Atlantic Salmon (atlantic + salmon)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Atlantic Salmon

  • adult atlantic salmon
  • juvenile atlantic salmon
  • post-smolt atlantic salmon
  • wild atlantic salmon

  • Terms modified by Atlantic Salmon

  • atlantic salmon fry
  • atlantic salmon parr
  • atlantic salmon population
  • atlantic salmon salmo salar
  • atlantic salmon salmo salar l.
  • atlantic salmon smolt

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2010
    Mathieu Buoro
    Evolutionary trade-offs among demographic parameters are important determinants of life-history evolution. Investigating such trade-offs under natural conditions has been limited by inappropriate analytical methods that fail to address the bias in demographic estimates that can result when issues of detection (uncertain detection of individual) are ignored. We propose a new statistical approach to quantify evolutionary trade-offs in wild populations. Our method is based on a state-space modeling framework that focuses on both the demographic process of interest as well as the observation process. As a case study, we used individual mark,recapture data for stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon juveniles in the Scorff River (Southern Brittany, France). In freshwater, juveniles face two life-history choices: migration to the ocean and sexual maturation (for males). Trade-offs may appear with these life-history choices and survival, because all are energy dependent. We found a cost of reproduction on survival for fish staying in freshwater and a survival advantage associated with the "decision" to migrate. Our modeling framework opens up promising prospects for the study of evolutionary trade-offs when some life-history traits are not, or only partially, observable. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2000
    Sigurd Einum
    Abstract., Timing of breeding and offspring size are maternal traits that may influence offspring competitive ability, dispersal, foraging, and vulnerability to predation and climatic conditions. To quantify the extent to which these maternal traits may ultimately affect an organism's fitness, we undertook laboratory and field experiments with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To control for confounding effects caused by correlated traits, manipulations of the timing of fertilization combined with intraclutch comparisons were used. In the wild, a total of 1462 juveniles were marked at emergence from gravel nests. Recapture rates suggest that up to 83.5% mortality occurred during the first four months after emergence from the gravel nests, with the majority (67.5%) occurring during the initial period ending 17 days after median emergence. Moreover, the mortality was selective during this initial period, resulting in a significant phenotypic shift toward an earlier date of and an increased length at emergence. However, no significant selection differentials were detected thereafter, indicating that the critical episode of selection had occurred at emergence. Furthermore, standardized selection gradients indicated that selection was more intense on date of than on body size at emergence. Timing of emergence had additional consequences in terms of juvenile body size. Late-emerging juveniles were smaller than early-emerging ones at subsequent samplings, both in the wild and in parallel experiments conducted in seminatural stream channels, and this may affect success at subsequent size-selective episodes, such as winter mortality and reproduction. Finally, our findings also suggest that egg size had fitness consequences independent of the effects of emergence time that directly affected body size at emergence and, in turn, survival and size at later life stages. The causality of the maternal effects observed in the present study supports the hypothesis that selection on juvenile traits may play an important role in the evolution of maternal traits in natural populations. [source]

    Thermal performance of juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
    Summary 1,Experimental data for maximum growth and food consumption of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr from five Norwegian rivers situated between 59 and 70°N were analysed and modelled. The growth and feeding models were also applied to groups of Atlantic Salmon growing and feeding at rates below the maximum. The data were fitted to the Ratkowsky model, originally developed for bacterial growth. 2,The rates of growth and food consumption varied significantly among populations but the variation appeared unrelated to thermal conditions in the river of population origins. No correlation was found between the thermal conditions and limits for growth, thermal growth optima or maximum growth, and hypotheses of population-specific thermal adaptation were not supported. Estimated optimum temperatures for growth were between 16 and 20 °C. 3, Model parameter estimates differed among growth-groups in that maximum growth and the performance breadth decreased from fast to slow growing individuals. The optimum temperature for growth did not change with growth rate. 4, The model for food consumption (expressed in energy terms) peaked at 19,21 °C, which is only slightly higher than the optimal temperature for growth. Growth appeared directly related to food consumption. Consumption was initiated ,2 °C below the lower temperature for growth and terminated ,1·5 °C above the upper critical temperature for growth. Model parameter estimates for consumption differed among growth-groups in a manner similar to the growth models. 5,By combining the growth and consumption models, growth efficiencies were estimated. The maximum efficiencies were high, 42,58%, and higher in rivers offering hostile than benign feeding and growth opportunities. [source]

    Injection-Salting of pre rigor Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    Sveinung Birkeland
    ABSTRACT:, The effects of temperature (,1, 4, and 10 °C), brine concentration (12% and 25% NaCl), injection volumes, and needle densities were investigated on fillet weight gain (%), salt content (%), fillet contraction (%), and muscle gaping in pre rigor brine-injected fillets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Increased brine concentration (12% to 25%) significantly increased the initial (< 5 min after injection) and final contraction (24 h after injection) of pre rigor fillets. Increased brine concentration significantly reduced weight gain and increased salt content but had no significant effect on muscle gaping. The temperatures tested did not significantly affect weight gain, fillet contraction, or gaping score. Significant regressions (P < 0.01) between the injection volume and weight gain (range: 2.5% to 15.5%) and salt content (range: 1.7% to 6.5%) were observed for injections of pre rigor fillets. Double injections significantly increased the weight gain and salt content compared to single injections. Initial fillet contraction measured 30 min after brine injection increased significantly (P < 0.01) with increasing brine injection volume but no significant difference in the fillet contraction was observed 12 h after brine injection (range: 7.9% to 8.9%). Brine-injected post rigor control fillets obtained higher weight gain, higher salt content, more muscle gaping, and significantly lower fillet contraction compared to the pre rigor injected fillets. Injection-salting is an applicable technology as a means to obtain satisfactory salt contents and homogenously distribute the salt into the muscle of pre rigor fillets of Atlantic salmon before further processing steps such as drying and smoking. [source]

    Prediction of Microbial and Sensory Quality of Cold Smoked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) by Electronic Nose

    Gudrun Olafsdottir
    ABSTRACT: Quality changes of cold smoked salmon from 4 different smokehouses in Europe were monitored by a prototype gas-sensor array system, the FishNose. Samples were stored in different packaging (vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaging [MAP]) for up to 4 wk under controlled storage conditions at 5 °C and 10 °C. Quality criteria based on sensory attributes (sweet/sour, off, and rancid odor), and total viable counts and lactic acid bacteria counts were established and used for classification of samples based on the responses of the FishNose. The responses of the gas-sensors correlated well with sensory analysis of spoilage odor and microbial counts suggesting that they can detect volatile microbially produced compounds causing spoilage odors in cold-smoked salmon during storage. The system is therefore ideal for fast quality control related to freshness evaluation of smoked salmon products. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models based on samples from single producer showed better performance than a global model based on products from different producers to classify samples of different quality. [source]

    Product Yield and Gaping in Cold-smoked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fillets as Influenced by Different Injection-salting Techniques

    S. Birkeland
    ABSTRACT Product yield and fillet gaping severity were determined in cold-smoked Atlantic salmon fillets subjected to injection-salting. Effects of process parameter settings (brine injection pressure, number of repeated injections, needle speed, injection of brine in 1 or 2 directions, and chilled fillet resting before smoking) were tested. Repeated injections increased the yield up to 5.3% (wt/wt). Increasing injection pressure significantly increased the severity of fillet gaping in smoked fillets by 18%. Brine injection directions or needle speed did not affect smoking yield. The stability of the injection system was high. The results show that choice of process parameter settings during injection-salting affects product yield after smoking. [source]

    Sources of Phenotypic and Genetic Variation for Seawater Growth in Five North American Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar, Stocks

    William R. Wolters
    In 2003, pedigreed families were obtained from two St. John's River sources, Penobscot River, Gaspè, and landlocked salmon stocks. Eyed eggs were disinfected upon arrival, and incubated in separate hatching jars. Fry were transferred prior to first feeding into individual 0.1-m3 tanks receiving 8 L/min of oxygen-saturated freshwater from a recirculating biological filtration system. At approximately 30 d after the initiation of feeding, fish densities were equalized to 250 fish/tank, fed 5% of the tank's total biomass in 3,4 daily feedings. When the fish were approximately 40 g, approximately 30 fish from each family were pit tagged and stocked communally into three replicated 10-m3 smolt tanks. Approximately 1 mo prior to stocking into sea cages for performance evaluations, evaluations of serum chloride levels and gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity were measured on subsamples from all stocks in freshwater and following seawater challenge. Smolts were stocked into sea cages in June 2005, harvested in February 2007, and evaluated for carcass weight, sex, and stage of sexual maturity. Data were analyzed by the mixed model ANOVA to determine the random effects of sire and dam (sire), and the fixed effects of sex, salmon stock, ploidy level, and replicate smolt tank on carcass weight with smolt weight as a covariate. Sire and dam variance components were significantly different from zero, and the fixed effects of salmon stock, sex × stock interaction, and smolt weight at stocking were significant (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences among sexes, replicate smolt tank, or ploidy level for carcass weight. Overall, St. John's River fish had the fastest growth with a carcass weight >4.1 kg compared with the slowest growth in landlocked fish at 1.7 kg. Grilsing was also highest in St. John's River fish (ca. 4,6%) and lowest in Penobscot River fish (0%). The sire heritability for carcass weight calculated from the sire variance component using the mixed model ANOVA or MTDFREML was 0.26 ± 0.14. Data were used to calculate breeding values on captive sibling adult brood fish, and a line selected for carcass weight was spawned in the fall of 2007, and eggs from these fish were released to industry. [source]

    Paranucleospora theridion n. gen., n. sp. (Microsporidia, Enterocytozoonidae) with a Life Cycle in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Copepoda) and Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    ABSTRACT. Paranucleospora theridion n. gen, n. sp., infecting both Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and its copepod parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis is described. The microsporidian exhibits nuclei in diplokaryotic arrangement during all known life-cycle stages in salmon, but only in the merogonal stages and early sporogonal stage in salmon lice. All developmental stages of P. theridion are in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm or nucleoplasm. In salmon, two developmental cycles were observed, producing spores in the cytoplasm of phagocytes or epidermal cells (Cycle-I) and in the nuclei of epidermal cells (Cycle-II), respectively. Cycle-I spores are small and thin walled with a short polar tube, and are believed to be autoinfective. The larger oval intranuclear Cycle-II spores have a thick endospore and a longer polar tube, and are probably responsible for transmission from salmon to L. salmonis. Parasite development in the salmon louse occurs in several different cell types that may be extremely hypertrophied due to P. theridion proliferation. Diplokaryotic merogony precedes monokaryotic sporogony. The rounded spores produced are comparable to the intranuclear spores in the salmon in most aspects, and likely transmit the infection to salmon. Phylogenetic analysis of P. theridion partial rDNA sequences place the parasite in a position between Nucleospora salmonis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Based on characteristics of the morphology, unique development involving a vertebrate fish as well as a crustacean ectoparasite host, and the results of the phylogenetic analyses it is suggested that P. theridion should be given status as a new species in a new genus. [source]

    Segregation of infectious pancreatic necrosis resistance QTL in the early life cycle of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2010
    A. A. Gheyas
    Summary In a previous study, three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) disease were identified by analysing challenge data from one sub-population of Landcatch Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt. While these QTL were shown to affect the resistance in seawater, their effect in freshwater was unknown. This study investigates the effect of these QTL on IPN resistance in salmon fry in freshwater. Twenty families with intermediate levels of IPN mortality were analysed from a freshwater challenge trial undertaken on a different sup-population of LNS salmon to that studied previously. Only the QTL from linkage group 21 (LG21) appeared to have a significant and large effect on resistance in freshwater; the same QTL was found to have the largest effect in seawater in the previous study. Variance component analysis showed a high heritability for the QTL: 0.45 ± 0.07 on the liability scale and 0.25 ± 0.05 on the observed scale. In a family where both parents were segregating for the QTL, there was a 0% vs. 100% mortality in homozygous offspring for resistant and susceptible QTL alleles. The finding that the same QTL has major effect in both freshwater and seawater has important practical implications, as this will allow the improvement of resistance in both phases through marker assisted selection by targeting this QTL. Moreover, the segregation of the LG21 QTL in a different sub-population gives further evidence of its association with IPN-resistance. [source]

    Ontogeny of energy homeostatic pathways via neuroendocrine signaling in Atlantic salmon

    Anne-Grethe Gamst Moen
    Abstract Leptin and ghrelin are known to regulate energy homeostasis via hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling in mammals. Recent studies have discovered that these hormones exist in teleosts, however, very little is known concerning their role during teleost ontogeny. Here, we have examined the steady state levels of leptins, ghrelins, their target neuropetides and several growth factors during Atlantic salmon development. Initial experiments revealed differential expression of leptin genes and ghrelin isoforms during embryogenesis. In larvae, equal upregulation of ghrl1 and ghrl2 was observed just prior to exogenous feeding while a surge of lepa1 occurred one week after first-feeding. Subsequent dissection of the embryos and larvae showed that lepa1, cart, pomca1, and agrp are supplied as maternal transcripts. The earliest zygotic expression was observed for lepa1 and cart at 320 day degrees. By 400 day degrees, this expression was localized to the head and coincided with upregulation of ghrl2 and npy. Over the hatching period growth factor signaling predominated. The ghrelin surge prior to first-feeding was exclusively localized in the internal organs and coincided with upregulation of npy and agrp in the head and agrp in the trunk. One week after exogenous feeding was established major peaks were detected in the head for lepa1 and pomca1 with increasing levels of cart, while lepa1 was also significantly expressed in the trunk. By integrating theses data into an ontogenetic model, we suggest that the mediation of Atlantic salmon energy homeostatic pathways via endocrine and neuropeptide signaling retains putative features of the mammalian system. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 70: 649,658, 2010 [source]

    Density-dependent growth of young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) revisited

    I. Imre
    Imre I, Grant JWA, Cunjak RA. Density-dependent growth of young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) revisited. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010: 19: 1,6. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract,,, The length of individual young-of-the-year (YOY) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Catamaran Brook decreases with increasing population density following a negative power curve. Because most of this decrease in growth rate occurs at low densities (<1 fish·m,2), (Imre et al. 2005; Journal of Animal Ecology, 74: 508,516) suggested that exploitation competition for drifting prey rather than space limitation might be responsible for this pattern. Recently, (Ward et al. 2007; Journal of Animal Ecology, 76: 135,138) showed that the negative power curve of growth rate versus density can be caused by other mechanisms and suggested that Imre et al.'s evidence for density-dependent growth would have been stronger if we had analysed final size versus initial density rather than final density. We examined (i) whether the negative power curve of size versus density was also apparent in an analysis of final size versus initial density and tested two predictions that emerge from Ward et al.'s model, (ii) the variance in body size increases with population density, and (iii) the maximum fish size at a site is density-independent. The final size of YOY salmon decreased with increasing initial density following a negative power curve. Our data did not provide strong support for the above predictions emerging from Ward et al.'s model. Our analyses of different years, sites and seasons were consistent with the hypothesis of density-dependent growth of YOY salmon. [source]

    Using motion-sensitive radio tags to record the activity and behavioural patterns of spawning Atlantic salmon

    P. Karppinen
    Abstract,,, In this paper, we describe a method employing motion-sensing radio transmitters for recording and identifying behavioural patterns and activity of Atlantic salmon spawning under natural conditions. Simultaneous video monitoring verified recorded activity patterns originating from behaviours such as fighting, nest digging and quivering. The method described here enables more accurate determination of the timing and location of spawning compared to conventional location tracking. Motion-sensing transmitters can also be applied to monitor other species and types of behaviour, and therefore the use and development of such methods deserves further attention in behavioural studies. [source]

    Reproductive strategies in small populations: using Atlantic salmon as a case study

    F. Juanes
    Abstract,,, Wild salmonid populations with only a few breeding adults may not exhibit a significant reduction in genetic variability compared with larger populations. Such an observation suggests that effective population sizes are larger than population size estimates based on direct adult counts and/or the mating strategy maximises outbreeding, contributing to increased heterozygosity. In the case of wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar populations, stratification by age classes and sexes on the spawning grounds avoids inbreeding and increases genetic variability. We studied the breeding composition of four Spanish salmon populations. Over a 7-year period we concluded that the probability of within-cohort mating is very low: females generally reproduce after two sea-winters whereas males reproduce mostly as one sea-winter (grilse) and/or mature parr. Considering different levels of contribution of mature parr to spawning derived from field surveys, we developed a simple model for estimating effective population sizes and found that they doubled with 65% parr contribution expected for rivers at this latitude (43°N), and ranged from 100,800 individuals. The effect of between-cohort mating was modelled considering different ranges of differences in allele frequencies between cohorts and resulted in 28,50% increases in heterozygosity when considering a 65% parr contribution. The complex mating strategy of Atlantic salmon contributes to explain the high levels of genetic variability found for small populations of this species. This model can probably be extended to other animal species with mating strategies involving different cohorts. [source]

    Variation in performance reveals discharge-related energy costs for foraging Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr

    P. S. Kemp
    Abstract,,, The energetic costs associated with foraging and social interaction for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr was estimated by measuring gross differences in performance (growth and lipid content) during two experimental trials conducted in an artificial river channel, under similar food input at two discharges. The discharges provided velocities within the range commonly experienced by salmon in the wild. Fish growth (second trial) and lipid content (first trial) were the highest at the lower discharge. Fish were less active and used a smaller area of the experimental arena under high flow. These behavioural adjustments are consistent with the reduction of energy costs at high discharge. However, there was no effect of discharge on aggressive behaviour or food intake. Therefore, despite evidence of energy economy in response to high discharge and velocity, the energetic costs of foraging were sufficiently high to cause substantial reduction in performance. In common with the findings of previous studies, dominance status was associated with individual variation in performance and habitat use. [source]

    Migration of landlocked brown trout in two Scandinavian streams as revealed from trap data

    J. Carlsson
    Abstract,,, Anthropogenic barriers that may interfere or prevent fish migration are commonly found in streams throughout the distribution of salmonids. Construction of fish passages in streams is a common solution to this problem. However, the goal with fish passages is often, at least in Scandinavia, to allow Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and migratory brown trout (S. trutta L.) to get access to spawning areas above these barriers. Hence, the fish passages may often only be open during the spawning migration of salmonids (late summer to autumn). We present data, on wild brown trout migration, from two trapping systems in two Scandinavian streams showing that intra- and interstream migrations are common throughout the summer and autumn. Moreover, differences in size were found between trap-caught trout and electrofished trout where trapped trout were generally larger than electrofished trout. We suggest that the current regime with fish passages only open parts of the year can have negative effects on populations by depriving trout from the possibility to perform migrations throughout the year. Resumen 1. Barreras de origin antrópico que pueden interferer o prevenir las migraciones de los peces son frecuentes a lo largo de las áreas de distribución de los salmónidos. Una solución común a este problema es la construcción de pasos. Si embargo, el fin general de estos pasos es, por lo menos en Escandinavia, permitir el acceso a las áreas de reproducción por encima de las barreras tanto a salmones (Salmo salar L.) como a truchas migratorias (S. trutta L.). Frecuentemente, estos pasos están solamente abiertos durante el período de migración reproductiva (final del verano y otoño) porque se piensa que este régimen no tiene consecuencias negativas ya que estas especies muestran movimientos muy limitados en otros periodos del año. 2. Presentamos datos sobre migraciones de truchas colectados en dos sistemas de trampas de dos ríos escandinavos. Un río localizado por encima de una catarata inaccesible. El segundo, con una población migratoria de truchas. Los datos indicaron claramente migraciones intensivas a lo largo de todo el período en el que las trampas estuvieron operativas. Ambos ríos mostraron un pico de migración aguas arriba a mediados de Julio. Migraciones aguas abajo fueron raramente observadas en la población por encima de la catarata aunque migraciones aguas abajo en la población del río fueron intensivas al final del otoño. 3. Sugerimos que el régimen actual de pasos de peces que abren solamente partes del año puede tener efectos negativos sobre las poblaciones, al privar a las truchas de la posibilidad de migrar a lo largo del año. Esto puede extenderse a otros sistemas con barreras ya que observamos también migraciones intensivas en la población localizada por encima de la catarata. [source]

    The effects of fluvial processes and habitat heterogeneity on distribution, growth and densities of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), with consequences on abundance of the adult fish

    R. J. Gibson
    Abstract,,,The required freshwater habitats of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are, in general, well known, but vary in quality, related to interacting effects of several variables, which may depend on different parts of a river system. Examples are given of ranges of densities and growth that can be found at various sites in eastern Canada, illustrating the biological and physico-chemical factors affecting production of juvenile salmon. Relative growth rates can indicate habitat quality and population densities. Salmon parr have negative effects on brook trout in riffle habitats. The effects of migrations within the river and of changes with stream succession on juvenile salmon production are illustrated with examples from a Newfoundland river. Migration of age-classes can be quantified from ,self-thinning' curves. Lakes have enhancing effects on downstream fluvial habitats, and, at least in Newfoundland, and probably in many boreal areas, the lacustrine proportion of the basin can be used as an index for deriving estimates of required spawning escapement. The factors described should be taken into account for more refined estimates of river production and management of the salmon resource. [source]

    Resource partitioning between lake-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr, brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.))

    L. Jørgensen
    Abstract , Resource partitioning between Atlantic salmon parr, brown trout and Arctic charr was studied throughout the ice-free season in a north Norwegian lake. Juvenile salmon and trout (,160 mm) utilized the littoral zone and juvenile charr the profundal, while adult trout and charr (>160 mm) were found in both. Juvenile salmon and trout had a similar diet, although trichopteran larvae were more important for the trout and chironomid pupae and three-spined sticklebacks for the salmon parr. Small salmon and trout parr (,120 mm) had a higher diet overlap than larger parr (121,160 mm). The feeding habits of adult trout were similar to that of juvenile trout, but the former took larger prey items. At the population level, both salmon and trout were generalistic feeders with a broad diet, but at the individual level, both species had specialized on a single or a few prey categories. Juvenile charr were segregated from salmon and trout in both habitat and food utilization; they had a narrow diet consisting of chironomids and zooplankton, possibly reflecting their confinement to the profundal habitat which have a low diversity of potential prey. Larger charr also took zoobenthos and sticklebacks in the littoral zone., [source]

    Evaluation of the effects of catch-and-release angling on the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) of the Ponoi River, Kola Peninsula, Russian Federation

    F. G. Whoriskey
    Abstract , We studied the effects of catch-and-release fishing upon the Ponoi River's Atlantic salmon populations. The Ponoi River is located on the Kola Peninsula of the Russian Federation, and has recently been developed for sports fishing. Angler exploitation rates are estimated to range from 10.4% to 19% of the river's salmon, thus the possibility of significant levels of post-release mortality is of concern. We radio-tracked fish caught and released by anglers in 1995 and 1996. Despite our simple equipment and the large size of the river, we were able to relocate most fish. These fish had high rates of survival, and anglers recaptured about 11% of them per year a second time. This is very similar to the recapture rates observed for Floy-tagged fish released in an angler-based mark-recapture assessment. We also held 62 angled fish for 24 hours in a live cage to evaluate rates of delayed mortality. Only one of the 62 fish died, and it was heavily scarred with gillnet marks. Most fish that are fatally stressed by angling die within 24 h (e.g., Booth et al. 1995). In 1996, up to 10% of our Floy-tagged fish were angled and released twice, and about 0.5% were angled and released three times. No significant biases were detected in the post-angling movement patterns of these fish. The multiple captures and lack of movement bias suggest that fish behavior was little altered by the angling experience. Nine fish Floy tagged prior to spawning have been recovered as typical emaciated kelts. Three were killed, and a post mortem exam showed all had spawned. Parr numbers at all monitored sites have been steadily increasing since the advent of catch-and-release fishing. By contrast, parr growth rates are generally unchanged or significantly better., [source]

    Aqueous exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17,-estradiol increases stress sensitivity and disrupts ion regulatory ability of juvenile Atlantic salmon

    Darren T. Lerner
    Abstract Population declines of wild Atlantic salmon have been attributed to an array of anthropogenic disturbances, including dams, commercial and recreational fishing, habitat loss, and pollution. Environmental contaminants in particular, can act as environmental stressors on fish, typically causing disruption of ion homeostasis due to their close association with the aquatic environment. To examine the effects of the xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (NP) or 17,-estradiol (E2) on stress sensitivity and ion regulation, we exposed juvenile Atlantic salmon continuously for 21 d to either 10 or 100 ,g/L NP (NP-L or NP-H), 2 ,g/L E2 (positive control), or vehicle control during the parr-smolt transformation in April. After treatment, fish were sampled in freshwater (FW), transferred to 30, seawater (SW) for 24 h, or subjected to a handling stress. Estradiol and NP-H increased plasma vitellogenin in males and females, and E2 increased gonadosomatic index only in males. In FW, E2 reduced sodium potassium,activated adenosine triphosphatase activity as well as plasma levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, and triiodothyronine. Both E2 and NP-H reduced plasma sodium in FW and increased plasma chloride in SW. Plasma Cortisol levels pre- and poststressor were significantly elevated by all treatments relative to controls, but only E2 increased plasma glucose before and after the stressor. These results indicate that exposure of anadromous salmonids to environmental estrogens heightens sensitivity to external stressors, impairs ion regulation in both FW and SW, and disrupts endocrine pathways critical for smolt development. [source]

    Biomagnification and polychlorinated biphenyl congener distribution in an aquatic predator-prey, host-parasite system

    Maria E. Persson
    Abstract Biomagnification and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener distribution was examined in a predator-prey, hostparasite system, in which Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) preyed upon sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Eubothrium crassum was an intestinal parasite in salmon that also "preyed upon" sprat, because the parasites gained access to foodstuffs via the host (salmon) gut. Salmon contained significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs compared to both parasites and prey (sprat), but no difference in PCB concentration was found between sprat and E. crassum. Salmon biomagnified several PCB congeners from their diet (sprat), whereas parasites did not, despite the fact that both salmon and their parasites ingested the same prey. Differences in nutrient uptake mechanisms between the host and their parasites, in addition to the lack of a gastrointestinal tract in the cestode, may explain the lack of biomagnification in E. crassum. No difference was found in PCB congener distribution between parasites, salmon, and sprat, and none of the animal types showed a preference for accumulating more or less lipophilic congeners (congeners with a high or low octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW]). Biomagnification factors for individual congeners in salmon did not increase with KOW; rather, they were constant, as shown by a linear relationship for congener concentration in prey and predator. [source]

    Predicting world health organization toxic equivalency factor dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl levels in farmed atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) based on known levels in feed

    Marc H. G. Berntssen
    Abstract Assimilation and elimination rate constant of dietary polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs) with a World Health Organization toxic equivalency factor (WHO-TEF) were estimated in market-size Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using fish that were previously fed vegetable oil,based (low in PCDD/Fs and DLPCBs) or fish oil,based (high in PCDD/Fs and PCBs) diets. At the start of the kinetic trial, half the fish that were fed fish oils were fed vegetable oil feeds and inverted (cross-over design) for five months. The assimilation efficiencies of the PCDD/F congeners were more variable (3,89%) and, generally, were lower than those of the DLPCBs (70,80%). Among the PCDD/F congeners, the assimilation efficiency of the most toxic tetra- and pentachlorinated PCDD/Fs was greater than that of higher-chlorinated PCDD/Fs. Elimination rates for DLPCBs were higher than those for PCDD/Fs. Lower-chlorinated PCDDs had a lower elimination rate than the higher-chlorinated PCDDs, but no differences were observed among PCDF congeners or DLPCB congeners. Kinetic parameters were used to predict the level of WHO-TEF dioxins and DLPCBs in Atlantic salmon reared in a large-scale facility under commercial conditions. Predictions were based on preanalyzed levels of these organochlorines in feeds with three different replacement levels (0, 30, and 60%) of vegetable oil. A simple one-compartmental, first-order kinetic model was used to predict the level of sum WHO toxic equivalents for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The predicted values varied by 0 to 11% from the measured values in the commercially reared salmon. [source]

    Gene expression in caged fish as a first-tier indicator of contaminant exposure in streams

    Aaron P. Roberts
    Abstract The development of sensitive, biologically based indicators of contaminant exposure (i.e., biomarkers) is an ongoing topic of research. These indicators have been proposed as a first-tier method of identifying contaminant exposure. The primary objective of this research was to implement a biomarker-based method of exposure assessment using caged fish and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) measurements of gene expression. Primers were developed for the CYPIA, metallothionein, and vitellogenin genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchyus mykiss), cutbow trout (Oncorhynchyus clarkii × mykiss), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Each of these genes has been shown to respond specifically to planar aromatic compounds, heavy metals, and environmental estrogens, respectively. Juvenile fish were placed in cages and exposed in situ at reference and contaminated sites on the Cache la Poudre River (CO, USA), the Arkansas River (CO, USA), the St. John River (NB, Canada), and two urban creeks near Dayton (OH, USA). Quantitative gene expression was determined using rtRT-PCR. Biomarker expression profiles were obtained that demonstrated differences in CYP1A, metallothionein, and vitellogenin mRNA production unique to each site, indicating that specific types of compounds were bioavailable and present in sufficient concentrations to elicit transcriptional responses in the organism. These findings support the use of a biomarker-based approach to exposure identification and assessment. [source]

    Accumulation and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxin, dibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Pirjo Isosaari
    Abstract Adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed on four diets containing polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for 30 weeks. Lipid-normalized concentrations showed that all congeners were equally partitioned between whole-fish and fillet samples. Skinned fillet accumulated approximately 30% of the total PCDD/F and PCB content in fish. Accumulation efficiencies in whole fish were 43% for 2,3,7,8-chlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins and dibenzofurans, 83% for dioxin-like PCBs, and 78% for other PCB congeners. Among PCDD/Fs, tetra- and pentachlorinated congeners were preferentially accumulated in salmon, whereas hepta- and octachlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins were excreted in the feces. Substitution patterns that were associated with a preferential accumulation of PCBs in salmon included non- ortho substitution and tetrachlorination. Accumulation efficiencies and lipid-normalized biomagnification factors (BMFs) were not influenced by the PCDD/F and PCB concentrations of the diets. Biomagnification (BMF > 1) of tetra- and pentachlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins and dibenzofurans and of all the PCBs was observed. Differences in the behavior of PCDD/F and PCB congeners resulted in a selective enrichment of the most toxic congeners in salmon. [source]

    Dietary intake of differently fed salmon: a preliminary study on contaminants

    C. Bethune
    Abstract Background, In a previous study, a group of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients exhibited positive cardioprotective effects of fatty acids derived from a diet of farmed Atlantic salmon fed fish oil (Seierstad et al. 2005). This follow-up study examines these patients for plasma exposure to selected organic and inorganic contaminants found in seafood that may detract from the benefits of eating oily fish. Methods, The study design was from Seierstad et al. (2005), where 58 patients were allocated into three groups consuming 700 g week,1 of differently fed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets for 6 weeks: 100% fish oil (FO), 100% rapeseed oil (RO), or 50% of each (FO/RO). Results, Different fillets showed graded levels (FO > FO/RO > RO) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs), indicator PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and arsenic (As). Mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) levels were similar across the three types of fillets. After 6 weeks of consumption, patient levels of PCDDs, DLPCBs, and PCBs in plasma decreased as the dietary intake of these contaminants increased. Plasma PBDEs only showed increases for the FO patients. Levels of inorganic contaminants in plasma showed only slight changes over the study period. Conclusions, These results show a reduction in the use of marine oils in fish feed reduces organic contaminant levels in farmed salmon while still providing a good dietary source of marine fatty acids. [source]

    Fatty acid composition of selected roes from some marine species

    Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera
    Abstract Fifteen roes from different marine fish species available in Spain were analyzed in order to determine their fatty acid (FA) composition, especially the eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n -3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n -3, DHA) contents. Roes from Atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda), European squid (Loligo vulgaris), cuttlefish (Sepia spp.), lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus), European hake (Merluccius merluccius), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and gonads of male Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) reached EPA + DHA amounts higher than 30% of the total FA, and among them, roes from lumpfish, European hake and salmon provide different FA type ratios that could make them adequate as dietary sources of EPA and DHA. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2000
    Sigurd Einum
    Abstract., Timing of breeding and offspring size are maternal traits that may influence offspring competitive ability, dispersal, foraging, and vulnerability to predation and climatic conditions. To quantify the extent to which these maternal traits may ultimately affect an organism's fitness, we undertook laboratory and field experiments with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To control for confounding effects caused by correlated traits, manipulations of the timing of fertilization combined with intraclutch comparisons were used. In the wild, a total of 1462 juveniles were marked at emergence from gravel nests. Recapture rates suggest that up to 83.5% mortality occurred during the first four months after emergence from the gravel nests, with the majority (67.5%) occurring during the initial period ending 17 days after median emergence. Moreover, the mortality was selective during this initial period, resulting in a significant phenotypic shift toward an earlier date of and an increased length at emergence. However, no significant selection differentials were detected thereafter, indicating that the critical episode of selection had occurred at emergence. Furthermore, standardized selection gradients indicated that selection was more intense on date of than on body size at emergence. Timing of emergence had additional consequences in terms of juvenile body size. Late-emerging juveniles were smaller than early-emerging ones at subsequent samplings, both in the wild and in parallel experiments conducted in seminatural stream channels, and this may affect success at subsequent size-selective episodes, such as winter mortality and reproduction. Finally, our findings also suggest that egg size had fitness consequences independent of the effects of emergence time that directly affected body size at emergence and, in turn, survival and size at later life stages. The causality of the maternal effects observed in the present study supports the hypothesis that selection on juvenile traits may play an important role in the evolution of maternal traits in natural populations. [source]

    An evolutionary view on tooth development and replacement in wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    A. Huysseune
    SUMMARY To gain an insight into the evolution of tooth replacement mechanisms, we studied the development of first-generation and replacement teeth on the dentary of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), a protacanthopterygian teleost, using serially sectioned heads of early posthatching stages as well as adults. First-generation teeth develop within the oral epithelium. The anlage of the replacement tooth is first seen as a placode-like thickening of the outer dental epithelium of the predecessor, at its lingual and caudal side. Ongoing development of the replacement tooth germ is characterized by the elaboration of a population of epithelial cells, termed here the middle dental epithelium, apposed to the inner dental epithelium on the lingual side of the tooth germ. Before the formation of the new successor, a single-layered outer dental epithelium segregates from the middle dental epithelium. The dental organs of the predecessor and the successor remain broadly interconnected. The absence of a discrete successional dental lamina in salmon stands in sharp contrast to what is observed in other teleosts, even those that share with salmon the extraosseous formation of replacement teeth. The mode of tooth replacement in Atlantic salmon displays several characters similar to those observed in the shark Squalus acanthias. To interpret similarities in tooth replacement between Atlantic salmon and chondrichthyans as a case of convergence, or to see them as a result of a heterochronic shift, requires knowledge on the replacement process in more basal actinopterygian lineages. The possibility that the middle dental epithelium functionally substitutes for a successional lamina, and could be a source of stem cells, whose descendants subsequently contribute to the placode of the new replacement tooth, needs to be explored. [source]

    Ontogenetic selection on hatchery salmon in the wild: natural selection on artificial phenotypes

    Michael M. Bailey
    Abstract Captive rearing often alters the phenotypes of organisms that are destined for release into the wild. Natural selection on these unnatural phenotypes could have important consequences for the utility of captive rearing as a restoration approach. We show that normal hatchery practices significantly advance the development of endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry by 30+ days. As a result, hatchery fry might be expected to face strong natural selection resulting from their developmental asynchrony. We investigated patterns of ontogenetic selection acting on hatchery produced salmon fry by experimentally manipulating fry development stage at stocking. Contrary to simple predictions, we found evidence for strong stabilizing selection on the ontogeny of unfed hatchery fry, with weaker evidence for positive directional selection on the ontogeny of fed fry. These selection patterns suggest a seasonally independent tradeoff between abiotic or biotic selection favoring advanced development and physiological selection linked to risk of starvation in unfed fry. We show, through a heuristic exercise, how such selection on ontogeny may exacerbate problems in restoration efforts by impairing fry productivity and reducing effective population sizes by 13,81%. [source]

    Habitat-mediated size selection in endangered Atlantic salmon fry: selectional restoration assessment

    Michael M. Bailey
    Abstract Preservation of adaptive variation is a top priority of many species restoration programs, but most restoration activities are conducted without direct knowledge of selection that might foster or impair adaptation and restoration goals. In this study, we quantified geographic variation in selection on fry size of endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during the 6-week period immediately following stocking in the wild. We also used a model selection approach to assess whether habitat variables influence patterns of such selection. We found evidence for significant size-selection in five out of six selection trials. Interestingly, the strength and pattern of selection varied extensively among sites, and model selection suggested that this variation in phenotypic selection was related to geographic variation in the presence of large woody debris and the slope of the stream gradient. The strong selection differentials we observed should be a concern for endangered salmon restoration, whether they reflect natural processes and an opportunity to maintain adaptation, or an indicator of the potentially deleterious phenotypic consequences of hatchery practices. [source]

    Real options for precautionary fisheries management

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 2 2008
    Eli P Fenichel
    Abstract The 1996 Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) ,Guidelines on the Precautionary Approach to Fisheries and Species Introduction' raise important issues for fisheries managers, but fail to prescribe an approach for risk management. The distinguishing characteristics of the ,precautionary approach' are the inclusion of uncertainty and ,an elaboration on the burden of proof'. The FAO precautionary approach emphasizes that managers should be risk-averse, but does not provide tools for determining the appropriate degree of risk aversion. Consequently, application of the precautionary approach often leads to decision-making based on ad hoc safety margins. These safety margins are seldom chosen with explicit consideration of trade-offs. If the emphasis was shifted to choosing between competing uncertainties, then managers could manage risk. By attempting to avoid risk, managers may gain exposure to other risks and perhaps miss valuable opportunities. We place fishery management problems within the rubric of ,real investment' problems, and compare and contrast the consideration of risk by alternative investment frameworks. We show that traditional investment frameworks are inappropriate for fishery management, and furthermore, that traditional precautionary approaches are arbitrary and without basis in decision theory. Quantitative decision-making techniques, such as formal decision analysis (FDA), enable integration of competing hypotheses that help alleviate burden-of-proof issues. These techniques help analysts consider sources of uncertainty. FDA, however, can still be subject to arbitrary safety margins because such analyses often focus on determining which strategies best achieve, or avoid, targets that have been established without complete consideration of trade-offs. A managerial finance approach, real options analysis (ROA), is an alternative and complementary decision-making technique that enables managers to compute precautionary adjustments that couple the size of the ,safety margin' with the amount of uncertainty, thereby optimizing risk exposure and avoiding the need for arbitrary safety margins. We illustrate the advantages of an approach that combines FDA and ROA, using a heuristic example about a decision to re-introduce Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) into Lake Ontario. Finally, we provide guidance on applying ROA to other fishery problems. The precautionary approach requires that managers consider risk, but considering risk is not the same as managing it. Here ROA is useful. [source]