface hydrophobicity, sulfhydryl content and degradation of proteins in seabass muscle during storage at 4C was investigated. No changes in Ca2+ -, Mg2+ -, Mg2+ -Ca2+ -ATPase activities of natural actomyosin (NAM) in seabass slices kept under MAP were observed throughout the storage for up to 21 days (P > 0.05). However, a slightly increased Mg2+ -EGTA-ATPase was found. For seabass slices stored under air atmosphere, Ca2+ -ATPase activity decreased, whereas Mg2+ -EGTA-ATPase activity increased (P < 0.05) with a concomitant loss in Ca2+ -sensitivity. Lower decreases in total sulfhydryl content but higher increases in surface hydrophobicity were observed in samples stored under MAP, compared to those kept under air atmosphere. No marked autolytic degradation in samples kept under MAP was observed throughout the storage as monitored by no changes in myosin heavy chain, free ,-amino acid and trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide. Conversely, a considerable degradation was found in samples kept under air atmosphere, especially after 9 days of storage. Therefore, MAP is a promising means to retard the changes in muscle proteins, especially degradation. [source]


    Biochemical and Conformation Changes of Actomyosin from Threadfin Bream Stored in Ice

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2002
    J. Yongswawatdigul
    ABSTRACT: Biochemical and conformational changes of actomyosin stored in ice were investigated. The K-value of threadfin bream increased from 9% to 40% after storage for 12 d. Ca2+ -, EDTA-, Mg2+ -, and Mg2+ -Ca2+ -ATPase activities of actomyosin decreased, whereas Mg2+ -EGTA ATPase activities increased. Total SH content of actomyosin increased after 3 d and decreased thereafter. Surface hydrophobicity gradually increased within 6 d. Protein loss during washing increased with storage time. A significant reduction (50%) of breaking force of thrice-washed mince was observed in fish stored in ice for 6 d. There was no evidence of proteolysis of muscle proteins stored up to 9 d as shown with SDS-PAGE. [source]


    Protective effect of glucosamine against ibuprofen-induced peptic ulcer in rats

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    Sethumadhavan Santhosh
    Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori is the major causative factor of ulcer but the use of ibuprofen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have also been implicated in development of ulcer. The purpose of the present study was to determine the anti-ulcer effect of glucosamine. Methods:, The protective effect of glucosamine on ibuprofen-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats was studied with respect to changes in the volume of gastric juice, acid output, pepsin activity, activities of membrane bound ATPases, protein content, glycoprotein components and histopathology. Results:, Oral administration of ibuprofen caused significant increase in the number of lesions in the gastric mucosa, increases in the volume of gastric juice and acidity, and decreased activity of pepsin. The levels of protein content and glycoprotein components (hexose, hexosamine and sialic acid) and ATPase activities were also observed. Oral pretreatment with glucosamine resulted in significant reduction in the number of lesions in the gastric mucosa and decreases in the volume of gastric juice and acidity. The pepsin activity was also maintained at near normalcy. Prior oral administration of glucosamine significantly prevented the ibuprofen-induced depletion of protein and glycoprotein components and maintained the activities of membrane bound ATPases as compared to untreated ulcer induced group of rats. Conclusion:, The anti-ulcerogenic activity of glucosamine might be ascribable to its ability to neutralize the hydrochloric acid secreted into the stomach and to its capability to strengthen the mucosal barrier by increasing mucosal glycoprotein synthesis and to its free radical scavenging property. Histopathological investigations of the mucosal tissue also support the anti-ulcerogenic effect of glucosamine. [source]


    Methoxypolyethylene glycol- block -polycaprolactone diblock copolymers reduce P-glycoprotein efflux in the absence of a membrane fluidization effect while stimulating P-glycoprotein ATPase activity

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 4 2007
    Jason Zastre
    Abstract We have previously shown that amphiphilic diblock copolymers composed of methoxypolyethylene glycol- b -polycaprolactone (MePEG- b -PCL) increased the cellular accumulation and reduced the basolateral to apical flux of the P-glycoprotein substrate, rhodamine 123 (R-123) in caco-2 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate membrane perturbation effects of MePEG- b -PCL diblock copolymers with erythrocyte membranes and caco-2 cells and the effect on P-gp ATPase activity. The diblock copolymer MePEG17 -b-PCL5 induced increasing erythrocyte hemolysis at concentrations which correlated with increasing accumulation of R-123 into caco-2 cells. However, no increase in cellular accumulation of R-123 by non-P-gp expressing cells was observed, suggesting that diblock did not enhance the transmembrane passive diffusion of R-123, but that the accumulation enhancement effect of the diblock in caco-2 cells was likely mediated primarily via P-gp inhibition. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements of membrane fluidity and P-gp ATPase activity demonstrated that MePEG17 - b -PCL5 decreased caco-2 membrane fluidity while stimulating ATPase activity approximately threefold at concentrations that maximally enhanced R-123 caco-2 accumulation. These results suggest that inhibition of P-gp efflux by MePEG17 - b -PCL5 does not appear to be related to increases in membrane fluidity or through inhibition in P-gp ATPase activities, which are two commonly reported cellular effects for P-gp inhibition mediated by surfactants. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 96: 864,875, 2007 [source]


    Melatonin reduces experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced oxidative brain damage and neurological symptoms

    JOURNAL OF PINEAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2009
    Mehmet Ersahin
    Abstract:, Oxidative stress has detrimental effects in several models of neurodegenerative diseases, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study investigated the putative neuroprotective effect of melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, in a rat model of SAH. Male Wistar albino rats were divided as control, vehicle-treated SAH, and melatonin-treated (10 mg/kg, i.p.) SAH groups. To induce SAH, 0.3 mL blood was injected into cisterna magna of rats. Forty-eight hours after SAH induction, neurological examination scores were measured and the rats were decapitated. Brain tissue samples were taken for blood,brain barrier (BBB) permeability, brain water content, histological examination, or determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Na+ -K+ -ATPase activities. Formation of reactive oxygen species in brain tissue samples was monitored by using a chemiluminescence (CL) technique. The neurological examination scores were increased in SAH groups on the second day of SAH induction and SAH caused a significant decrease in brain GSH content and Na+ -K+ -ATPase activity, which was accompanied with significant increases in CL, MDA levels, and MPO activity. On the other hand, melatonin treatment reversed all these biochemical indices as well as SAH-induced histopathological alterations, while increased brain water content and impaired BBB were also reversed by melatonin treatment. This study suggests that melatonin, which can easily cross BBB, alleviates SAH-induced oxidative stress and exerts neuroprotection by preserving BBB permeability and by reducing brain edema. [source]


    Interspecies differences in hepatic Ca2+ -ATPase activity and the effect of cold preservation on porcine liver Ca2+ -ATPase function

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 2 2001
    Piotr K. Janicki MD
    The accumulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) caused by ischemia-reperfusion during liver transplantation has been implicated as a factor leading to primary graft nonfunction. Plasma membrane (PM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ -adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases) are the primary transporters that maintain [Ca2+]i homeostasis in the liver. We hypothesized that the porcine liver is better than the rat liver as a model for the study of human liver Ca2+ -ATPase activity. We also hypothesized that cold preservation would depress Ca2+ -ATPase activity in the porcine liver. Pig and rat livers were harvested, and human liver samples were obtained from surgical resection specimens. All were preserved with University of Wisconsin solution, and porcine livers were also preserved on ice for 2 to 18 hours. Ca2+ -ATPase activity was measured after incubation with 45Ca2+ and adenosine triphosphate in the presence of specific Ca2+ -ATPase inhibitors. Porcine PM and ER Ca2+ -ATPase activities were 0.47 0.03 and 1.57 0.10 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein/min, respectively. This was not significantly different from human liver, whereas rat liver was significantly greater at 2.60 0.03 and 9.2 0.9 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein/min, respectively. We conclude that the Ca2+ -ATPase activity in the pig liver is equivalent to that of human liver, and thus, the pig liver is a better model than the rat liver. Cold preservation studies showed a significant decrease in porcine hepatic PM Ca2+ -ATPase activity after 4 hours of storage and near-total inhibition after 12 hours. Porcine hepatic ER Ca2+ -ATPase activity showed a 45% decrease in activity by 12 hours and a 69% decrease by 18 hours. We conclude that cold ischemia at clinically relevant times depresses PM Ca2+ -ATPase more than ER Ca2+ -ATPase activity in pig liver homogenates. [source]


    The effect of desferrioxamine on peroxynitrite-induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes

    CELL BIOCHEMISTRY AND FUNCTION, Issue 3 2004
    Aytu Ertabak
    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of desferrioxamine on peroxynitrite-mediated damage in erythrocytes by measuring the 3-nitrotyrosine level and glutathione peroxidase and Na+ -K+ ATPase activities in vitro. 3-Nitrotyrosine levels were determined by HPLC; glutathione peroxidase and Na+ -K+ ATPase activities were measured by spectrophotometry. Peroxynitrite increased the 3-nitrotyrosine level but decreased both enzyme activities. In the presence of desferrioxamine, glutathione peroxidase activity was increased with a decrease in the 3-nitrotyrosine level. Desferrioxamine was found to possess an important antioxidant activity as assessed in an in vitro system, reducing protein nitration, restorating enzyme activities and maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Intracellular sodium modulates the state of protein kinase C phosphorylation of rat proximal tubule Na+,K+ -ATPase

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2002
    F. R. IBARRA
    ABSTRACT The natriuretic hormone dopamine and the antinatriuretic hormone noradrenaline, acting on , -adrenergic receptors, have been shown to bidirectionally modulate the activity of renal tubular Na+,K+ -adenosine triphosphate (ATPase). Here we have examined whether intracellular sodium concentration influences the effects of these bidirectional forces on the state of phosphorylation of Na+,K+ -ATPase. Proximal tubules dissected from rat kidney were incubated with dopamine or the , -adrenergic agonist, oxymetazoline, and transiently permeabilized in a medium where sodium concentration ranged between 5 and 70 mM. The variations of sodium concentration in the medium had a proportional effect on intracellular sodium. Dopamine and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylate the catalytic subunit of rat Na+,K+ -ATPase on the Ser23 residue. The level of PKC induced Na+,K+ -ATPase phosphorylation was determined using an antibody that only recognizes Na+,K+ -ATPase, which is not phosphorylated on its PKC site. Under basal conditions Na+,K+ -ATPase was predominantly in its phosphorylated state. When intracellular sodium was increased, Na+,K+ -ATPase was predominantly in its dephosphorylated state. Phosphorylation of Na+,K+ -ATPase by dopamine was most pronounced when intracellular sodium was high, and dephosphorylation by oxymetazoline was most pronounced when intracellular sodium was low. The oxymetazoline effect was mimicked by the calcium ionophore A23187. An inhibitor of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin, increased the state of Na+,K+ -ATPase phosphorylation. The results imply that phosphorylation of renal Na+,K+ -ATPase activity is modulated by the level of intracellular sodium and that this effect involves PKC and calcium signalling pathways. The findings may have implication for the regulation of salt excretion and sodium homeostasis. [source]


    In vivo phosphorylation of regulatory light chain of myosin II in sea urchin eggs and its role in controlling myosin localization and function during cytokinesis

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 2 2008
    Ryota Uehara
    Abstract Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at Ser19 (mono-phosphorylation) promotes filament assembly and enhances actin-activated ATPase activity of non-muscle myosin, while phosphorylation at both Ser19 and Thr18 (di-phosphorylation) further enhances the ATPase activity. However, it has not well been addressed which type of phosphorylation is important in regulating myosin during cytokinesis. Here, we investigated subcellular localization in sea urchin eggs of mono-phosphorylated and di-phosphorylated RLC by both quantitative biochemical and spatiotemporal cytological approaches. Mono-phosphorylated RLC was dominant in the equatorial cortex throughout the whole process of cytokinesis. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) decreased mono-phosphorylated RLC both in the cortex and in the cleavage furrow, and blocked both formation and contraction of the contractile ring. Two different types of ROCK inhibitor gave inconsistent results: H1152 blocked both RLC mono-phosphorylation in the cleavage furrow and contraction of the contractile ring, while Y27632 affected neither the mono-phosphorylation nor cell division. These results suggest that there may be other targets of H1152 than ROCK, which is involved in the RLC phosphorylation in the cleavage furrow. Furthermore, it was revealed that localization of myosin heavy chain in the cleavage furrow, but not in the cortex, was perturbed by inhibition of RLC mono-phosphorylation. These results suggested that RLC mono-phosphorylation by more than two RLC kinases play a main role in regulation and localization of myosin in the dividing sea urchin eggs. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Regulation of monomeric dynein activity by ATP and ADP concentrations

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2001
    Katsuyuki Shiroguchi
    Abstract Axonemal dyneins are force-generating ATPases that produce ciliary and flagellar movement. A dynein has large heavy chain(s) in which there are multiple (4,6) ATP-binding consensus sequences (P-loops) as well as intermediate and light chains, constituting a very large complex. We purified a monomeric form of dynein (dynein- a) that has at least three light chains from 14S dyneins of Tetrahymena thermophila and characterized it. In in vitro motility assays, dynein- a rotated microtubules around their longitudinal axis as well as translocated them with their plus-ends leading. ATPase activity at 1 mM ATP was doubled in the presence of a low level of ADP (, 20 ,M). Both ATPase activity and translocational velocities in the presence of ADP (, 20 ,M) fit the Michaelis-Menten equation well. However, in the absence of ADP (< 0.1 ,M), neither of the activities followed the Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics, probably due to the effect of two ATP-binding sites. Our results also indicate that dynein- a has an ATP-binding site that is very sensitive to ADP and affects ATP hydrolysis at the catalytic site. This study shows that a monomeric form of a dynein molecule regulates its activity by direct binding of ATP and ADP to itself, and thus the dynein molecule has an intramolecular regulating system. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 49:189,199, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Calyculin-A, an inhibitor for protein phosphatases, induces cortical contraction in unfertilized sea urchin eggs

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2001
    Yukako Asano
    Abstract When an unfertilized sea urchin egg was exposed to calyculin-A (CL-A), an inhibitor of protein phosphatases, for a short period and then lysed, the cortex contracted to exclude cytoplasm and became a cup-shaped mass. We call the contracted cortex "actin cup" since actin filaments were major structural components. Electron microscopic observation revealed that the cup consisted of inner electron-dense layer, middle microfilamentous layer, and outermost granular region. Microfilaments were heavily accumulated in the inner electron-dense layer. The middle layer also contained numerous microfilaments, which were determined to be actin filaments by myosin S1 decoration, and they were aligned so that their barbed ends directed toward the outermost region. Myosin II, Arp2, Arp3, and spectrin were concentrated in the actin cup. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed that myosin II was localized to the electron-dense layer. We further found that the cortical tension of the egg increased just after application of CL-A and reached maximum within 10 min. Cytochalasin B or butanedione monoxime blocked the contraction, which suggested that both actin filaments and myosin ATPase activity were required for the contraction. Myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in the actin cup was shown to be phosphorylated at the activation sites Ser-19 and Thr-18, by immunoblotting with anti-phosphoepitope antibodies. The phosphorylation of MRLC was also confirmed by a 32P in vivo labeling experiment. The CL-A-induced cortical contraction may be a good model system for studying the mechanism of cytokinesis. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 48:245,261, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Digestive tract ontogeny of Dicentrarchus labrax: Implication in osmoregulation

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 3 2006
    Ivone Giffard-Mena
    The ontogeny of the digestive tract (DT) and of Na+/K+ -ATPase localization was investigated during the early postembryonic development (from yolk sac larva to juvenile) of the euryhaline teleost Dicentrarchus labrax reared at two salinities: seawater and diluted seawater. Histology, electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to determine the presence and differentiation of ion transporting cells. At hatching, the DT is an undifferentiated straight tube over the yolk sac. At the mouth opening (day 5), it comprises six segments: buccopharynx, esophagus, stomach, anterior intestine, posterior intestine and rectum, well differentiated at the juvenile stage (day 72). The enterocytes displayed ultrastructural features similar to those of mitochondria-rich cells known to be involved in active ion transport. At hatching, ion transporting cells lining the intestine and the rectum exhibited a Na+/K+ -ATPase activity which increased mainly after the larva/juvenile (20 mm) metamorphic transition. The immunofluorescence intensity was dependent upon the stage of development of the gut as well as on the histological configuration of the analyzed segment. The appearance and distribution of enteric ionocytes and the implication of the DT in osmoregulation are discussed. [source]


    Cytotoxic effects induced by hexachlorobenzene in Squilla mantis (L.) (Crustacea, Stomatopoda)

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Antonio Dell'Anno
    Abstract Contamination of marine environments by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) represents a serious concern for potential consequences on ecosystem and human health. Despite this, information on cytotoxic effects on marine organisms is still largely lacking. In this study, we investigated cytotoxic effects induced by HCB on gonads and muscular tissue of Squilla mantis by analysing Na+/K+ -ATPase activity and plasma membrane fluidity. This crustacean species was selected as a model for its habitat, trophic level, feeding behavior, and commercial exploitation for human consumption. Time course experiments revealed that low concentrations of HCB (i.e. 50 nM) determine an exponentially decrease of Na+/K+ -ATPase activity and a significant modification of cellular membrane fluidity. Significant negative relationships between Na+/K+ -ATPase activity and membrane fluidity were observed, suggesting that changes in the structure and packing of cellular membranes induced by HCB may be the primary factor affecting the activity of essential bilayer-associated enzymes. Overall these findings suggest that even small concentrations of HCB may determine important changes on cell metabolism with potential cascade effects on recruitment of this commercial species. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2008. [source]


    Cadmium tolerance in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following acute exposure: Assessment of some ionoregulatory parameters

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Sofia Garcia-Santos
    Abstract The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) can tolerate very high levels of waterborne cadmium. It has one of the highest 96 h LC50 recorded for a freshwater teleost fish (14.8 mg/L Cd; hardness 50 mg/L CaCO3). Cadmium is known to perturb ion balance in teleost fishes. However, in an acute time course experiment, plasma Na+ concentrations were unaffected, and plasma Ca2+ values only decreased after 96 h exposure in a dose-independent manner. Branchial Na+/K+ -ATPase activity and ,-subunit protein level expression in crude gill homogenates were not affected by Cd exposure during this period. Branchial chloride cell numbers, identified as Na+/K+ -ATPase immunoreactive cells using immunohistochemistry, decreased 24 h after exposure but recovered thereafter. Histopathological changes did not follow a consistent pattern of variation with exposure time, and the alterations noted in gill epithelium were basically nonspecific to cadmium. Because of its tolerance, it can be concluded that the tilapia O. niloticus would not be a suitable test organism to evaluate sublethal toxicity of cadmium and the realistic impact of this pollutant in the environment. However, it certainly could contribute significantly to our understanding of the toxic mechanism of cadmium exposure in aquatic organisms. This is the first work to investigate the effect of waterborne pollutants on Na+/K+ -ATPase ,-subunit protein expression in fish gills. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 21: 33,46, 2006. [source]


    Response of the charophyte Nitellopsis obtusa to heavy metals at the cellular, cell membrane, and enzyme levels

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    Levonas Manusad, ianas
    Abstract The responses of the freshwater macroalga Nitellopsis obtusa to heavy metal (HM) salts of Hg, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, and Ni were assessed at different levels: whole-cell mortality (96-h LC50), in vivo cell membrane (45-min depolarization of resting potential, EC50), and enzyme in plasma membrane preparations (K+, Mg2+ -specific H+ -ATPase inhibition, IC50). To measure ATPase activity, a novel procedure for isolation of plasma membrane,enriched vesicles from charophyte cells was developed. The short-term ATPase inhibition assay (IC50 from 6.0 10,7 to 4.6 10,4 M) was slightly more sensitive than the cell mortality test (LC50 from 1.1 10,6 to 2.6 10,3 M), and the electrophysiological test with the end point of 45-min depolarization of resting potential was characterized by less sensitivity for HMs (EC50 from 1.1 10,4 to 2.2 10,2 M). The variability of IC50 values assessed for HMs in the ATPase assays was close to that of LC50 values in the mortality tests (CVs from 33.5 to 83.5 and from 12.4% to 57.7%, respectively), whereas the EC50 values in the electrophysiological tests were characterized by CVs generally below 30%. All three end points identified two separate HM groups according to their toxicity to N. obtusa: Co, Ni, and Cr comprised a group of less toxic metals, whereas Hg, Cu, and Cd comprised a group of more toxic metals. However, the adverse effects within each group were discriminated differently. For example, the maximum difference between the highest and lowest LC50 for the group of less toxic metals in the long-term mortality test was approximately 60% of the response range, whereas the corresponding difference in IC50 values in the ATPase assay was 30%. In contrast, the LC50 values of the more toxic metals occupied only 10% of the response range, whereas the IC50 values were spread over 70%. Further investigation should be done of the underlying mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the observed differences in the dynamic range of a particular end point of the groups of toxicants of varying strength. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 17: 275,283, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/tox.10058 [source]


    Protein Kinase C Regulation of Rat Jejunal Transport Systems: Mechanisms Involved in Lactate Movement

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
    Marisa Tosco
    We examined whether protein kinase C (PKC) modulates the transport systems involved in lactate movements across the plasma membranes of rat jejunum. In vitro phosphorylated membrane vesicles were used to perform uptake studies, the results of which suggested that PKC activation exerts an inhibitory effect on basolateral H+ -lactate symport, as well as on apical Na+ -glucose cotransport. The specificity of the response to PKC was confirmed by using staurosporine, chelerythrine or 4-,-PMA. Experiments performed using the whole tissue incubated in vitro confirmed the reduction of lactate transport elicited by PKC and gave evidence for an associated inhibition of fluid transport. Na+,K+ -ATPase activity seems to be unaffected by the kinase and inhibited by Ca2+. Taken together, our results suggest that the overall action of PKC results from the simultananeous modulation of multiple pathways, targeted to a reduction of both lactate and bicarbonate transports without altering cell pH homeostasis. [source]


    The Vps4 C-terminal helix is a critical determinant for assembly and ATPase activity and has elements conserved in other members of the meiotic clade of AAA ATPases

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 7 2008
    Parimala R. Vajjhala
    Sorting of membrane proteins into intralumenal endosomal vesicles, multivesicular body (MVB) sorting, is critical for receptor down regulation, antigen presentation and enveloped virus budding. Vps4 is an AAA ATPase that functions in MVB sorting. Although AAA ATPases are oligomeric, mechanisms that govern Vps4 oligomerization and activity remain elusive. Vps4 has an N-terminal microtubule interacting and trafficking domain required for endosome recruitment, an AAA domain containing the ATPase catalytic site and a , domain, and a C-terminal , helix positioned close to the catalytic site in the 3D structure. Previous attempts to identify the role of the C-terminal helix have been unsuccessful. Here, we show that the C-terminal helix is important for Vps4 assembly and ATPase activity in vitro and function in vivo, but not endosome recruitment or interactions with Vta1 or ESCRT-III. Unlike the , domain, which is also important for Vps4 assembly, the C-terminal helix is not required in vivo for Vps4 homotypic interaction or dominant-negative effects of Vps4,E233Q, carrying a mutation in the ATP hydrolysis site. Vta1 promotes assembly of hybrid complexes comprising Vps4,E233Q and Vps4 lacking an intact C-terminal helix in vitro. Formation of catalytically active hybrid complexes demonstrates an intersubunit catalytic mechanism for Vps4. One end of the C-terminal helix lies in close proximity to the second region of homology (SRH), which is important for assembly and intersubunit catalysis in AAA ATPases. We propose that Vps4 SRH function requires an intact C-terminal helix. Co-evolution of a distinct Vps4 SRH and C-terminal helix in meiotic clade AAA ATPases supports this possibility. [source]


    The heat shock protein 70 molecular chaperone network in the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum , a quantitative approach

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 19 2007
    Andreas Weitzmann
    Traditionally, the canine pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been the workhorse for cell-free studies on protein transport into the mammalian ER. These studies have revealed multiple roles for the major ER-luminal heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, IgG heavy chain-binding protein (BiP), at least one of which also involves the second ER-luminal Hsp70, glucose-regulated protein (Grp) 170. In addition, at least one of these BiP activities depends on Hsp40. Up to now, five Hsp40s and two nucleotide exchange factors, Sil1 and Grp170, have been identified in the ER of different mammalian cell types. Here we quantified the various proteins of this chaperone network in canine pancreatic rough microsomes. We also characterized the various purified proteins with respect to their affinities for BiP and their effect on the ATPase activity of BiP. The results identify Grp170 as the major nucleotide exchange factor for BiP, and the resident ER-membrane proteins ER-resident J-domain protein 1 plus ER-resident J-domain protein 2/Sec63 as prime candidates for cochaperones of BiP in protein transport in the pancreatic ER. Thus, these data represent a comprehensive analysis of the BiP chaperone network that was recently linked to two human inherited diseases, polycystic liver disease and Marinesco,Sjgren syndrome. [source]


    Authentic interdomain communication in an RNA helicase reconstituted by expressed protein ligation of two helicase domains

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2007
    Anne R. Karow
    RNA helicases mediate structural rearrangements of RNA or RNA,protein complexes at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Members of the DEAD box helicase family consist of two flexibly connected helicase domains. They share nine conserved sequence motifs that are involved in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, RNA binding, and helicase activity. Most of these motifs line the cleft between the two helicase domains, and extensive communication between them is required for RNA unwinding. The two helicase domains of the Bacillus subtilis RNA helicase YxiN were produced separately as intein fusions, and a functional RNA helicase was generated by expressed protein ligation. The ligated helicase binds adenine nucleotides with very similar affinities to the wild-type protein. Importantly, its intrinsically low ATPase activity is stimulated by RNA, and the Michaelis,Menten parameters are similar to those of the wild-type. Finally, ligated YxiN unwinds a minimal RNA substrate to an extent comparable to that of the wild-type helicase, confirming authentic interdomain communication. [source]


    Functional properties of the protein disulfide oxidoreductase from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 16 2004
    A member of a novel protein family related to protein disulfide-isomerase
    Protein disulfide oxidoreductases are ubiquitous redox enzymes that catalyse dithiol,disulfide exchange reactions with a CXXC sequence motif at their active site. A disulfide oxidoreductase, a highly thermostable protein, was isolated from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfPDO), which is characterized by two redox sites (CXXC) and an unusual molecular mass. Its 3D structure at high resolution suggests that it may be related to the multidomain protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI), which is currently known only in eukaryotes. This work focuses on the functional characterization of PfPDO as well as its relation to the eukaryotic PDIs. Assays of oxidative, reductive, and isomerase activities of PfPDO were performed, which revealed that the archaeal protein not only has oxidative and reductive activity, but also isomerase activity. On the basis of structural data, two single mutants (C35S and C146S) and a double mutant (C35S/C146S) of PfPDO were constructed and analyzed to elucidate the specific roles of the two redox sites. The results indicate that the CPYC site in the C-terminal half of the protein is fundamental to reductive/oxidative activity, whereas isomerase activity requires both active sites. In comparison with PDI, the ATPase activity was tested for PfPDO, which was found to be cation-dependent with a basic pH optimum and an optimum temperature of 90 C. These results and an investigation on genomic sequence databases indicate that PfPDO may be an ancestor of the eukaryotic PDI and belongs to a novel protein disulfide oxidoreductase family. [source]


    Identification of crucial residues for the antibacterial activity of the proline-rich peptide, pyrrhocoricin

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 17 2002
    Goran Kragol
    Members of the proline-rich antibacterial peptide family, pyrrhocoricin, apidaecin and drosocin appear to kill responsive bacterial species by binding to the multihelical lid region of the bacterial DnaK protein. Pyrrhocoricin, the most potent among these peptides, is nontoxic to healthy mice, and can protect these animals from bacterial challenge. A structure,antibacterial activity study of pyrrhocoricin against Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens identified the N-terminal half, residues 2,10, the region responsible for inhibition of the ATPase activity, as the fragment that contains the active segment. While fluorescein-labeled versions of the native peptides entered E. coli cells, deletion of the C-terminal half of pyrrhocoricin significantly reduced the peptide's ability to enter bacterial or mammalian cells. These findings highlighted pyrrhocoricin's suitability for combating intracellular pathogens and raised the possibility that the proline-rich antibacterial peptides can deliver drug leads into mammalian cells. By observing strong relationships between the binding to a synthetic fragment of the target protein and antibacterial activities of pyrrhocoricin analogs modified at strategic positions, we further verified that DnaK was the bacterial target macromolecule. Inaddition, the antimicrobial activity spectrum of native pyrrhocoricin against 11 bacterial and fungal strains and the binding of labeled pyrrhocoricin to synthetic DnaK D-E helix fragments of the appropriate species could be correlated. Mutational analysis on a synthetic E. coli DnaK fragment identified a possible binding surface for pyrrhocoricin. [source]


    Purification and characterization of the heterologously expressed trehalose/maltose ABC transporter complex of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 14 2001
    Gerhard Greller
    We report the purification of the maltose/trehalose transporter complex MalFGK of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis. The complex was expressed in Escherichia coli, solubilized in dodecyl maltoside and purified with the aid of a histidine tag on one of the membrane proteins. One hundred grams of cells yielded 3 mg of pure complex. The final product showed ATPase activity at 70 C and was soluble at low detergent concentration. ATPase activity was not due to dissociation of the MalK subunit from the integral membrane proteins MalF and MalG but could not be further stimulated by trehalose/maltose binding protein (TMBP), be it the native protein as isolated from T. litoralis or the soluble engineered protein. The purified native TMBP was identified as a glycoprotein. [source]


    Functional regions in the essential light chain of smooth muscle myosin as revealed by the mutagenesis approach

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 20 2000
    Sophie Quevillon-Chruel
    The endogenous essential light chain (LC17) of myosin from intestine smooth muscle was replaced with mutated essential light chains prepared using recombinant techniques. Complete exchange was observed with histidine-tagged derivatives of LC17a, LC17b and E122A-LC17a (LC17a and LC17b are the usual constituants of smooth muscle myosin), with small changes in the ATPase activity of reconstituted myosins. Much less exchange was observed with the light-chain derivative lacking the last 12 amino acid residues, demonstrating the importance of this segment, which may act as one arm of a pair of pincers to bind the myosin heavy chain. [source]


    Nucleotide-binding domain 1 of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 17 2000
    Production of a suitable protein for structural studies
    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This protein belongs to the large ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters. Most patients with cystic fibrosis bear a mutation in the nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) of CFTR, which plays a key role in the activation of the channel function of CFTR. Determination of the three dimensional structure of NBD1 is essential to better understand its structure,function relationship, and relate it to the biological features of CFTR. In this paper, we report the first preparation of recombinant His-tagged NBD1, as a soluble, stable and isolated domain. The method avoids the use of renaturing processes or fusion constructs. ATPase activity assays show that the recombinant domain is functional. Using tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence, we point out that the local conformation, in the region of the most frequent mutation ,F508, could differ from that of the nucleotide-binding subunit of histidine permease, the only available ABC structure. We have undertaken three dimensional structure determination of NBD1, and the first two dimensional 15N- 1H NMR spectra demonstrate that the domain is folded. The method should be applicable to the structural studies of NBD2 or of other NBDs from different ABC proteins of major biological interest, such as multidrug resistance protein 1 or multidrug resistance associated protein 1. [source]


    The RadA protein from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum is a DNA-dependent ATPase that exhibits two disparate catalytic modes, with a transition temperature at 75 C

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 4 2000
    Maria Spies
    The radA gene is an archaeal homolog of bacterial recA and eukaryotic RAD51 genes, which are critical components in homologous recombination and recombinational DNA repair. We cloned the radA gene from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrobaculum islandicum, overproduced the radA gene product in Escherichia coli and purified it to homogeneity. The purified P. islandicum RadA protein maintained its secondary structure and activities in vitro at high temperatures, up to 87 C. It also showed high stability of 18.3 kcalmol,1 (76.5 kJmol,1) at 25 C and neutral pH. P. islandicum RadA exhibited activities typical of the family of RecA-like proteins, such as the ability to bind ssDNA, to hydrolyze ATP in a DNA-dependent manner and to catalyze DNA strand exchange. At 75 C, all DNAs tested stimulated ATPase activity of the RadA. The protein exhibited a break in the Arrhenius plot of ATP hydrolysis at 75 C. The cooperativity of ATP hydrolysis and ssDNA-binding ability of the protein above 75 C were higher than at lower temperatures, and the activation energy of ATP hydrolysis was lower above this break point temperature. These results suggest that the ssDNA-dependent ATPase activity of P. islandicum RadA displays a temperature-dependent capacity to exist in two different catalytic modes, with 75 C being the critical threshold temperature. [source]