Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Engineering

Kinds of Propagation

  • action potential propagation
  • clonal propagation
  • constraint propagation
  • crack propagation
  • eastward propagation
  • error propagation
  • fatigue crack propagation
  • fire propagation
  • front propagation
  • impulse propagation
  • information propagation
  • lateral propagation
  • light propagation
  • potential propagation
  • seizure propagation
  • signal propagation
  • thrust propagation
  • uncertainty propagation
  • vegetative propagation
  • viral propagation
  • wave propagation

  • Terms modified by Propagation

  • propagation algorithm
  • propagation channel
  • propagation characteristic
  • propagation constant
  • propagation delay
  • propagation direction
  • propagation environment
  • propagation equation
  • propagation experiment
  • propagation loss
  • propagation material
  • propagation mechanism
  • propagation method
  • propagation model
  • propagation models
  • propagation neural network
  • propagation path
  • propagation pattern
  • propagation phase
  • propagation problem
  • propagation rate
  • propagation rate coefficient
  • propagation rate constant
  • propagation reaction
  • propagation speed
  • propagation step
  • propagation velocity

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2006
    Charles D. Criscione
    Abstract Little is known about actual mating systems in natural populations of parasites or about what constitutes the limits of a parasite deme. These parameters are interesting because they affect levels of genetic diversity, opportunities for local adaptation, and other evolutionary processes. We expect that transmission dynamics and the distribution of parasites among hosts should have a large effect on mating systems and demic structure, but currently we have mostly speculation and very few data. For example, infrapopulations (all the parasites in a single host) should behave as demes if parasite offspring are transmitted as a clump from host to host over several generations. However, if offspring are well mixed, then the parasite component population (all the parasites among a host population) would function as the deme. Similarly, low mean intensities or a high proportion of worms in single infections should increase the selfing rate. For species having an asexual amplification stage, transmission between intermediate and definitive (final) hosts will control the variance in clonal reproductive success, which in turn could have a large influence on effective sizes and rates of inbreeding. We examined demic structure, selfing rates, and the variance in clonal reproductive success in natural populations of Plagioporus shawi, a hermaphroditic trematode that parasitizes salmon. Overall levels of genetic diversity were very high. An a posteriori inference of population structure overwhelmingly supports the component population as the deme, rather than individual infrapopulations. Only a single pair of 597 adult individuals was identified as clones. Thus, the variance in clonal reproductive success was almost zero. Despite being hermaphroditic, P. shawi appears to be almost entirely outcrossing. Genetic estimates of selfing (<5%) were in accordance with the proportion of parasites from single infections. Thus, it appears that individual flukes outcross whenever possible and only resort to selfing when alone. Finally, our data support the hypothesis that aquatic transmission and the use of several intermediate hosts promotes high genetic diversity and well-mixed infrapopulations. [source]

    Microdimensional Polyaniline: Fabrication and Characterization of Dynamics of Charge Propagation at Microdisk Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 17 2004
    Karolina Caban
    Abstract We describe fabrication of microdimensional polyanilne films in a controlled manner by voltammetric potential cycling or controlled potential electrolysis on platinum microdisk electrodes. The film grows in a form of hemispherical microdeposits, and its size largely exceeds the size of a Pt microdisk. Consequently, the film covers both the Pt substrate as well as the surrounding glass seal. Since the adhering polyaniline layer is conducting, the latter situation may lead to an increase in the effective electrode surface area. The lateral growth of polyaniline films outside the microdisk has also been demonstrated by performing diagnostic voltammetric experiments with use of a double microdisk set-up in which independent polarization of each disk is feasible. Microelectrode-based chronocoulometry, that involves an uncomplicated well-defined reduction potential step starting from the emeraldine (conducting) form and ending at leucoemeraldine (nonconducting) form, yields (upon application of a sufficiently short pulse) a well-defined linear response of charge versus square root of time that is consistent with the linear effective diffusion as the predominant charge propagation mechanism. When describing the system kinetics in terms of the effective (apparent) diffusion coefficient, we expect this parameter to be on the level of 10,8,cm2 s,1 or lower. The relative changes in dynamics of charge transport are discussed with respect to the polyaniline film loading, the size of microdisk electrode, expansion of the active electrode area, and the choice of electrolyte (strong acid) anion. The results are consistent with the view that when Pt microelectrode is modified with PANI deposit exceeding the size of the microdisk substrate, it behaves in a way as if its surface area is effectively much larger than the geometric area of Pt microdisk. [source]

    An in-house communication support system based on an information propagation model utilizing social networks

    Susumu Takeuchi
    Abstract Almost all companies are now utilizing computer networks to support speedier and more effective in-house information-sharing and communication. However, existing systems are designed to support communications only within the same department. Therefore, in our research, we propose an in-house communication support system which is based on the "Information Propagation Model" (IPM). The IPM is proposed to realize word-of-mouth communication in a social network, and to support information-sharing on the network. By applying the system in a real company, we found that information could be exchanged between different and unrelated departments, and such exchanges of information could help to build new relationships between the users who are apart on the social network. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 92(12): 43,49, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/ecj.10173 [source]

    Resistance to Propagation of Amygdaloid Kindling Seizures in Rats with Genetic Absence Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2002
    Esat E, kazan
    Summary: ,Purpose: The existence of absence epilepsy and temporal partial seizure pattern in the same patient is an uncommon state. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether the process of kindling as a model of complex partial seizures with secondary generalization is altered in rats with genetic absence epilepsy. Methods: Six- to 12-month-old nonepileptic control Wistar rats and genetic absence epileptic rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) were used in the experiments. One week before the experiments, bilateral stimulation and recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically into the basolateral amygdala and cortex, respectively. Animals were stimulated at their afterdischarge threshold current twice daily for the process of kindling and accepted as fully kindled after the occurrence of five grade 5 seizures. Bilateral EEGs from amygdala and cortex were recorded continuously during 20 min before and 40 min after each stimulus. Results: All control Wistar rats were fully kindled after stimulus 12 to 15. Although the maximal number of stimulations had been applied, GAERS remained at stage 2, and no motor seizures were observed. The afterdischarge duration in bilateral amygdala and the cortex after the kindling stimulus was shorter in GAERS when compared with control rats. Conclusions: Occurrence of only grade 2 seizures and no observation of grade 3,5 seizures in GAERS with the maximal number of stimulations would suggest that the generalized absence seizures may be the reason of the resistance in the secondary generalization of limbic seizures during amygdala kindling. [source]

    Effect of cortical spreading depression on synaptic transmission of rat hippocampal tissues

    Brigitta Wernsmann
    Abstract Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is believed to be a putative neuronal mechanism underlying migraine aura and subsequent pain. In vitro and ex vivo/in vitro brain slice techniques were used to investigate CSD effects on the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in combined rat hippocampus,cortex slices. Induction of CSD in combined hippocampus,cortex slices in which DC negative deflections did not propagate from neocortex to hippocampus significantly augmented fEPSP amplitude and LTP in the hippocampus. Propagation of CSD to the hippocampus resulted in a transient suppression followed by reinstatement of fEPSP with amplitude of pre-CSD levels. LTP was inhibited when DC potential shifts were recorded in the hippocampus. Furthermore, CSD was induced in anaesthetized rats and, thereafter, hippocampal tissues were examined in vitro. LTP was significantly enhanced in hippocampal slices obtained from ipsilateral site to the hemisphere in which CSD was evoked. The results indicate the disturbances of hippocampal synaptic transmission triggered by propagation of CSD. This perturbation of hippocampal synaptic transmission induced by CSD may relate to some symptoms occurring during migraine attacks, such as amnesia and hyperactivity. [source]

    In Situ SEM Observation and Analysis of Martensitic Transformation During Short Fatigue Crack Propagation in Metastable Austenitic Steel,

    Ulrich Krupp
    Abstract High cycle fatigue (HCF) life of metastable austenitic steels is governed by the ability of the parent austenite phase to transform into ,, martensite via metastable , martensite. The mechanism of this strain-induced transformation is closely related to the grain size, the crystallographic orientation distribution, as well as to amplitude, and cyclic accumulation of plastic strain. Aim of the present study is to identify and to quantitatively describe the basic principles of strain-induced martensite formation by means of in situ cyclic deformation experiments in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in combination with electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and numerical modeling using a boundary element approach. It was shown that during HCF loading martensite formation is inhomogeneous and not directly linked with crack initiation. Only when the fatigue crack propagates by operating multiple slip systems, the cyclic plastic zone exhibits martensitic transformation. [source]

    Fatigue Crack Propagation and History Effects Induced by Plasticity,

    Sylvie Pommier
    Abstract For security-relevant components, a fracture mechanics assessment has to be carried out. When complex loading conditions are encountered, various problems arise. Among them the prediction of history effects induced by plasticity remains a difficult task and is the object of this paper. After an overload, for instance, plasticity-induced crack closure is known to decelerate the crack growth. This effect is known to be related to residual stresses ahead of and behind the crack tip. Since residual stresses are related to the material stress,strain behavior, the overload effect may vary significantly from one material to another. Finite-element (FE) methods are commonly employed to model plasticity and were shown to give very satisfactory results. However, if millions of cycles need to be modeled to predict the fatigue behavior of an industrial component, the method becomes computationally too expensive. By employing a multiscale approach, very precise analyses computed by FE methods can be brought to a global scale. The data generated using the FE method enables the identification of a global cyclic elastic-plastic model for the crack tip region. Once this model is identified, it can be employed directly with no need of additional FE computations, resulting in fast computations. This method was employed so as to predict fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude fatigue in steels at room temperatures and correlates well with experimental data. It was also extended so as to model fatigue crack growth in a nickel base superalloy under non-isothermal fatigue-dwell conditions. At present, the method is being extended to mixed-mode variable-amplitude loading conditions. [source]

    Crack Propagation in Tool Steel X38CrMoV5 (AISI H11) in SET Specimens,

    Masood Shah
    An approach is proposed for the evaluation of surface fatigue damage of hot forming tools that undergo severe thermo mechanical loading. Fatigue crack propagation in a hot work tool steel X38CrMoV5-47HRC is investigated using single-edge cracked tension specimens with 3 different thicknesses (2.5, 1, 0.6,mm) and two R-values. [source]

    Thirty years on from the paper ,Gust Spectrum Fatigue Crack Propagation in Candidate Skin Materials', Fatigue of Engineering Materials and Structures, Vol.


    IMPACT OF THE PAPER This paper1 addressed a very specific topic and by itself would not have had much impact in the intervening years. However, most of the paper's content was subsequently included in an extensive report on the Damage Tolerance (DT) properties of aluminium alloys.2 This report enabled guidelines for flight simulation fatigue crack growth testing to be formulated.3,4 [source]

    Elastoplastic modelling of subsurface crack growth in rail/wheel contact problems

    ABSTRACT Propagation of small subsurface cracks subjected to shear under repeated rolling contact load is studied. An analytical crack model (Dugdale) with plastic strips at the two crack tips is employed. Compressive stresses promoting crack closure and friction between crack faces are considered. The triaxial stress state is used in the yield criterion. A damage criterion is suggested based on experimental LCF data. In a numerical study, critical crack lengths are found below which propagation of an existing crack should be effectively suppressed. [source]

    Altering the surface properties of baculovirus Autographa californica NPV by insertional mutagenesis of the envelope protein gp64

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 18 2002
    Alexandra Spenger
    The envelope protein gp64 of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus is essential for viral entry into insect cells, as the glycoprotein both mediates pH-dependent membrane fusion and binds to host cell receptors. Surface modification of baculovirus particles by genetic engineering of gp64 has been demonstrated by various strategies and thus has become an important and powerful tool in molecular biology. To improve further the presentation of peptides on the surface of baculovirus particles, several insertion sites within the gp64 envelope protein were selected by their theoretical maximum surface probability and investigated for efficient peptide presentation. The ELDKWA peptide of the gp41 of HIV-1, specific for the human mAb 2F5, was inserted into 17 different positions of the glycoprotein gp64. Propagation of viruses was successful in 13 cases, mutagenesis at four positions did not result in production of intact virus particles. Western blotting, FACS analysis and ELISA were used for characterization of the different binding properties of the mutants. Insertion of this peptide into the native envelope protein resulted in high avidity display on the surface of baculovirus particles. This approach offers the possibility of effective modification of surface properties in regard to host range specificity and antigen display. [source]

    In situ Mechanical Testing Reveals Periodic Buckle Nucleation and Propagation in Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    Shelby B. Hutchens
    Abstract Uniaxial compression studies are performed on 50-µm-diameter bundles of nominally vertical, intertwined carbon nanotubes grown via chemical vapor deposition from a photolithographically defined catalyst. The inhomogeneous microstructure is examined, demonstrating density and tube orientation gradients, believed to play a role in the unique periodic buckling deformation mechanism. Through in situ uniaxial compression experiments it is discovered that the characteristic bottom-to-top sequential buckling proceeds by first nucleating on the bundle surface and subsequently propagating laterally through the bundle, gradually collapsing the entire structure. The effects of strain rate are explored, and storage and loss stiffnesses are analyzed in the context of energy dissipation. [source]

    Effect of Small-World Networks on Epidemic Propagation and Intervention

    Zengwang Xu
    The small-world network, characterized by special structural properties of high connectivity and clustering, is one of the highlights in recent advances in network science and has the potential to model a variety of social contact networks. In an attempt to better understand how these structural properties of small-world networks affect epidemic propagation and intervention, this article uses an agent-based approach to investigate the interplay between an epidemic process and its underlying network structure. Small-world networks are derived from a network "rewiring" process, which readjusts edges in a completely regular two-dimensional network by different rewiring probabilities (0,1) to produce a spectrum of modified networks on which an agent-based simulation of epidemic propagation can be conducted. A comparison of simulated epidemics discloses the effect of small-world networks on epidemic propagation as well as the effectiveness of different intervention strategies, including mass vaccination, acquaintance vaccination, targeted vaccination, and contact tracing. Epidemics taking place on small-world networks tend to reach large-scale epidemic peaks within a short time period. Among the four intervention strategies tested, only one strategy,the targeted vaccination,proves to be effective for containing epidemics, a finding supported by a simulation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in a large-scale realistic social contact network in Portland, OR. Las redes de mundo de pequeño (,small-world networks'), caracterizadas por sus propiedades estructurales especiales de alta conectividad y aglomeración (,clustering') son uno de los ejemplos más destacados de los avances más recientes de la ciencia de redes, y tiene el potencial de modelar una gran variedad de redes sociales de contacto. En un intento de comprender mejor como estas propiedades estructurales de redes ,small-world' afectan la propagación e intervención de epidemias, el estudio presente emplea un enfoque basado en modelos multi-agente (,agent based') para investigar la interacción entre el proceso epidémico y la estructura de redes en la que estan integrados. Las redes de mundo pequeño se derivan del proceso de recableado (,rewiring') el cual reajusta los límites en una red 2-D de acuerdo a varias probabilidades de reconexión (0-1) para producir un abanico de posibles de redes modificadas sobre los cuales se condujo una simulación multi-agente de la propagación de la epidemia. El efecto de las redes ,small world' y de las diferentes estrategias de intervención (por ejemplo, diferentes estrategias de vacunación) son evidenciadas mediante la comparación entre varias simulaciones de la epidemia. Las epidemias que ocurren en redes de tipo ,small-world' tienden a alcanzar picos de gran escala epidémica en un corto periodo de tiempo. Entre las estrategias evaluadas, sólo una ,vacunación dirigida a una población objetivo (,targeted vaccination')- demostró ser efectiva en la contención de la epidemia. Dicho resultado se obtuvo vía la simulación de la epidemia de SRAS (Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo ,SARS') realiada en Portland, Oregon (EEUU). [source]

    Analysis of an Unconfined Aquifer Subject to Asynchronous Dual-Tide Propagation

    GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2008
    Kolja Rotzoll
    Most published solutions for aquifer responses to ocean tides focus on the one-sided attenuation of the signal as it propagates inland. However, island aquifers experience periodic forcing from the entire coast, which can lead to integrated effects of different tidal signals, especially on narrow high-permeability islands. In general, studies disregard a potential time lag as the tidal wave sweeps around the island. We present a one-dimensional analytical solution to the ground water flow equation subject to asynchronous and asymmetric oscillating head conditions on opposite boundaries and test it on data from an unconfined volcanic aquifer in Maui. The solution considers sediment-damping effects at the coastline. The response of Maui Aquifers indicate that water table elevations near the center of the aquifer are influenced by a combination of tides from opposite coasts. A better match between the observed ground water head and the theoretical response can be obtained with the proposed dual-tide solution than with single-sided solutions. Hydraulic diffusivity was estimated to be 2.3 × 107 m2/d. This translates into a hydraulic conductivity of 500 m/d, assuming a specific yield of 0.04 and an aquifer thickness of 1.8 km. A numerical experiment confirmed the hydraulic diffusivity value and showed that the y -intercepts of the modal attenuation and phase differences estimated by regression can approximate damping factors caused by low-permeability units at the boundary. [source]

    Propagation of drought through groundwater,a new approach using linear reservoir theory

    E. Peters
    Abstract The effect of drought on groundwater heads and discharge is often complex and poorly understood. Therefore the propagation of a drought from groundwater recharge to discharge and the influence of aquifer characteristics on the propagation was analysed by tracking a drought in recharge through a linear reservoir. The recharge was defined as a sinusoid function with a period of 1 year. The decrease in recharge owing to drought was simulated by multiplying the recharge during 1 year with a drought fraction between 0 and 1, which represents a decrease in the recharge of 100 to 0%, respectively. The droughts were identified using the threshold level approach, with a threshold that is constant in time. For this case analytical formulations were derived, which express the drought duration and deficit in the groundwater discharge in terms of the decrease in recharge, the reservoir coefficient that characterizes aquifer properties and the height of the threshold level. The results showed that the delay in the groundwater system caused a shift of the main part of the decrease in recharge from the high-flow to the low-flow period. This resulted in an increase in drought deficit for discharge compared with the drought deficit for recharge. Also the development of multiyear droughts caused an increase in drought deficit. The attenuation in the groundwater system caused a decrease in drought deficit. In most cases the net effect of these processes was an increase of drought deficit as a result of the propagation through groundwater. Only for small droughts the deficit decreased from recharge to discharge. The amount of increase or decrease depends on the reservoir coefficient and the severity of the drought. Under most conditions a maximum in the drought deficit occurred for a reservoir coefficient of around 200 days. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Propagation of a shear band in sandstone

    J. J. Riedel
    Abstract Closed-loop, servo-controlled experiments were conducted to investigate the development of a shear band in Berea sandstone at various confining pressures. The tests were performed with the University of Minnesota Plane-Strain Apparatus, which was designed to allow the shear band to develop in an unrestricted manner. Measured load and displacements provided estimates of the stress and deformation states whereby dilatancy and friction were evaluated prior to localization. Experiments were stopped at various stages of shear-band development within the strain-softening regime. The specimens displayed a progression of deformation from inception, where the shear band was characterized by a high density of intragranular microcracks and crushed grains, to the tip where the intragranular microcracks were significantly less dense and separated by intact grains. Decreased slip deformation towards the tip of the shear band indicated that localization developed and propagated in plane. Thin-section microscopy showed porosity increase within the shear band was 3,4 grain diameters wide. Increased porosity did not extend beyond the tip of the shear band. A cohesive zone model of shear fracture, used to examine the stress field near the tip, showed similarities to principal compressive stress orientations interpreted from intragranular microcracks. Thus, propagation of the shear band could be associated with in-plane mode II fracture. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Propagation of longest-edge mesh patterns in local adaptive refinement

    J. P. Suárez
    Abstract We examine the propagation of local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) under a longest edge conformity scheme. Supporting numerical studies are included and discussed. Of specific interest is the statistical behaviour of the propagation zone in AMR of simplicial meshes. To this end three propagation metrics are used: the total number of original triangles in the propagation paths emanating from any target element, the longest individual edge path, and the extent of secondary refinement due to the conformity. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An extended finite element method with analytical enrichment for cohesive crack modeling

    James V. CoxArticle first published online: 28 NOV 200
    Abstract A recent approach to fracture modeling has combined the extended finite element method (XFEM) with cohesive zone models. Most studies have used simplified enrichment functions to represent the strong discontinuity but have lacked an analytical basis to represent the displacement gradients in the vicinity of the cohesive crack. In this study enrichment functions based upon an existing analytical investigation of the cohesive crack problem are proposed. These functions have the potential of representing displacement gradients in the vicinity of the cohesive crack and allow the crack to incrementally advance across each element. Key aspects of the corresponding numerical formulation and enrichment functions are discussed. A parameter study for a simple mode I model problem is presented to evaluate if quasi-static crack propagation can be accurately followed with the proposed formulation. The effects of mesh refinement and mesh orientation are considered. Propagation of the cohesive zone tip and crack tip, time variation of the cohesive zone length, and crack profiles are examined. The analysis results indicate that the analytically based enrichment functions can accurately track the cohesive crack propagation of a mode I crack independent of mesh orientation. A mixed mode example further demonstrates the potential of the formulation. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Modelling of photonic bandgap devices by the leaky mode propagation method

    Agostino Giorgio
    Abstract Main modelling approaches used for investigating the Photonic bandgap (PBG) devices are reviewed. In particular, the model based on Leaky Mode Propagation (LMP) method is described. A complete analysis of the propagation characteristics, including the determination of modal propagation constants, electromagnetic field harmonics and total field distribution, transmission and reflection coefficients, total forward and backward power flow in the structure, guided and radiated power, and total losses, can be carried out by a computer program based on the LMP approach. The numerical results have been validated by comparisons with those obtained by using other more complex and expensive models. The new model shows some significant advantages in terms of very low computational time, absence of any a priori theoretical assumptions and approximations, capability of simulating the actual physical behaviour of the device and fast determination of the bandgap position.Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Focal Adhesion Kinase pp125FAK Interacts With the Large Conductance Calcium-Activated hSlo Potassium Channel in Human Osteoblasts: Potential Role in Mechanotransduction,

    Roger Rezzonico
    Abstract Molecular events of mechanotransduction in osteoblasts are poorly defined. We show that the mechanosensitive BK channels open and recruit the focal adhesion kinase FAK in osteoblasts on hypotonic shock. This could convert mechanical signals in biochemical events, leading to osteoblast activation. Introduction: Mechanical strains applied to the skeleton influence bone remodeling and architecture mainly through the osteoblast lineage. The molecular mechanisms involved in osteoblastic mechanotransduction include opening of mechanosensitive cation channels and the activation of protein tyrosine kinases, notably FAK, but their interplay remains poorly characterized. The large conductance K+ channel (BK) seems likely as a bone mechanoreceptor candidate because of its high expression in osteoblasts and its ability to open in response to membrane stretch or hypotonic shock. Propagation of the signals issued from the mechanosensitivity of BK channels inside the cell likely implies complex interactions with molecular partners involved in mechanotransduction, notably FAK. Methods: Interaction of FAK with the C terminus of the hSlo ,-subunit of BK was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid system as well as immunofluorescence microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation experiments with a rabbit anti-hslo antibody on MG63 and CAL72 human osteosarcoma cell lines and on normal human osteoblasts. Mapping of the FAK region interacting with hSlo was approached by testing the ability of hSlo to recruit mutated ot truncated FAK proteins. Results: To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first evidence of the physical association of FAK with the intracellular part of hslo. We show that FAK/hSlo interaction likely takes place through the Pro-1-rich domain situated in the C-terminal region of the kinase. FAK/hSlo association occurs constitutively at a low, but appreciable, level in human osteosarcoma cells and normal human osteoblasts that express endogenous FAK and hSlo. In addition, we found that application of an hypo-osmotic shock to these cells induced a sustained activation of BK channels associated to a marked increase in the recruitment of FAK on hSlo. Conclusions: Based on these data, we propose that BK channels might play a triggering role in the signaling cascade induced by mechanical strains in osteoblasts. [source]

    Influence of Bone Tissue Density and Elasticity on Ultrasound Propagation: An In Vitro Study

    Francesca de Terlizzi
    Abstract Ultrasound (US) waves are mechanical vibrations that are applied to a material,bone tissue,in order to study its properties, that is, density, elasticity, and structure. In this study we evaluated in which way density and elasticity of the spongy bone influenced the transmission of 1.25 MHz US pulses. Twelve cylindrical specimens (diameter, 8 mm; height, 5 mm) excised from phalanxes of pig were decalcified with 0.5 M EDTA for different times (0, 2, and 5 days). During these periods, the samples underwent the following investigations: US transmission, density, and elasticity measurements. To assess the homogeneity of decalcification, the cross-sections of some samples were microradiographed. A detailed analysis of the US signal received was performed using velocity, Fourier analysis, and some parameters typical of signal processing technique. A good correlation was found between US velocity and density (r2 = 0.70); a lower correlation was found between velocity and elasticity (r2 = 0.59). If density and elasticity are considered simultaneously, the correlation with the US velocity improves significantly (r2 = 0.84). Fourier analysis enabled us to observe a shift of the main frequency toward lower values as the decalcification process advanced. We also observed that in the regressions weighted for density, US velocity correlated poorly with elasticity (r2 = 0.16), whereas signal processing parameters maintain a good correlation with elasticity (ultrasound peak amplitude [UPA], r2 = 0.48; slope, r2 = 0.62). In this study, it has been observed that when using a signal processing technique to analyze US pulses, it is possible to identify some parameters that are related in different ways to density and to elastic properties of bone. Our results show the potentiality of US technique to separate information on bone density and elasticity that X-ray-based densitometric methods do not provide. [source]

    Timing of Depolarization and Contraction in the Paced Canine Left Ventricle:

    Experiment, Model
    Introduction: For efficient pump function, contraction of the heart should be as synchronous as possible. Ventricular pacing induces asynchrony of depolarization and contraction. The degree of asynchrony depends on the position of the pacing electrode. The aim of this study was to extend an existing numerical model of electromechanics in the left ventricle (LV) to the application of ventricular pacing. With the model, the relation between pacing site and patterns of depolarization and contraction was investigated. Methods and Results: The LV was approximated by a thick-walled ellipsoid with a realistic myofiber orientation. Propagation of the depolarization wave was described by the eikonal-diffusion equation, in which five parameters play a role: myocardial and subendocardial velocity of wave propagation along the myofiber cm and ce; myocardial and subendocardial anisotropy am and ae; and parameter k, describing the influence of wave curvature on wave velocity. Parameters cm, ae, and k were taken from literature. Parameters am and ce were estimated by fitting the model to experimental data, obtained by pacing the canine left ventricular free wall (LVFW). The best fit was found with cm= 0.75 m/s, ce= 1.3 m/s, am= 2.5, ae= 1.5, and k= 2.1 × 10,4 m2/s. With these parameter settings, for right ventricular apex (RVA) pacing, the depolarization times were realistically simulated as also shown by the wavefronts and the time needed to activate the LVFW. The moment of depolarization was used to initiate myofiber contraction in a model of LV mechanics. For both pacing situations, mid-wall circumferential strains and onset of myofiber shortening were obtained. Conclusion: With a relatively simple model setup, simulated depolarization timing patterns agreed with measurements for pacing at the LVFW and RVA in an LV. Myocardial cross-fiber wave velocity is estimated to be 0.40 times the velocity along the myofiber direction (0.75 m/s). Subendocardial wave velocity is about 1.7 times faster than in the rest of the myocardium, but about 3 times slower than as found in Purkinje fibers. Furthermore, model and experiment agreed in the following respects. (1) Ventricular pacing decreased both systolic pressure and ejection fraction relative to natural sinus rhythm. (2) In early depolarized regions, early shortening was observed in the isovolumic contraction phase; in late depolarized regions, myofibers were stretched in this phase. Maps showing timing of onset of shortening were similar to previously measured maps in which wave velocity of contraction appeared similar to that of depolarization. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 14, pp. S188-S195, October 2003, Suppl.) [source]

    Electroanatomic Analysis of Sinus Impulse Propagation in Normal Human Atria

    Sinus Impulse Propagation in Normal Human Atria.Introduction: Better understanding of atrial propagation during sinus rhythm (SR) in normal hearts under the most normal physiologic conditions may be propaedeutic to pathophysiologic studies of complex atrial arrhythmias. In this study, qualitative and quantitative analyses of sinus impulse propagation in both atria were performed by electroanatomic mapping in patients with no organic heart disease who were undergoing an electrophysiologic procedure. Methods and Results: Seven patients (5 men and 2 women; age 37 ± 11 years) undergoing ablation of a left-sided accessory pathway were considered. Associated heart disease and coexisting atrial arrhythmias were excluded. After obtaining informed consent, electroanatomic mapping of both atria was performed during SR using a nonfluoroscopic system in the postablation phase. Mapping was accomplished in all patients with no complications. Qualitative analysis showed that sinus impulse propagation gives a reproducible activation pattern with minor individual variations. During interatrial propagation, two breakthroughs (anterior and posterior) in the left atrium are observed in the majority of cases. The anterior breakthrough, which reflects conduction over Bachmann's bundle, is predominant and shows a peculiar "preexcitation-like" endocardial activation pattern. Quantitative analysis showed minimal individual variations of propagation time intervals. Atria are activated simultaneously for 65% ± 9% of the duration of the atrial systolic time interval. Conclusion: In normal humans, electroanatomic mapping of SR identifies a typical and reproducible propagation pattern during SR. Bachmann's bundle plays the most important role in interatrial propagation. Atria are activated simultaneously by sinus impulse for a relevant portion of the systolic time interval. [source]

    Electroanatomic Analysis of Sinus Impulse Propagation in Normal Human Atria


    Fragment Propagation and Colonization Ability Enhanced and Varied at Node Level after Escaping from Apical Dominance in Submerged Macrophytes

    Jinhui Jiang
    Abstract Aquatic plants develop strong fragment propagation and colonization ability to endure the natural disturbances. However, detailed research of ability to endure the natural disturbances has been lacking to date. Therefore, reproduction (shoot) and colonization (root) of shoot fragments of Potamogeton crispus L. with or without apices were investigated for the effect of apical dominance, and the growth of decapitated shoot fragments at three lengths (2, 4, 6 cm) was compared. Meanwhile, fragment propagation at levels of bud position was studied for bud position effect after escaping from apical dominance. The results showed significant increases occurred in the outgrowth of lateral branches on fragments decapitated compared with the fragments with apices, implying that apical dominance exists. Different lengths of fragments showed little difference in biomass allocations, but significant differences were noted in their propagation. Meanwhile, the effect of bud position was verified, due to the significant difference of average reproduction per node among the three length groups. Thus, the present study has made progress in the current understanding of aquatic plant dispersion among natural systems and contributes to improve methods of in vitro propagation for re-implantation purposes. [source]

    Hyperbranched polyethers by ring-opening polymerization: Contribution of activated monomer mechanism

    Przemys, aw Kubisa
    Abstract Propagation in the cationic ring-opening polymerization of cyclic ethers involves nucleophilic attack of oxygen atoms from the monomer molecules on the cationic growing species (oxonium ions). Such a mechanism is known as the active chain-end mechanism. If hydroxyl groups containing compounds are present in the system, oxygen atoms of HO groups may compete with cyclic ether oxygen atoms of monomer molecules in reaction with oxonium ions. At the proper conditions, this reaction may dominate, and propagation may proceed by the activated monomer mechanism, that is, by subsequent addition of protonated monomer molecules to HO terminated macromolecules. Both mechanisms may contribute to the propagation in the cationic polymerization of monomers containing both functions (i.e., cyclic ether group and hydroxyl groups) within the same molecule. In this article, the mechanism of polymerization of three- and four-membered cyclic ethers containing hydroxymethyl substituents is discussed in terms of competition between two possible mechanisms of propagation that governs the structure of the products,branched polyethers containing multiple terminal hydroxymethyl groups. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 41: 457,468, 2003 [source]

    Anglican High Churchmen and the Expansion of Empire,

    HOWARD LE COUTEURArticle first published online: 21 MAY 200
    Postcolonial history has taken a great deal of interest in the missionary endeavours of the church throughout the Empire, especially the work of Protestant/evangelical mission societies. Apart from attention to organisations like the Universities Mission to Central Africa (UMCA) and to some extent the work of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG), the work of Anglican High Churchmen has sometimes been overlooked.1 In fact, High Churchmen were very concerned about the role of the Church of England in the expanding empire during the mid-nineteenth century. They were keen to bring the extension of the church under institutional control and to co-operate with the imperial parliament as closely as possible. The activity of the SPG and the foundation of the Colonial Bishoprics Fund (CBF), which provided clergy, schoolmasters, catechists, and bishops as agents of Anglicanism and Englishness, can be seen as part of this strategy. [source]

    A Vision of an Anglican Imperialism: The Annual Sermons of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 1701,1714

    ROWAN STRONGArticle first published online: 24 MAY 200
    This article examines the first two decades of the oldest continuing Anglican missionary society, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, founded in 1710. It argues that, contrary to the prevailing historiography of the British missionary movement, this early eighteenth-century society was genuinely evangelistic and marks the real beginning of that movement. The society also marks the beginning of a formal, institutional engagement by the Church of England with the British Empire. In the Society's annual anniversary sermons, and influenced by the reports sent by its ordained missionaries in North America, the Church of England's metropolitan leadership in England constructed an Anglican discourse of empire. In this discourse the Church of England began to fashion the identities of colonial populations of Indigenous peoples, white colonists, and Black slaves through a theological Enlightenment understanding. [source]

    Sequence variation in the hypervariable region 1 of hepatitis C virus and posttransplantation recurrent hepatitis

    Enrico Silini
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) shows remarkable genetic variation in both populations and individuals, in whom it circulates as quasispecies (QS). Sequence variation within an infected host has adaptive significance and reflects the modes and intensity of selection mechanisms operating on the virus. We investigated the sequence diversity of hypervariable region 1 of HCV in liver transplant recipients and correlated it with the recurrence of hepatitis. Twenty-six patients were considered during a 2-year period; all had graft reinfection, and 14 patients developed hepatitis recurrence. Cloned sequences were obtained from sera collected before or within 1 month after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and at 3 and 24 months thereafter. Sequence diversity within single sera and over consecutive samples was analyzed quantitatively by matrix comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Propagation of viral QS in the graft was markedly dependent on individual factors. Viral QS in post-OLT sera were less complex and evolved slower compared with immunocompetent subjects with chronic hepatitis. Sequence variation was greater during the first 3 months post-OLT than during the remaining period. Genetic diversity within single samples was not related to hepatitis recurrence or other clinical features. Conversely, sequence diversity over consecutive samples was reduced in patients who experienced hepatitis recurrence, in particular, in those infected with genotype 1b and with an HLA-DR mismatched graft. Selection of viral sequences was markedly impaired in liver transplant recipients and tended to be greater early after OLT. Reduced sequence turnover correlated negatively with the outcome of graft reinfection. [source]

    High-Temperature Propagation and Termination Kinetics of Styrene to High Conversion Investigated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Per B. Zetterlund
    Abstract Summary: The free radical bulk polymerization of styrene at 120,°C has been investigated over almost the entire conversion range using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The free radical concentration went through a sharp maximum that coincided with the peak in the rate of polymerization during the gel effect, and shifted to higher conversion with increasing initiator concentration. The termination rate coefficient (kt), decoupled from the initiator efficiency (f) by use of the instantaneous degree of polymerization, remained close to constant up to as high as approximately 80% conversion, at which a dramatic decrease occurred. Both the propagation rate coefficient (kp) and f fell orders of magnitude near 80% conversion in spite of the temperature being above the glass transition temperature of the system. The value of kp increased with the initiator concentration at a given conversion in the highest (diffusion-controlled) conversion range. Termination rate coefficient (kt) versus conversion for bulk free radical polymerization of St initiated by TBP at 120,°C. [TBP],=,0.15 (,), 0.10 (,) and 0.05 M (). [source]