Proposed Scheme (proposed + scheme)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Engineering

Selected Abstracts

Measurement of Outcome: A Proposed Scheme

The need to demonstrate that health care has an influence on health status is increasingly pressing. Such demonstrations require tools of measurement which are unfortunately not available. Development of instruments has been hampered by a lack of consensus on appropriate frames of reference, and there appears to be little agreement on what should be measured and what relative importance should be ascribed to different dimensions of health status. An approach that does not require the assignment of numerical values or weights to various aspects of health status and is applicable to all age groups within the population and to the whole spectrum of health problems rather than to specific medical diagnoses would seem desirable. A scheme that is based upon the development of a "profile" rather than a single "index" for describing health status is proposed in this paper. The model is a conceptual framework whose usefulness will depend upon efforts of a large number of researchers from many disciplines to develop instruments which can be incorporated in it. Although the problems in development of the scheme are complex, I hope that it will focus attention on the relevant dimensions and facilitate improved coordination of efforts to produce ways to demonstrate what health care contributes to health. [source]

An overlapping task assignment scheme for hierarchical coarse-grain task parallel processing

Akimasa YoshidaArticle first published online: 12 JAN 200
Abstract This paper proposes an overlapping task assignment scheme for the hierarchical coarse-grain task parallel processing on multiprocessor systems. In coarse-grain task parallel processing, the compiler extracts parallelism among coarse-grain tasks automatically and the coarse-grain tasks are assigned to processor clusters at runtime. However, several programs may decrease the processor-cluster utilization factor owing to lack of parallelism inside each coarse-grain task. Therefore, in order to improve the processor-cluster utilization factor, this paper proposes the execution scheme with overlapping task assignment whose dynamic scheduler can assign several coarse-grain tasks to a processor cluster simultaneously. Also, the performance evaluations by simulations and executions on SMP showed that the proposed scheme could reduce the execution time remarkably. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Diabetic foot osteomyelitis: a progress report on diagnosis and a systematic review of treatment,

A. R. Berendt
Abstract The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot appointed an expert panel to provide evidence-based guidance on the management of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. Initially, the panel formulated a consensus scheme for the diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) for research purposes, and undertook a systematic review of the evidence relating to treatment. The consensus diagnostic scheme was based on expert opinion; the systematic review was based on a search for reports of the effectiveness of treatment for DFO published prior to December 2006. The panel reached consensus on a proposed scheme that assesses the probability of DFO, based on clinical findings and the results of imaging and laboratory investigations. The literature review identified 1168 papers, 19 of which fulfilled criteria for detailed data extraction. No significant differences in outcome were associated with any particular treatment strategy. There was no evidence that surgical debridement of the infected bone is routinely necessary. Culture and sensitivity of isolates from bone biopsy may assist in selecting properly targeted antibiotic regimens, but empirical regimens should include agents active against staphylococci, administered either intravenously or orally (with a highly bioavailable agent). There are no data to support the superiority of any particular route of delivery of systemic antibiotics or to inform the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy. No available evidence supports the use of any adjunctive therapies, such as hyperbaric oxygen, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor or larvae. We have proposed a scheme for diagnosing DFO for research purposes. Data to inform treatment choices in DFO are limited, and further research is urgently needed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Coordinated voltage control of transformer taps with provision for hierarchical structure in power system

Yoshiki Nakachi
Abstract Participation of distributed generators (DGs), such as wind turbines, cogeneration systems, etc., is a natural trend from an ecological point of view and will continue to increase. The outputs of these DGs mainly depend on weather conditions but do not correspond to the changes of electrical load demand necessarily. On the other hand, due to deregulation of the electric power market, the power flow in a power system will uncertainly vary with several power transactions. Thus, complex power flow by DGs or transactions will cause voltage deviation. It will be difficult to sustain the voltage quality by using conventional voltage/reactive power control in the near future. In this paper, in order to avoid such voltage deviation and to decrease the frequency of transformer tap operations, the coordinated voltage control scheme of transformer taps on account of hierarchical structure in the power system is proposed. In the proposed scheme, integral of voltage deviation at each layer bus is applied to decide the timing of each transformer tap operation. Numerical simulations confirm that the proposed scheme is able to respond to every condition on voltage deviation. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 166(4): 48,55, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20531 [source]

Real-time deadlock-free navigation for multiple mobile robots

Harunori Gakuhari
Abstract This paper proposes a practicable navigation method for multiple mobile robots in a realistic environment. In the past, many navigation methods have been developed. However, they were often limited to a single robot and sometimes assumed robots with special mobility such as holonomic ones. From the viewpoint of practical applications it is indispensable that the number of robots is arbitrary and a general shape and mobility for them is allowed. In this study, deadlock-free navigation for nonholonomic mobile robots in a practical environment is given. In the proposed scheme, states of the environment and robots are fed back in real time, and global path planning is cyclically executed. This enables an adaptation to a changing environment and reliable, deadlock-free navigation for multiple robots. The real-time online path planning is performed by an efficient A* search in Configuration Spaces representing the robots and environment. The proposed method is tested in several simulations which represent typical complicated navigation situations. As a result, the effectiveness of the method is verified. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 163(3): 27, 36, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20714 [source]

Direct chiral analysis of primary amine drugs in human urine by single drop microextraction in-line coupled to CE

Kihwan Choi
Abstract Three-phase single drop microextraction (SDME) was in-line coupled to chiral CE of weakly basic amine compounds including amphetamine. SDME was used for the matrix isolation and sample preconcentration in order to directly analyze urine samples with the minimal pretreatment of adding NaOH. A small drop of an acidic aqueous acceptor phase covered with a thin layer of octanol was formed at the tip of a capillary by simple manipulation of the liquid handling functions of a commercial CE instrument. While the saline matrix of the urine sample was blocked by the octanol layer, the basic analytes in a basic aqueous donor phase were concentrated into the acidic acceptor drop through the octanol layer by the driving force of the pH difference between the two aqueous phases. The enantiomers of the enriched amines were resolved by using (+)-(18-crown-6)-tetracarboxylic acid as a chiral selector for the subsequent CE separation. From 10,min SDME with the agitation of the donor phase by a small stirrer retrofit to the CE instrument, enrichment factors were about a 1000-fold, yielding the LOD of 0.5,ng/mL for amphetamine. This low LOD value as well as the convenience of in-line coupled SDME make the proposed scheme well suited for the demanding chiral analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants. [source]

Fuzzy-based multiuser detector for impulsive CDMA channel

Adel M. Hmidat
A new fuzzy multiuser detector for non-Gaussian synchronous direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) is proposed for jointly mitigating the effects of impulsive noise and multiple access interference (MAI). The proposed scheme combines a linear decorrelator and antenna array with a nonlinear preprocessor based on fuzzy logic and rank ordering. The fuzzy rule is incorporated to combat impulsive noise by eliminating outliers from the received signal. The performance of the proposed scheme is assessed by Monte Carlo simulations and the obtained results demonstrate that the proposed fuzzy detector outperforms other reported schemes in terms of bit error rate (BER) and channel capacity. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A New Light-Path Setup Scheme for Dynamic Traffic in Ring-based Optical Networks

Yusuke Sato Non-Member
Abstract A simple and fast ring management token (RMT) wavelength reservation method for dynamic traffic in multi-ring wavelength-routed networks is proposed. The RMT is an agent that can control and manage the used wavelength in the network efficiently. We show that the proposed scheme achieves a high performance in terms of setup delay and loss probability. Copyright © 2009 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Fast multipole boundary element analysis of two-dimensional elastoplastic problems

P. B. Wang
Abstract This paper presents a fast multipole boundary element method (BEM) for the analysis of two-dimensional elastoplastic problems. An incremental iterative technique based on the initial strain approach is employed to solve the nonlinear equations, and the fast multipole method (FMM) is introduced to achieve higher run-time and memory storage efficiency. Both of the boundary integrals and domain integrals are calculated by recursive operations on a quad-tree structure without explicitly forming the coefficient matrix. Combining multipole expansions with local expansions, computational complexity and memory requirement of the matrix,vector multiplication are both reduced to O(N), where N is the number of degrees of freedom (DOFs). The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme are demonstrated by several numerical examples. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A simple robust numerical integration algorithm for a power-law visco-plastic model under both high and low rate-sensitivity

E. A. de Souza Neto
Abstract This note describes a simple and extremely robust algorithm for numerical integration of the power-law-type elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model discussed by Peri, (Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng. 1993; 36: 1365,1393). As the rate-independent limit is approached with increasing exponents, the evolution equations of power-law-type models are known to become stiff. Under such conditions, the solution of the implicitly discretized viscoplastic evolution equation cannot be easily obtained by standard root-finding algorithms. Here, a procedure which proves to be remarkably robust under stiff conditions is obtained by means of a simple logarithmic mapping of the basic backward Euler time-discrete equation for the incremental plastic multiplier. The logarithm-transformed equation is solved by the standard Newton,Raphson scheme combined with a simple bisection procedure which ensures that the iterative guesses for the equation unknown (the incremental equivalent plastic strain) remain within the domain where the transformed equation makes sense. The resulting implementation can handle small and large (up to order 106) power-law exponents equally. This allows its effective use under any situation of practical interest, ranging from high rate-sensitivity to virtually rate-independent conditions. The robustness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by numerical examples. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Conjugate filter approach for shock capturing,

Yun Gu
Abstract This paper introduces a new scheme for the numerical computation involving shock waves. The essence of the scheme is to adaptively implement a conjugate low-pass filter to effectively remove the accumulated numerical errors produced by a set of high-pass filters. The advantages of using such an adaptive algorithm are its controllable accuracy, relatively low cost and easy implementation. Numerical examples in one and two space dimensions are presented to illustrate the proposed scheme. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An accurate integral-based scheme for advection,diffusion equation

Tung-Lin Tsai
Abstract This paper proposes an accurate integral-based scheme for solving the advection,diffusion equation. In the proposed scheme the advection,diffusion equation is integrated over a computational element using the quadratic polynomial interpolation function. Then elements are connected by the continuity of first derivative at boundary points of adjacent elements. The proposed scheme is unconditionally stable and results in a tridiagonal system of equations which can be solved efficiently by the Thomas algorithm. Using the method of fractional steps, the proposed scheme can be extended straightforwardly from one-dimensional to multi-dimensional problems without much difficulty and complication. To investigate the computational performances of the proposed scheme five numerical examples are considered: (i) dispersion of Gaussian concentration distribution in one-dimensional uniform flow; (ii) one-dimensional viscous Burgers equation; (iii) pure advection of Gaussian concentration distribution in two-dimensional uniform flow; (iv) pure advection of Gaussian concentration distribution in two-dimensional rigid-body rotating flow; and (v) three-dimensional diffusion in a shear flow. In comparison not only with the QUICKEST scheme, the fully time-centred implicit QUICK scheme and the fully time-centred implicit TCSD scheme for one-dimensional problem but also with the ADI-QUICK scheme, the ADI-TCSD scheme and the MOSQUITO scheme for two-dimensional problems, the proposed scheme shows convincing computational performances. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Simple and efficient integration of rigid rotations suitable for constraint solvers

Tomasz Koziara
Abstract Simple and efficient way of integrating rigid rotations is presented. The algorithm is stable, second-order accurate, and in its explicit version involves evaluation of only two exponential maps per time step. The semi-explicit version of the proposed scheme improves upon the long-term stability, while it retains the explicitness in the force evaluation. The algebraic structure of both schemes makes them suitable forthe analysis of constrained multi-body systems. The explicit algorithm is specifically aimed at the analysis involving small incremental rotations, where its modest computational cost becomes the major advantage. The semi-explicit scheme naturally broadens the scope of possible applications. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A posteriori error estimation for extended finite elements by an extended global recovery

Marc Duflot
Abstract This contribution presents an extended global derivative recovery for enriched finite element methods (FEMs), such as the extended FEM along with an associated error indicator. Owing to its simplicity, the proposed scheme is ideally suited to industrial applications. The procedure is based on global minimization of the L2 norm of the difference between the raw strain field (C,1) and the recovered (C0) strain field. The methodology engineered in this paper extends the ideas of Oden and Brauchli (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 1971; 3) and Hinton and Campbell (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 1974; 8) by enriching the approximation used for the construction of the recovered derivatives (strains) with the gradients of the functions employed to enrich the approximation employed for the primal unknown (displacements). We show linear elastic fracture mechanics examples, both in simple two-dimensional settings, and for a three-dimensional structure. Numerically, we show that the effectivity index of the proposed indicator converges to unity upon mesh refinement. Consequently, the approximate error converges to the exact error, indicating that the error indicator is valid. Additionally, the numerical examples suggest a novel adaptive strategy for enriched approximations in which the dimensions of the enrichment zone are first increased, before standard h - and p -adaptivities are applied; we suggest to coin this methodology e-adaptivity. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A non-iterative derivation of the common plane for contact detection of polyhedral blocks

Shu-Wei Chang
Abstract A non-iterative derivation for finding the common plane between two polyhedral blocks is presented. By exploiting geometric relations between the normal of a plane and the closest vertex on a block, the common plane can be resolved without resorting to an iterative method. To facilitate derivations, normals in half-space are decomposed into finite subsets in which each subset corresponds to the same closest vertex on a block. The gap function, originally dependent on the normal and the two closest vertices, becomes a function of the normal only. To compute the gap for a given normal subset, the maximum theorem and the maximum projection theorem are introduced. The maximum theorem reduces finding the maximum in a subset to its boundary. Calculating the gap in 2D in a given subset thus reduces to checking two inner products. The maximum projection theorem further reduces finding the maximum on a 3D boundary to an explicit form. Three numerical examples are used to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme. The example in which the blocks are in contact further shows the existence of a local maximum while calculating the gap and illustrates the potential deficiencies in using the Cundall's iterative scheme. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Adaptive crack propagation analysis with the element-free Galerkin method

Gye-Hee Lee
Abstract In this paper, an adaptive analysis of crack propagation based on the error estimation by the element-free Galerkin (EFG) method is presented. The adaptivity analysis in quasi-static crack propagation is achieved by adding and/or removing the nodes along the background integration cells, those are refined or recovered according to the estimated errors. These errors are obtained basically by calculating the difference between the values of the projected stresses and original EFG stresses. To evaluate the performance of the proposed adaptive procedure, the crack propagation behaviour is investigated for several examples. The results of these examples show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed scheme in crack propagation analysis. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A hybrid Padé ADI scheme of higher-order for convection,diffusion problems

Samir KaraaArticle first published online: 8 SEP 200
Abstract A high-order Padé alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme is proposed for solving unsteady convection,diffusion problems. The scheme employs standard high-order Padé approximations for spatial first and second derivatives in the convection-diffusion equation. Linear multistep (LM) methods combined with the approximate factorization introduced by Beam and Warming (J. Comput. Phys. 1976; 22: 87,110) are applied for the time integration. The approximate factorization imposes a second-order temporal accuracy limitation on the ADI scheme independent of the accuracy of the LM method chosen for the time integration. To achieve a higher-order temporal accuracy, we introduce a correction term that reduces the splitting error. The resulting scheme is carried out by repeatedly solving a series of pentadiagonal linear systems producing a computationally cost effective solver. The effects of the approximate factorization and the correction term on the stability of the scheme are examined. A modified wave number analysis is performed to examine the dispersive and dissipative properties of the scheme. In contrast to the HOC-based schemes in which the phase and amplitude characteristics of a solution are altered by the variation of cell Reynolds number, the present scheme retains the characteristics of the modified wave numbers for spatial derivatives regardless of the magnitude of cell Reynolds number. The superiority of the proposed scheme compared with other high-order ADI schemes for solving unsteady convection-diffusion problems is discussed. A comparison of different time discretizations based on LM methods is given. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Numerical simulation of bubble and droplet deformation by a level set approach with surface tension in three dimensions

Roberto Croce
Abstract In this paper we present a three-dimensional Navier,Stokes solver for incompressible two-phase flow problems with surface tension and apply the proposed scheme to the simulation of bubble and droplet deformation. One of the main concerns of this study is the impact of surface tension and its discretization on the overall convergence behavior and conservation properties. Our approach employs a standard finite difference/finite volume discretization on uniform Cartesian staggered grids and uses Chorin's projection approach. The free surface between the two fluid phases is tracked with a level set (LS) technique. Here, the interface conditions are implicitly incorporated into the momentum equations by the continuum surface force method. Surface tension is evaluated using a smoothed delta function and a third-order interpolation. The problem of mass conservation for the two phases is treated by a reinitialization of the LS function employing a regularized signum function and a global fixed point iteration. All convective terms are discretized by a WENO scheme of fifth order. Altogether, our approach exhibits a second-order convergence away from the free surface. The discretization of surface tension requires a smoothing scheme near the free surface, which leads to a first-order convergence in the smoothing region. We discuss the details of the proposed numerical scheme and present the results of several numerical experiments concerning mass conservation, convergence of curvature, and the application of our solver to the simulation of two rising bubble problems, one with small and one with large jumps in material parameters, and the simulation of a droplet deformation due to a shear flow in three space dimensions. Furthermore, we compare our three-dimensional results with those of quasi-two-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations. This comparison clearly shows the need for full three-dimensional simulations of droplet and bubble deformation to capture the correct physical behavior. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A compact finite difference method for solving Burgers' equation

Shusen Xie
Abstract In this paper, a high-order accurate compact finite difference method using the Hopf,Cole transformation is introduced for solving one-dimensional Burgers' equation numerically. The stability and convergence analyses for the proposed method are given, and this method is shown to be unconditionally stable. To demonstrate efficiency, numerical results obtained by the proposed scheme are compared with the exact solutions and the results obtained by some other methods. The proposed method is second- and fourth-order accurate in time and space, respectively. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A hybrid FVM,LBM method for single and multi-fluid compressible flow problems

Himanshu Joshi
Abstract The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has established itself as an alternative approach to solve the fluid flow equations. In this work we combine LBM with the conventional finite volume method (FVM), and propose a non-iterative hybrid method for the simulation of compressible flows. LBM is used to calculate the inter-cell face fluxes and FVM is used to calculate the node parameters. The hybrid method is benchmarked for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test cases. The results obtained by the hybrid method show a steeper and more accurate shock profile as compared with the results obtained by the widely used Godunov scheme or by a representative flux vector splitting scheme. Additional features of the proposed scheme are that it can be implemented on a non-uniform grid, study of multi-fluid problems is possible, and it is easily extendable to multi-dimensions. These features have been demonstrated in this work. The proposed method is therefore robust and can possibly be applied to a variety of compressible flow situations. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Composite high resolution localized relaxation scheme based on upwinding for hyperbolic conservation laws

Ritesh Kumar Dubey
Abstract In this work we present an upwind-based high resolution scheme using flux limiters. Based on the direction of flow we choose the smoothness parameter in such a way that it leads to a truly upwind scheme without losing total variation diminishing (TVD) property for hyperbolic linear systems where characteristic values can be of either sign. Here we present and justify the choice of smoothness parameters. The numerical flux function of a high resolution scheme is constructed using wave speed splitting so that it results into a scheme that truly respects the physical hyperbolicity property. Bounds are given for limiter functions to satisfy TVD property. The proposed scheme is extended for non-linear problems by using the framework of relaxation system that converts a non-linear conservation law into a system of linear convection equations with a non-linear source term. The characteristic speed of relaxation system is chosen locally on three point stencil of grid. This obtained relaxation system is solved using composite scheme technique, i.e. using a combination of proposed scheme with the conservative non-standard finite difference scheme. Presented numerical results show higher resolution near discontinuity without introducing spurious oscillations. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A higher-order predictor,corrector scheme for two-dimensional advection,diffusion equation

Chuanjian Man
Abstract A higher-order accurate numerical scheme is developed to solve the two-dimensional advection,diffusion equation in a staggered-grid system. The first-order spatial derivatives are approximated by the fourth-order accurate finite-difference scheme, thus all truncation errors are kept to a smaller order of magnitude than those of the diffusion terms. Therefore, there is no need to add an artificial diffusion term to balance the unwanted numerical diffusion. For the time derivative, the fourth-order accurate Adams,Bashforth predictor,corrector method is applied. The stability analysis of the proposed scheme is carried out using the Von Neumann method. It is shown that the proposed algorithm has good stability. This method also shows much less spurious oscillations than current lower-order accurate numerical schemes. As a result, the proposed numerical scheme can provide more accurate results for long-time simulations. The proposed numerical scheme is validated against available analytical and numerical solutions for one- and two-dimensional transport problems. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples are presented in this paper to demonstrate the accuracy and conservative properties of the proposed algorithm by comparing with other numerical schemes. The proposed method is demonstrated to be a useful and accurate modelling tool for a wide range of transport problems. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Development of a convection,diffusion-reaction magnetohydrodynamic solver on non-staggered grids

Tony W. H. Sheu
Abstract This paper presents a convection,diffusion-reaction (CDR) model for solving magnetic induction equations and incompressible Navier,Stokes equations. For purposes of increasing the prediction accuracy, the general solution to the one-dimensional constant-coefficient CDR equation is employed. For purposes of extending this discrete formulation to two-dimensional analysis, the alternating direction implicit solution algorithm is applied. Numerical tests that are amenable to analytic solutions were performed in order to validate the proposed scheme. Results show good agreement with the analytic solutions and high rate of convergence. Like many magnetohydrodynamic studies, the Hartmann,Poiseuille problem is considered as a benchmark test to validate the code. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The direct simulation Monte Carlo method using unstructured adaptive mesh and its application

J.-S. Wu
Abstract The implementation of an adaptive mesh-embedding (h-refinement) scheme using unstructured grid in two-dimensional direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is reported. In this technique, local isotropic refinement is used to introduce new mesh where the local cell Knudsen number is less than some preset value. This simple scheme, however, has several severe consequences affecting the performance of the DSMC method. Thus, we have applied a technique to remove the hanging node, by introducing the an-isotropic refinement in the interfacial cells between refined and non-refined cells. Not only does this remedy increase a negligible amount of work, but it also removes all the difficulties presented in the originals scheme. We have tested the proposed scheme for argon gas in a high-speed driven cavity flow. The results show an improved flow resolution as compared with that of un-adaptive mesh. Finally, we have used triangular adaptive mesh to compute a near-continuum gas flow, a hypersonic flow over a cylinder. The results show fairly good agreement with previous studies. In summary, the proposed simple mesh adaptation is very useful in computing rarefied gas flows, which involve both complicated geometry and highly non-uniform density variations throughout the flow field. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Adaptive TS-FNN control for a class of uncertain multi-time-delay systems: The exponentially stable sliding mode-based approach

Tung-Sheng Chiang
Abstract This paper presents an adaptive Takagi,Sugeno fuzzy neural network (TS-FNN) control for a class of multiple time-delay uncertain nonlinear systems. First, we develop a sliding surface guaranteed to achieve exponential stability while considering mismatched uncertainty and unknown delays. This exponential stability result based on a novel Lyapunov,Krasovskii method is an improvement when compared with traditional schemes where only asymptotic stability is achieved. The stability analysis is transformed into a linear matrix inequalities problem independent of time delays. Then, a sliding mode control-based TS-FNN control scheme is proposed to achieve asymptotic stability for the controlled system. Since the TS-FNN combines TS fuzzy rules and a neural network structure, fewer numbers of fuzzy rules and tuning parameters are used compared with the traditional pure TS fuzzy approach. Moreover, all the fuzzy membership functions are tuned on-line even in the presence of input uncertainty. Finally, simulation results show the control performance of the proposed scheme. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Error resilient data transport in sensor network applications: A generic perspective,

Rachit Agarwal
Abstract The error recovery problem in wireless sensor networks is studied from a generic resource-constrained energy-optimization perspective. To characterize the features of error recovery schemes that suit the majority of applications, an energy model is developed and inferences are drawn based on a suitable performance metric. For applications that require error control coding, an efficient scheme is proposed based on an interesting observation related to shortened Reed,Solomon (RS) codes for packet reliability. It is shown that multiple instances (,) of RS codes defined on a smaller alphabet combined with interleaving results in smaller resource usage, while the performance exceeds the benefits of a shortened RS code defined over a larger alphabet. In particular, the proposed scheme can have an error correction capability of up to , times larger than that of the conventional RS scheme without changing the rate of the code with much lower power, timing and memory requirements. Implementation results show that such a scheme is 43% more power efficient compared with the RS scheme with the same code rate. Besides, such an approach results in 46% faster computations and 53% reduction in memory requirements. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

CNN-based architecture for real-time object-oriented video coding applications

Giuseppe Grassi
Abstract This paper presents a new CNN-based architecture for real-time video coding applications. The proposed approach, by exploiting object-oriented CNN algorithms and MPEG encoding capabilities, enables low bit-rate encoder/decoder to be designed. Simulation results using Claire video sequence show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A terminal-controlled vertical handover decision scheme in IEEE 802.21-enabled heterogeneous wireless networks

Jung-Shyr Wu
Abstract The seamless internetworking among heterogeneous networks is in great demand to provide ,always-on' connectivity services with quality of service (QoS) provision, anywhere at anytime. The integration of wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi) and wireless metropolitan area networks (WiMAX) networks can combine their best features to provide ubiquitous access, while mediating the weakness of both networks. While it is challenging to obtain optimized handover decision-based dynamic QoS information, users can improve their perceived QoS by using the terminal-controlled handover decision in a single device equipped with multiple radio interfaces. The IEEE 802.21 aims at providing a framework that defines media-independent handover (MIH) mechanism that supports seamless handover across heterogeneous networks. In this paper, an multiple attributes decision making-based terminal-controlled vertical handover decision scheme using MIH services is proposed in the integrated Wi-Fi and WiMAX networks to provide ,always-on' connectivity QoS services. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides smaller handover times and lower dropping rate than the RSS-based and cost function-based vertical handover schemes. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Wavelength retuning without service interruption in an all-optical survivable network

Rose Qingyang Hu
Abstract This paper proposes a new wavelength retuning (WRT) scheme in an all-optical WDM network. Compared with the existing WRT schemes developed for all-optical networks, which can alleviate the wavelength-continuity constraint but cannot avoid service interruption or data loss, the proposed scheme is able to alleviate the wavelength-continuity constraint and reduce the connection blocking probability with no service interruption to the on-going traffic. This is achieved by allocating two routes, one for active path and one for backup path, to each incoming connection request and conducting WRT only on the backup path. The backup path provides an alternate path in case of a failure, while the active path carries traffic under normal conditions. Thus, WRT on the backup path will not cause any impact on data transmission. An optimal backup path WRT scheme and a heuristic algorithm are developed and the performance evaluation on the proposed schemes is presented. The simulation results show that the proposed optimal scheme reduces the connection blocking probability by 46.8% on average, while the proposed heuristic scheme reduces the blocking probability by 28.3% on average, all compared with the scheme without WRT. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Corruption-aware adaptive increase and adaptive decrease algorithm for TCP error and congestion controls in wireless networks

Lin Cui
Abstract The conventional TCP tends to suffer from performance degradation due to packet corruptions in the wireless lossy channels, since any corruption event is regarded as an indication of network congestion. This paper proposes a TCP error and congestion control scheme using corruption-aware adaptive increase and adaptive decrease algorithm to improve TCP performance over wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the available network bandwidth is estimated based on the amount of the received integral data as well as the received corrupted data. The slow start threshold is updated only when a lost but not corrupted segment is detected by sender, since the corrupted packets still arrive at the TCP receiver. In the proposed scheme, the duplicated ACKs are processed differently by sender depending on whether there are any lost but not corrupted segments at present. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme could significantly improve TCP throughput over the heterogeneous wired and wireless networks with a high bit error rate, compared with the existing TCP and its variants. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]