Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Proceedings

  • conference proceeding
  • court proceeding
  • criminal proceeding
  • legal proceeding

  • Selected Abstracts

    Liquefaction and cyclic mobility model for saturated granular media

    S. López-Querol
    Abstract A new constitutive law for the behaviour of undrained sand subjected to dynamic loading is presented. The proposed model works for small and large strain ranges and incorporates contractive and dilative properties of the sand into the unified numerical scheme. These features allow to correctly predict liquefaction and cyclic mobility phenomena for different initial relative densities of the soil. The model has been calibrated as an element test, by using cyclic simple shear data reported in the literature. For the contractive sand behaviour a well-known endochronic densification model has been used, whereas a plastic model with a new non-associative flow rule is applied when the sand tends to dilate. Both dilatancy and flow rule are based on a new state parameter, associated to the stiffness degradation of the material as the shaking goes on. Also, the function that represents the rearrangement memory of the soil takes a zero value when the material dilates, in order to easily model the change in the internal structure. Proceeding along this kind of approach, liquefaction and cyclic mobility are modelled with the same constitutive law, within the framework of a bi-dimensional FEM coupled algorithm developed in the paper. For calibration purposes, the behaviour of the soil in a cyclic simple shear test has been simulated, in order to estimate the influence of permeability, frequency of loading, and homogeneity of the shear stress field on the laboratory data. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Optimization of tree-shaped flow distribution structures over a disc-shaped area

    S. Lorente
    Abstract In this paper, we review the fundamental problem of how to design a flow path with minimum overall resistance between one point (O) and many points situated equidistantly on a circle centred at O. This is a fundamental problem in energy engineering: the distribution of fluid, energy, electric power, etc., from points to surrounding areas. This problem is also fundamental in heat transfer and electronics cooling: how to bathe and cool with a single stream of coolant a disc-shaped area or volume that generates heat at every point. This paper outlines, first, a direct route to the construction of effective tree-shaped flow structures. The starting point is the optimization of the shape of each elemental area, such that the length of the flow path housed by the element is minimized. Proceeding towards larger and more complex structures,from elements to first constructs, second constructs, etc.,the paper develops tree-shaped flow structures between one point and a straight line, as an elemental problem, and a circle and its centre. We also consider the equivalent tree-shaped networks obtained by minimizing the pressure drop at every step of the construction, in accordance with geometric constraints. The construction method is applied to a fluid flow configuration with laminar fully developed flow. It is shown that there is little difference between the two methods. The minimal-length structures perform very close to the fully optimized designs. These results emphasize the robustness of optimized tree-shaped flows. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Proceeding to yes: A federal judge looks at ADR's future

    Joseph A. Greenaway Jr.
    A CPR News special: Two recent speeches discussing Alternatives' publisher's impact on ADR, and what the future may look like. First, the remarks of 2006 CPR Corporate Leadership Award dinner keynoter Joseph A. Greenaway Jr., a Newark, N.J., U.S. District Court Judge, focus on where ADR works and where its promise lies. CPR Senior Vice President F. Peter Phillips, in addressing the First African ADR Congress in Nigeria in November, provides a history of commercial conflict resolution. [source]

    Zur Beurteilung des Ankündigungsverhaltens von Spannbetonbrücken nach dem Riss-vor-Bruch-Kriterium.

    Vorschläge zur Vorgehensweise bei gefährdeten Brücken
    Bei Spannbetonbrücken steigt mit zunehmender Nutzungsdauer die Bedeutung der Dauerhaftigkeit. Mit numerischen Berechnungen und Bauwerksprüfungen gemäß DIN 1076 wird versucht, ein mögliches Versagen der Bauwerke rechtzeitig erkennen und verhindern zu können sowie das Restrisiko für den Bauherrn zu minimieren. Besonders ältere Spannbetonbrücken mit spannungsrisskorrosionsgefährdetem Spannstahl sind hinsichtlich ihres Ankündigungsverhaltens nach dem Riss-vor-Bruch-Kriterium rechnerisch zu untersuchen und zu bewerten. Ausgehend von diesen numerischen Ergebnissen und ergänzenden Berechnungen lässt sich das bestehende Restrisiko für den Bauherrn hinsichtlich eines Bauwerksversagens beurteilen. Die konstruktive Durchbildung betreffender Bauwerke wird diskutiert. Aufgrund der durchgeführten Untersuchungen werden Vorschläge zur weiteren Vorgehensweise bei älteren gefährdeten Brücken und zur Eingrenzung des Restrisikos erarbeitet. Bei jüngeren Brücken stellt der Nachweis nach dem Riss-vor-Bruch-Kriterium ein Maß für eine ausreichende Robustheit dar. Interpretation of the Preannouncement Behaviour of Prestressed Concrete Bridges by applying the "Crack-before-Collapse-Criterion" Proposals for further Proceeding with Critical Bridges Due to extending lifetimes of prestressed concrete bridges the importance of the durability increases. With numerical calculations and investigations of structures according to DIN 1076 it is intended to recognize and prevent possible failure of the structures in time and to minimize the risk for the owner during the remaining lifetime. Especially older prestressed concrete bridges with tension wires endangered to stress-corrosion-cracking need to be numerically investigated and judged concerning their preannouncement behaviour according to the "crack-before-collapse-criterion". According to the numerical results of the "crack-before-collapse-criterion" and supplemental calculations it is possible to evaluate the existing risk for the owner concerning failure of the structures. The design of the concerned structures will be discussed. Based on results of performed investigations proposals for further proceeding with older critical bridges will be given along with recommendations how to limit the remaining risks. For newer bridges the analysis according to the "crack-before-collapse-criterion" is a measure of a sufficient sturdiness. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Preparative Synthesis of 2-[3-Alkoxy-4-(hydroxy, alkoxy, acyloxy)phenyl]-1H-benzimidazoles Proceeding from Substituted Benzaldehydes.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 34 2010
    E. A. Dikusar
    Abstract The new, functionally substituted title compounds (III) (35 examples) are obtained by reaction of phenylenediamine (I) with aldehydes of the vanillin series, their ethers and esters in the presence of sodium hydrogensulfite. [source]

    Positive lymphocyte transformation test in a patient with allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp after short-term use of topical minoxidil solution

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2005
    Tobias Hagemann
    Topical 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) solution has been widely used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia for over 15 years now and the substance is currently approved for this indication in 2% and 5% formulation. Typical side effects of this topical treatment include irritative dermatitis going along with pruritus, erythema, scaling and dryness, which occur especially at the onset of the therapy. In some cases, allergic contact dermatitis or exacerbation of seborrhoic dermatitis has been reported. While most of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis described in the literature showed a positive sensitization to the vehicle substance propylene glycol evaluated by patch testing, reactions to the active ingredient minoxidil are rare. Here, we report a case of allergic sensitization to minoxidil, which we evaluated and differentiated from an irritative reaction by a combination of patch testing and lymphocyte transformation test. The differentiation of allergic and irritative adverse effects and the identification of the causative allergen are of major relevance for the proceeding and adjustment of the therapy. Patients with sensitizations against propylene glycol are candidates for preparations with alternative solvents but can proceed treatment with minoxidil. In contrast, patients with allergies to the active ingredient itself are no longer candidates for treatment with minoxidil and should undergo alternative therapeutic options. [source]

    Learning large-scale spatial relationships in a maze and effects of MK-801 on retrieval in the rhesus monkey

    Jian Hong Wang
    Abstract Monkeys have strong abilities to remember the visual properties of potential food sources for survival in the nature. The present study demonstrated the first observations of rhesus monkeys learning to solve complex spatial mazes in which routes were guided by visual cues. Three monkeys were trained in a maze (6 m × 6 m) included of four different mazes. We recorded the cue and cup errors, latencies, and pathway for each trial. The data showed that monkeys learned the target place after three days in the first maze and spent a shorter time in learning the following mazes. The maze was an efficient method to measure the ability and proceeding of spatial memory in monkeys. Moreover, working memory can also be tested by using the maze. MK-801 at 0.02 mg/kg but not at 0.005 mg/kg impaired monkeys' retrieval of spatial memory after they learned all four mazes. The present maze may provide an efficient method to help bridging the gap in cognition between nonhuman primates and humans, and in particular to gain insight into human cognitive function and dysfunction. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007. [source]

    Effects of size and morphology on swimming performance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    A. F. Ojanguren
    Abstract,,, Our study assesses swimming capacity (speed and stamina) and possible morphometric determinants of locomotor performance of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). We addressed these issues at the individual level to have an approach of the functional significance of intraspecific variation in morphological design. Both swimming speed and endurance time showed significant positive relationships with fish length. Size-corrected values of speed and endurance time were negatively correlated suggesting a phenotypic trade-off between burst and prolonged swimming. Size was also highly correlated with all the morphological variables measured. Therefore, we used the residuals of the regressions of those variables on fish length to remove the effect of body size. A principal components analysis (PCA) summarised the 12 morphological variables into two factors, which accounted for 44.3% of the variance. PC1 combined several measures of body depth and width, whereas PC2 represented mainly postanal length relative to abdomen length. Relationships between the scores of the two factors and size-corrected values of maximum swimming speed and endurance time were weak. PC2 showed a significant positive relationship with endurance time; that is, individuals with longer caudal regions were able to swim against water flow for longer periods of time. Stoutness (PC1) showed a marginally significant negative correlation with endurance time. The lack of stronger relationships could be because of the low morphometric variability among the test individuals, all proceeding from the same population, reared in a common environment, and measured at the same ontogenetic stage. [source]

    Cover Picture: Electrophoresis 19'2008

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 19 2008
    Article first published online: 28 OCT 200
    This issue has a dual emphasis: "APCE 2007" and "Fundamentals and Methodologies" with the aim of providing the readers of the Journal with the latest developments in the field. APCE 2007, which was held in Singapore, December 17 , 19, 2007, is the premier forum in the Asia-Pacific countries for communicating advances in capillary- and chip-based electroseparation techniques and their applications to genomics, proteomics, and chemical and biochemical analysis. The emphasis part on APCE 2007 is a "mini proceeding" that groups 7 representative research articles, which deal with microchip electrophoresis, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis by CE, gradient MEKC, stacking and sweeping in CE, in-line pre-concentration in CE, and food and drug analysis by CE. In addition, issue 19 has a "Fast Track" article on the principles for different modes of multiple-injection CZE and provides equations that facilitate the transfer from single-injection CZE to one or more suitable modes of multiple injection CZE. [source]

    The effect of aging biosolids on the availability of cadmium and zinc in soil

    S. Stacey
    Summary A major concern with the safe re-use of biosolids on land is the potential for release of metals from organic matter in the biosolids, due to decomposition proceeding as biosolids age. To quantify the effects of biosolid aging on Cd and Zn bioavailability, two sewage sludges (Lagoon sludge and Filtered sludge) and a garden compost were incubated at 25°C and 35°C for 100 days. Changes in availability of Cd and Zn were determined using isotope dilution principles, with the materials being labelled with carrier-free 109Cd and 65Zn. We determined isotopically exchangeable metal pools (E values) and plant available metal pools (L values) by measuring specific activities of Cd and Zn in soil extracts and in wheat plants, respectively. Changes in carbon content over time were determined using 13C-NMR spectroscopy and chemical extraction methods, and related to changes in availability of metal pools as determined by isotopic procedures. Hot-water-extractable carbon content, assumed to represent easily decomposable organic matter, decreased during the 100 days by 80,190 mg kg,1. The Compost and Lagoon sludge showed no change in L values for Cd or Zn with time, but in the Filtered sludge the L values for Cd and Zn increased significantly, by 43% and 56%, respectively. The isotopically exchangeable pools of Cd and Zn did not change with incubation treatment of the biosolids. These data indicate that the potential for metal release from biosolids as organic matter decomposes depends to a large extent on the biosolid composition. [source]

    Rearrangements in Model Peptide-Type Radicals via Intramolecular Hydrogen-Atom Transfer

    Damian Moran
    Abstract Intramolecular H-atom transfer in model peptide-type radicals was investigated with high-level quantum-chemistry calculations. Examination of 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,5-, and 1,6[C,,,N]-H shifts, 1,4- and 1,7[C,,,C]-H shifts, and 1,4[N,,,N]-H shifts (Scheme,1), was carried out with a number of theoretical methods. In the first place, the performance of UB3-LYP (with the 6-31G(d), 6-31G(2df,p), and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets) and UMP2 (with the 6-31G(d) basis set) was assessed for the determination of radical geometries. We found that there is only a small basis-set dependence for the UB3-LYP structures, and geometries optimized with UB3-LYP/6-31G(d) are generally sufficient for use in conjunction with high-level composite methods in the determination of improved H-transfer thermochemistry. Methods assessed in this regard include the high-level composite methods, G3(MP2)-RAD, CBS-QB3, and G3//B3-LYP, as well as the density-functional methods B3-LYP, MPWB1K, and BMK in association with the 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(3df,3pd) basis sets. The high-level methods give results that are close to one another, while the recently developed functionals MPWB1K and BMK provide cost-effective alternatives. For the systems considered, the transformation of an N-centered radical to a C-centered radical is always exothermic (by 25,kJ,,,mol,1 or more), and this can lead to quite modest barrier heights of less than 60,kJ,,,mol,1 (specifically for 1,5[C,,,N]-H and 1,6[C,,,N]-H shifts). H-Migration barriers appear to decrease as the ring size in the transition structure (TS) increases, with a lowering of the barrier being found, for example when moving from a rearrangement proceeding via a four-membered-ring TS (e.g., the 1,3[C,,,N]-H shift, CH3C(O)NH.,,,.CH2C(O)NH2) to a rearrangement proceeding via a six-membered-ring TS (e.g., the 1,5[C,,,N]-H shift, .NHCH2C(O)NHCH3,,,NH2CH2C(O)NHCH2.). [source]

    Alanine transaminase rather than abdominal ultrasound alone is an important investigation to justify cholecystectomy in patients presenting with acute pancreatitis

    HPB, Issue 5 2010
    Kerry Anderson
    Abstract Objectives:, The aims of this study were to investigate the predictive value of an elevated level of alanine transaminase (ALT) for biliary acute pancreatitis (AP) and to reconsider the role of abdominal ultrasound (AUS). Methods:, All patients admitted to Christchurch Public Hospital with AP between July 2005 and December 2008 were identified from a prospectively collected database. Peak ALT within 48 h of presentation was recorded. Aetiology was determined on the basis of history, AUS and other relevant investigations. Results:, A total of 543 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients with biliary AP had significantly higher median (range) ALT than those with non-biliary causes (200 units/l [63,421 units/l] vs. 33 units/l [18,84 units/l]; P < 0.001). An ALT level of >300 units/l had a sensitivity of 36%, specificity of 94%, positive predictive value of 87% and positive likelihood ratio of 5.6 for gallstones. An elevated ALT and negative AUS had a probability of 21,80% for gallstones. Conclusions:, An elevated ALT strongly supports a diagnosis of gallstones in AP. Abdominal ultrasound effectively confirms this diagnosis; however, a negative ultrasound in the presence of a raised ALT does not exclude gallstones. In some patients consideration could be given to proceeding to laparoscopic cholecystectomy based on ALT alone. [source]

    From Parts to Wholes: Mechanisms of Development in Infant Visual Object Processing

    INFANCY, Issue 2 2004
    Gert Westermann
    Visual object processing in infancy is often described as proceeding from an early stage in which object features are processed independently to a later stage in which relations between features are taken into account (e.g., Cohen, 1998). Here we present the Representational Acuity Hypothesis, which argues that this behavioral shift can be explained by a developmental decrease in the size of neural receptive fields in the cortical areas responsible for object representation, together with a tuning to specific object features. We evaluate this hypothesis with a connectionist model of infant perceptual categorization. The model shows a behavioral shift in featural to relational processing consistent with similar results observed in the infant categorization experiments of Younger (1985) and Younger and Cohen (1986). [source]

    The effectiveness and efficiency of corporate insolvency law,part two

    Karin Luttikhuis
    Little empirical research has been done in the Netherlands (or internationally) into the effect of corporate insolvency proceedings. The Dutch legislature has made several attempts in the past decades to revise the current Dutch Bankruptcy Act (Faillissementswet) of 1893, while almost nothing is known about the effectiveness and efficiency of the Dutch corporate insolvency law. I have studied the effectiveness of the current Dutch insolvency law and of European Directive 2001/23/EC which is incorporated in this law, on the basis of theoretical and large-scale empirical research. The study concerned all 4167 of the corporate insolvencies that ended in 2004. In the first part of this Article (International Insolvency Review, Volume 17, 3, Winter 2008, pp. 189,209), the research results showed that the Dutch Bankruptcy Act achieved the goals set on it only to a limited degree and that the informal restructuring procedure is of great social importance. In this second part, I concentrate on the conditions imposed by European Directive 2001/23/EC on the European national legislatures to protect employees' rights: automatic transfer of employment contracts in the event of transfers as part of insolvency proceedings, together with measures to prevent misuse of insolvency proceedings in such a way as to deprive employees of the rights provided for in this European Directive. The study shows that, in the Netherlands, not applying automatic transfer of employment contracts when an undertaking or business is transferred as part of an insolvency proceeding does not result in large-scale misuse of insolvency law. It appears that automatic transfer of employment contracts outside insolvency proceedings can actually impede the informal restructuring of financially unsound companies. These surprising results are interesting for corporate insolvency proceedings worldwide. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Re Metcalfe: A matter of fraud, fairness, and reasonableness.

    The restructuring of the third-party asset-backed commercial paper market in Canada
    The recent market freeze in third-party asset-backed commercial paper in Canada has given rise to a restructuring proceeding of unprecedented size and complexity in Canada. It has led the Courts to refine and perhaps define the interpretative principles underpinning the determination of the scope of under-inclusive commercial legislation. This paper is a commentary on this unusual proceeding and the judicial analysis employed in the proceeding. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An adaptive multigrid iterative approach for frictional contact problems

    S. A. Mohamed
    Abstract The objective of this paper is the construction of a robust strategy towards adaptively solving Signorini's frictional contact problems. The frictional contact problem between a linearly elastic body and rigid foundation is formulated as a classical boundary value problem of the elastic body but associated with special inequality conditions on the contact surface. A new iterative approach is presented to solve the problem on a given mesh. In the first iteration the candidate nodes are assumed to be in micro-slip contact and then proceeding to update the contact status according to the actual displacements and stresses obtained at the end of each increment. An efficient multigrid method is developed to solve the discrete problems of different iterations. The proposed iterative procedure is integrated with an error indicator and automatic grid generator to construct an adaptive multigrid method. Numerical results of the convergence rates, automatically generated grid sequence, contact stresses and strains as well as two parametric studies are presented to prove the efficiency of the proposal. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A New Autocatalytic Thioacetate-Enal Addition Reaction: A Michael Addition or Not?

    Gennadiy Ilyashenko
    Abstract Rather than proceeding through a Michael-type or 1,4-addition, thioacetic acid adds across unsaturated aldehydes in an autocatalytic manner and involving a double exotherm, as demonstrated by both adiabatic and reaction calorimetry. NMR studies show that an intermediate acylthio-hemiacetal is involved and that the product continues to react competitively with thioacetic acid. [source]

    Catalytic Deoxygenation of 1,2-Propanediol to Give n -Propanol

    Marcel Schlaf
    Abstract Deoxygenation of 1,2-propanediol (1.0,M in sulfolane) catalyzed by bis(dicarbonyl)(,-hydrido)(pentamethylcyclopentadiene)ruthenium trifluoromethanesulfonate ({[Cp*Ru(CO)2]2(,-H)}+OTf,) (0.5 mol%) at 110,°C under hydrogen (750 psi) in the presence of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (HOTf) (60,mM) gives n -propanol as the major product, indicating high selectivity for deoxygenation of the internal hydroxy group over the terminal hydroxy group of the diol. The deoxygenation of 1,2-propanediol is strongly influenced by the concentration of acid, giving faster rates and proceeding to higher conversions as the concentration of HOTf is increased. Propionaldehyde was observed as an intermediate, being formed through acid-catalyzed dehydration of 1,2-propanediol. This aldehyde is hydrogenated to n -propanol through an ionic pathway involving protonation of the aldehyde, followed by hydride transfer from the neutral hydride, dicarbonyl(pentamethylcyclopentadiene)ruthenium hydride [Cp*Ru(CO)2H]. The proposed mechanism for the deoxygenation/hydrogenation reaction involves formation of a highly acidic dihydrogen complex [Cp*Ru(CO)2(,2 -H2)]+ OTf,. [source]

    Microscopic observation of aerobic granulation in sequential aerobic sludge blanket reactor

    J.-H. Tay
    Aims: This paper attempts to provide visual evidence of how aerobic granulation evolves in sequential aerobic sludge blanket reactors. Methods and Results: A series of experiments were conducted in two column-type sequential aerobic sludge reactors fed with glucose and acetate as sole carbon source, respectively. The evolution of aerobic granulation was monitored using image analysis and optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the formation of aerobic granules was a gradual process from seed sludge to compact aggregates, further to granular sludge and finally to mature granules with the sequential operation proceeding. Glucose- and acetate-fed granules have comparable characteristics in terms of settling velocity, size, shape, biomass density and microbial activity. However, the microbial diversity of the granules was associated with the carbon source supplied. In this work, an important aerobic starvation phase was identified during sequential operation cycles. It was found that periodical aerobic starvation was an effective trigger for microbial aggregation in the reactor and further strengthened cell,cell interaction to form dense aggregates, which was an essential step of granulation. The periodical starvation-induced aggregates would finally be shaped to granules by hydrodynamic shear and flow. Conclusions: Aerobic granules can be formed within 3 weeks in the systems. The periodical starvation and hydrodynamic conditions would play a crucial role in the granulation process. Significance and Impact of the Study: Aerobic granules have excellent physical characteristics as compared with conventional activated sludge flocs. This research could be helpful for the development of an aerobic granule-based novel type of reactor for handling high strength organic wastewater. [source]

    Decapeptide with fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-5 partial sequence inhibits hair growth suppressing activity of FGF-5

    Chikako Ito
    Earlier studies demonstrated that knock-out of fibroblast growth factor-5 gene (Fgf-5) prolonged anagen VI phase of hair cycle, resulting long hairs in the mice. We showed the activities on hair growth of the two Fgf-5 gene products, one of which, FGF-5 suppressed hair growth by inhibiting anagen proceeding and inducing the transition from anagen to catagen, and FGF-5S, a shorter polypeptide with FGF-5-antagonizing activity translated from alternatively spliced mRNA, suppressed this activity of FGF-5. As the results suggested that FGF-5 antagonist would increase hair growth, we synthesized various peptides having partial sequences of human FGF-5 and FGF-5S and determined their FGF-5 antagonist activity. Among them, a decapeptide designated P3 (95-VGIGFHLQIY-104) that aligns with receptor binding sites of FGF-1 and FGF-2 suppressed FGF-5-induced proliferation of BALB/3T3 A31 and NIH/3T3 murine fibroblasts, and FGF receptor-1c (FGFR-1c)-transfected Ba/F3 cell line (FR-Ba/F3 cells). IC50s of this peptide on these cell proliferations were 64, 28, 146 ,M, respectively. On the other hand, IC50 of this peptide on binding of FGF-5 to the FGFR-1(IIIc)/Fc chimera was 483 ,M. Examination in dorsal depilated mice revealed that the P3 peptide reduced the activity of FGF-5 to recover hair pigmentation and hair follicle lengths. The classification of histologically observed skin sections showed FGF-5-induced delations of anagen procedure had reduced by the P3 peptide. The anti-Ki67 antibody staining of hair follicles was inhibited by administration of FGF-5, and this inhibition by FGF-5 was recovered by administration of the P3 peptide. The P3 peptide alone did not affect hair follicle length and hair cell proliferation. These results indicate that the decapeptide antagonized FGF-5 activity in vivo, and reduced the inhibition of FGF-5 in hair growth, confirming that FGF-5 inhibitors are promising substances against hair loss and/or for promoting hair growth. J. Cell. Physiol. 197: 272,283, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A current overview of consumer neuroscience

    Mirja Hubert
    The emerging discipline of neuroeconomics employs methods originally used in brain research for investigating economic problems, and furthers the advance of integrating neuroscientific findings into the economic sciences. Neuromarketing or consumer neuroscience is a sub-area of neuroeconomics that addresses marketing relevant problems with methods and insights from brain research. With the help of advanced techniques of neurology, which are applied in the field of consumer neuroscience, a more direct view into the "black box" of the organism should be feasible. Consumer neuroscience, still in its infancy, should not be seen as a challenge to traditional consumer research, but constitutes a complementing advancement for further investigation of specific decision-making behavior. The key contribution of this paper is to suggest a distinct definition of consumer neuroscience as the scientific proceeding, and neuromarketing as the application of these findings within the scope of managerial practice. Furthermore, we aim to develop a foundational understanding of the field, moving away from the derisory assumption that consumer neuroscience is about locating the "buy button" in the brain. Against this background the goal of this paper is to present specific results of selected studies from this emerging discipline, classified according to traditional marketing-mix instruments such as product, price, communication, and distribution policies, as well as brand research. The paper is completed by an overview of the most prominent brain structures relevant for consumer neuroscience, and a discussion of possible implications of these insights for economic theory and practice. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Degeneration of Nuclei and Mitochondria in Human Hairs

    Charles A. Linch B.S.
    Abstract:, It is generally accepted that nuclei degrade in developing hair shafts but the point at which such occurs has not been investigated. The fate of mitochondria in the keratinizing hair shaft has been less clear. This study uses transmission electron microscopy to investigate when nuclei and mitochondria are no longer visible in the developing hair shaft. Serial sections were obtained from anagen head hairs absent follicles in order to determine the sequence of degradation of nuclei and mitochondria in the hair shaft by starting at the root bulb and proceeding toward the hair tip. It was demonstrated that nuclei and mitochondria become invisible in the keratinizing hair shaft at about the same time. This was found to occur fairly early in the process at the level of the hair shaft where the hair cuticle becomes permanent. [source]

    Ethical issues in pro-social advertising: the Australian 2006 White Ribbon Day campaign

    Robert John Donovan
    The Australian White Ribbon Day 2006 campaign was severely criticized by mental health professionals and those working in the family and domestic violence sector because of depictions of suicide and self-harm in the television advertisement and accompanying promotional materials. The White Ribbon Day (WRD) National Leadership Group (NLG) rejected all requests by concerned groups to not use these campaign materials. They and their apologists claimed that such violent imagery was necessary to attract men's attention and was being misinterpreted as depicting suicide attempts. With preliminary ethics approval we set out to assess reactions to the television advertisement. After 24 interviews, the testing was terminated by the university research ethics officer after two male respondents demonstrated significant distress after viewing the ad. Furthermore, the results by that stage showed that there were perceived messages of suicide in the ad. These results were sent to the WRD NLG with a request to reconsider proceeding with the television advertisement and associated materials. Mental health and domestic violence organizations lodged similar requests. All requests were rejected. The case raises a number of ethical issues for pro-social organizations when dealing with sensitive issues and using execution techniques that may impact negatively on vulnerable audiences. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    What do lesbians do in the daytime?

    This paper examines a narrative taken from an ethnographic interview, for the speaker's conversational construction of lesbian and other identities along with ideologized personal history. To tell her story, Marge shifts to the discourse style used in the meetings of addiction recovery groups. She prioritizes the recovery (twelve-step) program's coherence system, structuring her life story in conformity with its terms while narrating a complexly queered identity. Four analyses are given, beginning with a Labovian formal examination and proceeding with a consideration of three types of discourse echoing: interdiscursivity, intratextuality, and manifest intertextuality. This study demonstrates the analytical linking of nonpublic linguistic discourse to social discourses; individual identity construction to social construction (and its coherence systems); and personal history to historical eras. The paper adds the concept of a metalevel complicating action to narrative theory and develops a means of examining intratextuality for critical discourse analysis. It presents a revised view of essentialism for the sociolinguistic study of gender and sexuality. [source]

    Labour Market in Motion: Analysing Regional Flows in a Multi-accounting System

    LABOUR, Issue 4-5 2007
    Anette Haas
    We develop a flexible flow approach system , a multi-accounting system (MAS) , dealing with flows and stocks on regional labour markets. Combining administrative data at the micro level with various macro data, the MAS describes the dynamic transition process of the 180 local labour market areas in Germany. We use a new algorithm, related to entropy optimization, to estimate unknown transitions. Compared with conventional methods, the main advantage of our proceeding is that additional information from different data sources can be included that is of an inherently fuzzy character. [source]

    Terahertz generation by means of optical lasers

    G.Kh. Kitaeva
    Abstract Generation of high-power radiation in terahertz frequency range 0.3 , 10 THz is a fast developing research area attracting considerable interest over the past years due to its important applications in spectroscopy, communication, biomedical imaging and tomography. A brief review of laser-based generation methods is presented, starting from the schemes of resonance laser excitation of photoconductive materials, organic molecules and ionized gases, and proceeding with more detailed description of non-resonance schemes of optical rectification and difference frequency generation in materials with high optical nonlinearity. Recent progress achieved in both groups of methods is compared. (© 2008 by Astro Ltd., Published exclusively by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) [source]

    Negotiating the Boundaries of Crime and Culture: A Sociolegal Perspective on Cultural Defense Strategies

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 1 2003
    Kay L. Levine
    In this article 1 offer a principled strategy for the courts to identify and to handle the uses of culture as a defense in a criminal proceeding. I begin by discussing the relationship between culture and behavior illuminated by sociologists of culture. I then explain the three categories into which cultural defenses fall,cultural reason, cultural requirement, and cultural tolerance,and the response of criminal courts in the United States to each. I argue that where culture offers an alternative explanation of the defendant's intent, it is highly relevant to determinations of criminal liability. However, where a defendant uses culture only to explain why he wanted to harm the victim and asks that the court be tolerant of such behavior, considerations of culture should not be allowed. In reaching this conclusion, I draw on theories of multiculturalism to consider the benefits and burdens of maintaining the facade of a "cultureless" criminal law in an increasingly heterogeneous society. [source]

    Interface Structure between Immiscible Reactive Polymers under Transreaction: a Monte Carlo Simulation

    Xuehao He
    Abstract Summary: The interface structure between two immiscible melts, a polycondensate polymer A (e.g., polycarbonate, polyester or polyamide) and a polymer B, was studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations using the bond fluctuation model. Polymer B contained a reactive end group (e.g., OH, NH2 or COOH). Copolymers were generated in-situ at the interfaces by transreactions (alcoholysis, aminolysis or acidolysis), composing of various length of block A, depending on the position of transreaction in the polycondensate chain A. The content of copolymer at the interface increased with the time, particular fast at the early stage. Fragments of polymers A were released with an end group, reactive to polymers A. This resulted in the proceeding of internal transreactions. An asymmetric interface structure was formed. The simulation also showed that copolymers generated by interfacial transreactions increased the compatibility of the two polymers and enhanced the adhesion strength at the interfaces. [source]

    More mediation confidentiality limits: What the court may allow in to establish a settlement agreement

    Stuart M. Widman
    In the second of two parts, Stuart M. Widman, of Chicago, discusses two more categories that may infringe on traditional expectations of mediation confidentiality: when mediation information is needed to establish a settlement agreement's existence or terms, and when there is a need to impose sanctions or discipline against an attorney in connection with an ADR proceeding [source]

    Bacillus anthracis requires siderophore biosynthesis for growth in macrophages and mouse virulence

    Stephen Cendrowski
    Summary Systemic anthrax infections can be characterized as proceeding in stages, beginning with an early intracellular establishment stage within phagocytes that is followed by extracelluar stages involving massive bacteraemia, sepsis and death. Because most bacteria require iron, and the host limits iron availability through homeostatic mechanisms, we hypothesized that B. anthracis requires a high-affinity mechanism of iron acquisition during its growth stages. Two putative types of siderophore synthesis operons, named Bacillus anthracis catechol, bac (anthrabactin), and anthrax siderophore biosynthesis, asb (anthrachelin), were identified. Directed gene deletions in both anthrabactin and anthrachelin pathways were generated in a B. anthracis (Sterne) 34F2 background resulting in mutations in asbA and bacCEBF. A decrease in siderophore production was observed during iron-depleted growth in both the ,asbA and ,bacCEBF strains, but only the ,asbA strain was attenuated for growth under these conditions. In addition, the ,asbA strain was severely attenuated both for growth in macrophages (M,) and for virulence in mice. In contrast, the ,bacCEBF strain did not differ phenotypically from the parental strain. These findings support a requirement for anthrachelin but not anthrabactin in iron assimilation during the intracellular stage of anthrax. [source]