Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Prognosis

  • accurate prognosis
  • adverse prognosis
  • bad prognosis
  • best prognosis
  • cancer prognosis
  • clinical prognosis
  • different prognosis
  • disease prognosis
  • dismal prognosis
  • excellent prognosis
  • favorable prognosis
  • favourable prognosis
  • good prognosis
  • grim prognosis
  • guarded prognosis
  • improved prognosis
  • long-term prognosis
  • patient prognosis
  • poor prognosis
  • poorer prognosis
  • short-term prognosis
  • survival prognosis
  • terminal prognosis
  • uncertain prognosis
  • unfavorable prognosis
  • very poor prognosis
  • visual prognosis

  • Terms modified by Prognosis

  • prognosis factor
  • prognosis group

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2004
    Peter H. Niewiarowski
    Abstract Over the past 15 years, phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) have become standard in the study of life-history evolution. To date, most studies have focused on variation among species or higher taxonomic levels, generally revealing the presence of significant phylogenetic effects as well as residual variation potentially attributable to adaptive evolution. Recently, population-level phylogenetic hypotheses have become available for many species, making it possible to apply PCMs directly to the level at which experiments are typically used to test adaptive hypotheses. In this study, we present the results of PCMs applied to life-history variation among populations of the widespread and well-studied lizard Sceloporus undulatus. Using S. undulatus (which may represent four closely related species) as an example, we explore the benefits of using PCMs at the population level, as well as consider the importance of several thorny methodological problems including but not limited to nonindependence of populations, lack of sufficient variation in traits, and the typically small sample sizes dictated by the difficulty of collecting detailed demographic data. We show that phylogenetic effects on life-history variation among populations of S. undulatus appear to be unimportant, and that several classic trade-offs expected by theory and revealed by many interspecific comparisons are absent. Our results suggest that PCMs applied to variation in life-history traits below the species level may be of limited value, but more studies like ours are needed to draw a general conclusion. Finally, we discuss several outstanding problems that face studies seeking to apply PCMs below the species level. [source]


    Stéphane Nahon MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Olivier Lambotte MD
    First page of article [source]

    Are Aggressive Treatment Strategies Less Cost-Effective for Older Patients?

    Aggressive Care for Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure, The Case of Ventilator Support
    OBJECTIVES: A common assumption is that life-sustaining treatments are much less cost-effective for older patients than for younger patients. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of providing mechanical ventilation and intensive care for patients of various ages who had acute respiratory failure. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of data on acute respiratory failure from Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments (SUPPORT). SETTING: Acute hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 1,005 with acute respiratory failure; 963 received ventilator support and 42 had ventilator support withheld. MEASUREMENTS: We studied 1,005 patients enrolled in a five-center study of seriously ill patients (SUPPORT) with acute respiratory failure (pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome and an Acute Physiology Score ,10) requiring ventilator support. For cost-effectiveness analyses, we estimated life expectancy based on long-term follow-up of SUPPORT patients and estimated utilities (quality-of-life weights) using time-tradeoff questions. We used hospital fiscal data and Medicare data to estimate healthcare costs. We divided patients into three age groups (<65, 65,74, and ,75 years); for each age group, we performed separate analyses for patients with a ,50% probability of surviving at least 2 months (high-risk group) and those with a> 50% probability of surviving at least 2 months (low-risk group). RESULTS: Of the 963 patients who received ventilator support, 44% were female; 48% survived 6 months; and the median (25th, 75th percentile) age was 63 (46, 75) years. For the 42 patients for whom ventilator support was withheld, the median survival was 3 days. For low-risk patients (>50% estimated 2-month survival), the incremental cost (1998 dollars) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved by providing ventilator support and aggressive care increased across the three age groups ($32,000 for patients age <65, $44,000 for those age 65,74, and $46,000 for those age ,75). For high-risk patients, the incremental cost-effectiveness was much less favorable and was least favorable for younger patients ($130,000 for patients age <65, $100,000 for those age 65,74, and $96,000 for those age ,75). When we varied our assumptions from 50% to 200% of our baseline estimates in sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to the costs of the index hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with relatively good short-term prognoses, we found that ventilator support and aggressive care were economically worthwhile, even for patients 75 years and older. For patients with poor short-term prognoses, ventilator support and aggressive care were much less cost-effective for adults of all ages. [source]

    Prognostic signs in melanoma: state of the art

    M Lomuto
    ABSTRACT Prognoses for melanoma patients are currently based on statistically confirmed parameters, above all the Breslow thickness and number of lymph node and/or distant metastases. However, metastases can develop even with ,thin' melanomas (< 0.7 mm), while survival has been recorded in patients with tumours classified as ,thick' (> 4 mm). This review of the literature examines the most recent advances in prognostic markers for melanoma (serological, immunohistochemical, histological, genetic and surgical). These markers offer interesting possibilities in terms of diagnostic certainty, identification of early growth phases and estimation of the tumour's potential for progression and metastasis. It is reasonable to assume that their combined use can provide useful information for formulating prognoses that are not only statistically valid but also individualized. [source]

    Peak Oxygen Consumption and Heart Failure Prognosis,Does Race, Sex, or Fat Explain the Discrepancy?

    Editor's note: The following commentary addresses issues raised in an article published in the previous issue.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Advanced Heart Failure: Prognosis, Uncertainty, and Decision Making

    Jane G. Zapka ScD
    Heart failure is a serious clinical management challenge for both patients and primary care physicians. The authors studied the perceptions and practices of internal medicine residents and faculty at an academic medical center in the Southeast to guide design of strategies to improve heart failure care. Data were collected via a self-administered survey. Eighty-nine faculty and resident physicians in general internal medicine and geriatrics participated (74% response rate). Items measured perceived skills and barriers, adherence to guidelines, and physician understanding of patient prognosis. Case studies explored practice approaches. Clinical knowledge and related scales were generally good and comparable between physician groups. Palliative care and prognostic skills were self-rated with wide variance. Physicians rated patient noncompliance and low lifestyle change motivation as major barriers. Given the complexities of caring for elderly persons with heart failure and comorbid conditions, there are significant opportunities for improving physician skills in decision making, patient-centered counseling, and palliative care. [source]

    Prognosis and Mechanism of Death in Treated Heart Failure: Data From the Placebo Arm of Val-HeFT

    Jay N. Cohn MD
    The magnitude of benefit on mortality of combined angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and ,-blocker (BB) therapy for heart failure cannot be reliably assessed from prospective randomized trials of individual drugs with intent-to-treat analysis. The placebo arm of the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT) included patients who remained on background therapy with ACEIs, BBs, neither, or both. The outcomes in these four subgroups should provide a better guide to mortality benefit. Overall mortality (mean follow-up, 23 months) was 31.6% in those receiving neither neurohormonal blocker, 29% and 39% lower in those on ACEIs or BBs, respectively, and 62% lower (11.9% mortality) in those receiving both drugs. In the neither neurohormonal inhibitor group, 48% of the heart failure-related deaths were adjudicated as sudden, whereas in the group receiving ACEIs and BBs, 79% of the deaths were sudden, and pump failure mortality was only 1% per year. The combination of ACEIs and BBs exerts a greater mortality reduction than suggested from clinical trials and reduces pump failure mortality to 1% per year. [source]

    Persistent Orthopnea and the Prognosis of Patients in the Heart Failure Clinic

    Luís Beck Da Silva MD
    Heart failure (HF) is a public health problem with ever-growing costs. Signs such as jugular venous pressure and third heart sound have been associated with disease prognosis. Symptoms of heart failure are frequently subjective, and their real value is often overlooked. The authors aimed to assess the relationship between orthopnea and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and hospitalization rate in patients referred to the HF clinic. One hundred fifty-three new consecutive patients referred to the HF clinic from September 2001 to July 2002 were reviewed. Information about orthopnea was available at baseline and at a 6-month to 1-year follow-up. One hundred thirty-one patients had a baseline multigated radionuclide ventriculogram scan, and 68 patients had a follow-up multigated radionuclide ventriculogram scan available. The patients were divided into groups by presence of orthopnea and compared with respect to LVEF and hospitalization rate. Patients with or without orthopnea had similar LVEFs at baseline (32%±17% vs. 33%±15%, respectively; p=NS). However, patients who were orthopnea-free at the follow-up visit had a significant LVEF improvement whereas patients with ongoing orthopnea at follow-up had no LVEF improvement (11%±13% vs. ,1%±6%; p<0.001). Patients who presented with persistent orthopnea had a significantly higher rate of hospitalization (64% vs. 15.3%; p=0.0001). Persistent orthopnea in HF patients is associated with a significantly higher rate of hospitalization and with worsening or no improvement in LVEF. Patients with persistent orthopnea may require a more aggressive approach to improve their outcome. This result may help centers with limited access to LVEF measurements to better stratify HF patients' risk. [source]

    A Case of Animal-Type Melanoma (or Pigmented Epithelioid Melanocytoma?): An Open Prognosis

    First page of article [source]

    Clinical Assessment and Rest and Stress Echocardiography for Prediction of Long-Term Prognosis in African Americans with Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2009
    Stephen G. Sawada M.D.
    Background: There is limited information on noninvasive risk stratification of African Americans, a high-risk group for cardiovascular events. We investigated the value of clinical assessment and echocardiography for the prediction of a long-term prognosis in African Americans. Methods: Dobutamine echocardiography was performed in 324 African Americans. Two-dimensional measurements were performed at rest, and rest and stress wall motion was assessed. A retrospective follow-up was conducted for cardiac events: myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiac death (CD). Results: The mean age was 59 ± 12 years, and 83% of patients had hypertension. The follow-up was obtained in 318 (98%) patients for a mean of 5.3 years. The events occurred in 107 (33%) subjects. The independent predictors of events were history of MI (P = 0.001, risk ratio [RR] 2.04), ischemia (P = 0.007, RR 1.97), fractional shortening (P = 0.033, RR 0.08), and left atrial (LA) dimension (P = 0.034, RR 1.39). An LA size of 3.6 cm and a fractional shortening of 0.30 were the best cutoff values for the prediction of events. Prior MI, ischemia, LA size >3.6 cm, and fractional shortening <0.30 were each considered independent risk predictors for events. The event rates were 13%, 21%, 38%, 59%, and 57% in patients with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 risk predictors, respectively. Event-free survival progressively worsened with an increasing number of predictors: 0 or 1 versus 2 predictors, P < 0.001; 2 versus 3 or 4 predictors, P = 0.003. Conclusion: The long-term prognosis of African Americans can be accurately predicted by clinical assessment combined with rest and stress echocardiography. [source]

    Risk Stratification and Prognosis in Octogenarians Undergoing Stress Echocardiographic Study

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2007
    F. A. C. C., Farooq A. Chaudhry M.D.
    Background: The prognostic value of stress echocardiography (SE) for the diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease in octogenarians is not well defined. Methods: Follow-up of 5 years (mean 2.9 ± 1.0 years) for confirmed nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 17) and cardiac death (n = 37) was obtained in 335 patients, age ,80 years (mean age 84 ± 3 years, 44% male), undergoing SE (33% treadmill, 67% dobutamine). Left ventricular (LV) regional wall motion was assessed by a consensus of two echocardiographers and scored as per standard five-point scale, 16-segment model of wall motion analysis. Ischemic LV wall segment was defined as deterioration in the thickening and excursion during stress (increase in wall-motion score index (WMSI) ,1). Results: By univariate analysis, inducible ischemia (chi-square = 38.4, P < 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (chi-square = 41.2, P < 0.001), a history of previous myocardial infarction (chi-square = 22.3, P < 0.01), hypertension (chi-square = 33, P < 0.01), and age (chi-square = 27.7, P < 0.01) were significant predictors of future cardiac events. WMSI, an index of inducible ischemia, provided incremental prognostic information when forced into a multivariable model where clinical and rest echocardiography variables were entered first. WMSI effectively stratified octogenarians into low- and high-risk groups (annualized event rates of 1.2 versus 5.8%/year, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Stress echocardiography yields incremental prognostic information in octogenarians and effectively stratifies them into low- and high-risk groups. Precise therapeutic decision making in very elderly patients should incorporate combined clinical and stress echocardiography data. [source]

    Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium: Report of Two Cases With Bicuspid Aortic Valve Demonstrating Poor Prognosis and With Prominent Right Ventricular Involvement

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2003
    Yuksel Cavusoglu
    Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a rare, unclassified cardiomyopathy due to an arrest of myocardial morphogenesis. The characteristic echocardiographic findings consist of multiple, prominent myocardial trabeculations and deep intertrabecular spaces communicating with the left ventricular (LV) cavity. The disease typically involves the LV myocardium, but right ventricular (RV) involvement is not uncommon. The clinical manifestations include heart failure (HF) signs, ventricular arrhythmias and cardioembolic events. Noncompacted myocardium may occur as an isolated cardiac lesion, as well as it can be in association with congenital anomalies. We describe two illustrative cases of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium, a 19-year-old male with bicuspid aortic valve and progressive worsening of HF, and a 61-year-old male with marked RV involvement in addition to LV apical involvement, both with the typical clinical and echocardiographic features of the disease. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 20, May 2003) [source]

    Childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut: A study of 33 patients

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2008
    Roberto Horacio Caraballo
    Summary Purpose: To characterize the electroclinical features and evolution of childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut (COE-G). Methods: Children with electroclinical criteria of COE-G were retrospectively identified and followed-up clinically, and with sleep and awake EEGs between 1990 and 2007. Results: We identified 33 patients with COE-G. In the same length of time, 201 children with Panayiotopoulos syndrome and 410 children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes were registered. COE-G had a peak age at onset of 8.5 years. Visual manifestations were the most common ictal event. Ictal deviation of the eyes was frequent. Approximately half of the patients had migraine-like symptoms. In all patients the seizures occurred while awake, and 11 also had seizures during sleep. The majority of the patients had occipital spike-wave discharges when the eyes were closed that disappeared or attenuated when the eyes were opened. Prognosis was excellent in 80% of the cases. Conclusion: This study confirms the existence of COE-G, a rare but well-defined syndrome within the group of idiopathic focal epilepsies in childhood. [source]

    Long-term Prognosis and Psychosocial Outcomes after Surgery for MTLE

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2006
    Sophie Dupont
    Summary:,Purpose: To assess the seizure-freedom rates and self-perceived psychosocial changes associated with the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery in patients with refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis. Methods: A standard questionnaire was given to 183 patients who underwent surgery between 1988 and 2004, and 110 were completed. Results: The mean duration of follow-up after surgery was 7 years, with a maximum of 17 years. The probability that patients were seizure-free after surgery was dependent on the definition of the seizure freedom. For the patients who were seizure-free since surgery (Engel's class Ia), the probability was 97.6% at 1 year after surgery, 85.2% at 2 years after surgery, 59.5% at 5 years after surgery, and 42.6% at 10 years after surgery. For the patients who still experienced rare disabling seizures after surgery but were seizure-free at least 1 year before the time of assessment, the probability was of 97.6% at 1 year after surgery, 95% at 2 years after surgery, 82.8% at 5 years after surgery, and 71.1% at 10 years after surgery. The psychosocial long-term outcome, as measured by indices of driving, employment, familial and social relationships, and marital status, was similar to the psychosocial short-term outcome. It did not depend on seizure freedom or on follow-up time interval and was not influenced statistically by seizure frequency in cases of persisting seizures. Most but not all patients noticed a substantial overall improvement in their psychosocial condition; 48% drove (increased by 7%), 47% improved (14% worsened) in their employment status, and 68% improved (5% worsened) in their familial and social relationships. Overall, 91% of patients were satisfied with the surgery, and 92% did not regret their decision. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that temporal lobe surgery has real long-term benefits. Two specific conclusions emerge: (a) the long-term rates of freedom from seizure depend on how seizure freedom is defined, and (b) the psychosocial long-term outcome does not change dramatically over years and does not depend on seizure freedom. [source]

    A Study of 43 Patients with Panayiotopoulos Syndrome, a Common and Benign Childhood Seizure Susceptibility

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2003
    Christina Lada
    Summary: ,Purpose: To determine prevalence, clinical, EEG features, and prognosis of Panayiotopoulos syndrome and to examine the proposition that clinical manifestations are more important than EEG findings. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the clinical and EEG records of 1,340 children with one or more focal seizures seen in the last 18 years, supplemented with a prospective study from 1998. Panayiotopoulos syndrome was defined by clinical criteria, mainly ictal emesis, irrespective of EEG findings. Results: We analyzed 43 of 90 patients with Panayiotopoulos syndrome who were seizure free >2 years. Girls predominated. Mean age at first seizure was 5 years. Seizures consisted mainly of autonomic manifestations; ictal emesis was often the first symptom, culminating in vomiting in 86%. Of nonautonomic manifestations, lateral eye deviation was the most common; visual symptoms were exceptional. Impairment of consciousness ensued in all seizures, half of which ended with hemi or generalized convulsions. Nearly 46.5% of cases had at least one seizure >30 min, constituting autonomic status epilepticus. Seizures during sleep (84%) were more common than those in wakefulness. EEG showed occipital spikes in 29 patients. Of the other 14 cases, five had extraoccipital abnormalities or brief generalized discharges, and nine had normal awake and sleep EEG. Prognosis was excellent. All 43 children have been free of seizures for ,2 years, 53% having a single seizure, and 47%, an average two to three seizures. Conclusions: Panayiotopoulos syndrome is common and needs wider recognition. EEG shows occipital or extraoccipital abnormalities, is normal in one third of patients, and does not determine clinical manifestations or prognosis, which is excellent despite the high prevalence of lengthy seizures. [source]

    Socioeconomic Prognosis after a Newly Diagnosed Unprovoked Epileptic Seizure in Adults: A Population-based Case,Control Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2002
    Hans Lindsten
    Summary: , Purpose: To investigate the socioeconomic prognosis after a newly diagnosed unprovoked epileptic seizure in adults. Methods: Sixty-three patients 17 years or older with a newly diagnosed unprovoked epileptic seizure from 1985 through 1987 and 107 sex- and age- matched controls were followed up for 10 years to 1996. Studied variables were income, source of income, sickness periods, incapacity rate, diagnosis-specific incapacity rate, vocational status, and education. Results: Relative growth of income was similar between patients and controls during follow-up. Patients had lower income than did controls 2 years before seizure onset and during the entire follow-up. This was related to higher morbidity among patients, as measured by sickness periods and incapacity rate. Employment rates did not evolve negatively among patients after seizure onset and were close to employment rates of controls during follow-up time. There was no difference between patients and controls regarding education. Conclusions: After a newly diagnosed unprovoked epileptic seizure in adults, no negative development regarding employment and education occurs. Income development is positive unless refractory seizures evolve. However, income is lower among patients with epilepsy than among controls, and this difference can be related to overall morbidity. [source]

    FDG-PET Images Quantified by Probabilistic Atlas of Brain and Surgical Prognosis of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2002
    Sang Kun Lee
    Summary: ,Purpose: This study evaluated the relation between hypometabolism, diagnosed by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and the surgical outcome of a large and homogeneous series of cases of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), by using a probabilistic atlas of the human brain (statistical probabilistic anatomical maps: SPAM). Methods: Ninety-five surgically proven intractable mTLE patients and 22 age-matched controls were spatially normalized to the average brain PET template of international consortium of brain mapping (ICBM). The diagnosis of mTLE was confirmed by the presence of hippocampal sclerosis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and video-EEG monitoring. Counts from normalized PET images were multiplied by the probability from 98 volumes of interest (VOIs) of SPAM. Asymmetric indexes (AIs) reflecting the severity of hypometabolism were calculated by counts of selected 12 VOIs from SPAM images in both temporal lobes. Extent of hypometabolism was determined by the number of voxels showing decreased metabolism in each VOI segmented by SPAM. Results: Of the 95 patients studied, 76 (80%) were seizure free, and 19 (20%) had postoperative seizures for the ,2-year follow-up period. No significant association between the severity of hypometabolism in each VOI of the temporal lobe and surgical outcome was identified (p > 0.05). The number of voxels showing decreased hypometabolism was not significantly different between the good- and poor-outcome groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that focal severity and extent of hypometabolism quantified by a probabilistic atlas of brain were not related to the surgical outcome in mTLE patients who had hippocampal sclerosis on MRI. We should develop a more localized and specified anatomic map for mTLE for further results. [source]

    Nonsymptomatic Generalized Epilepsy in Children Younger than Six Years: Excellent Prognosis, but Classification Should Be Reconsidered after Follow-up: The Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2002
    C. M. Middeldorp
    Summary: ,Purpose: To assess the prognosis and the accuracy of the epilepsy classification in young children with nonsymptomatic generalized epilepsy. Methods: Of the cohort of the Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood (n = 466), all children younger than 6 years with a diagnosis of idiopathic (IGE) or cryptogenic (CGE) generalized epilepsy either at intake (n = 108) and/or after 2 years of follow-up (n = 102) were included. The number of reclassifications after 2 years was determined, and the reasons for reclassification were analyzed. All children receiving a diagnosis of IGE or CGE at 2 years were followed up for 5 years to study their outcome in terms of terminal remission (TR). Data on their level of intellectual functioning were collected at the start of this analysis. Results: The epilepsy syndrome was reclassified in 17 children. In 14 of them, the seizure type also was reclassified, and in three, the course of the epilepsy determined the new epilepsy type. Two other children had a reclassification of their seizure types without a change of the epilepsy type. Many children were categorized as having IGE not otherwise specified. In all probability, this is a heterogeneous group, containing patients with various epilepsy syndromes, with generalized tonic,clonic seizures as a common hallmark. Of the 102 children with IGE or CGE at 2 years of follow-up, 75% had a TR of >6 months after 2 years, and 85% a TR of ,1 year after 5 years. Conclusions: In a fair proportion of children with nonsymptomatic generalized epilepsy in this age group, it is not possible to classify firmly the epilepsy and/or the seizures immediately after the intake. Instead, they are reclassified during the course of the disease. This and the apparent heterogeneity of the category IGE not otherwise specified point to inherent drawbacks of the current International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification of epilepsy and epileptic syndromes. The prognosis of IGE at this young age is generally excellent. [source]

    Clinical Features and Prognosis of Nonepileptic Seizures in a Developing Country

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2001
    W. Silva
    Summary: ,Purpose: To determine the predictive value of clinical features and medical history in patients with nonepileptic seizures (NESs). Methods: One hundred sixty-one consecutive ictal video-EEGs were reviewed, and 17 patients with 41 NESs identified. NES diagnosis was defined as paroxysmal behavioral changes suggestive of epileptic seizures recorded during video-EEG without any electrographic ictal activity. Clinical features, age, sex, coexisting epilepsy, associated psychiatric disorder, social and economic factors, delay in reaching the diagnosis of NES, previous treatment, and correlation with outcome on follow-up were examined. Results: The study population included 70% female patients with a mean age of 33 years. Mean duration of NESs before diagnosis was 9 years. Forty-one percent had coexisting epilepsy. The most frequent NES clinical features were tonic,clonic mimicking movements and fear/anxiety/hyperventilation. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was conversion disorder and dependent and borderline personality disorder. Seventy-three percent of patients with pure NESs received antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and 63.5% of this group received new AEDs. Fifty-nine percent of the patients received psychological/psychiatric therapy. At follow-up, 23.5% were free of NESs. Conclusions: All seizure-free patients had two good prognostic factors: having an independent lifestyle and the acceptance of the nonepileptic nature of the episodes. Video-EEG monitoring continues to be the diagnostic method to ensure accurate seizure classification. Establishing adequate health care programs to facilitate access to new technology in public hospitals as well as the implementation of continuous education programs for general practitioners and neurologists could eventually improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with NESs. [source]

    Febrile Seizures: Treatment and Prognosis

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2000
    Finn Ursin Knudsen
    Summary: Recent epidemiologic data indicate that the vast majority of children with febrile seizures have a normal long-term outcome. A precise knowledge of the short- and long-term outcome with or without treatment, and short- and long-term side effects is an important prerequisite for assessing the various treatment strategies. We focus on the impact of short-term or prophylactic treatment on the short- and long-term outcome of various types of febrile seizures. There is universal agreement that daily prophylaxis with antiepileptic agents should never be used routinely in simple febrile seizures, but only in highly selected cases, if at all. Intermittent diazepam (DZP) prophylaxis at times of fever may or may not reduce the recurrence rate, but it does not appear to improve the long-term outcome as compared with short-term seizure control. The treatment may be used to reduce the recurrence rate for a small arbitrarily defined group with multiple simple febrile seizures, complex febrile seizures, especially focal, prolonged or both, febrile status, and when parental anxiety is severe. However, there is no evidence that treatment of simple febrile seizures can prevent the rare cases of later epilepsy, and many children with complex febrile seizures have a benign long-term outcome, even without treatment. Many prefer a "wait and see" policy. An attractive alternative is to treat new febrile seizures with rectal DZP in solution at seizure onset, given by the parents at home to prevent febrile status. Newer, less well documented short-term strategies include nasal, oral, or rectal administration of other benzodiazepines. Short-term seizure control of febrile status and careful parental counseling are the two most important targets of treatment. [source]

    Osseous abnormalities associated with collateral desmopathy of the distal interphalangeal joint.

    Part 2: Treatment, outcome
    Summary Reasons for performing study: There are currently few long-term follow-up data relating to recovery from injury of a collateral ligament (CL) of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint and limited information about the effect of associated osseous injury on prognosis. Objectives: To describe long-term follow-up results for horses with CL injury, with and without associated osseous injury; and to determine the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ECSWT) or radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) on outcome. Hypotheses: Prognosis for return to performance for horses with CL-related osseous injury would be worse than for horses with CL injury alone. Methods: Magnetic resonance images from 313 feet of 289 horses with foot pain and a definitive diagnosis of collateral desmopathy of the DIP joint were analysed retrospectively for presence of osseous abnormality associated with the ligament origin or insertion and the middle and distal phalanges. Horses were assigned to groups according to the combination of their injuries. Type of treatment was recorded and follow-up information obtained. Thirty-two horses with additional sources of lameness were excluded from analysis of outcome. Results: Follow-up data were available for 182 horses, 55 of which had follow-up information for up to 2 years after presentation. Twenty-seven percent of horses with CL injury alone and 34% of horses with CL related osseous injury returned to their previous performance level. Prognosis for a combination of injuries to multiple soft tissue and osseous structures within the hoof capsule was substantially worse. There was no effect of ECSWT or RPWT on outcome. Conclusions: The presence of mild to moderate CL related osseous injury does not appear to influence prognosis compared with CL injury alone. Clinical relevance: Further studies of a larger number of horses are necessary in order to ascertain if specific types of osseous pathology influence return to performance levels. [source]

    The relevance of the bleeding severity in the treatment of acquired haemophilia , an update of a single-centre experience with 67 patients

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 102 2010
    Summary., Acquired haemophilia (AH), an autoimmune disorder with clinical features ranging from harmless haematomas to life-threatening bleedings, still has a mortality rate of up to 25%. Owing to its low frequency (1,4 × 106), standardized treatment protocols for its variable manifestations are not available. In case of prominent severe bleedings, the treatment should aim at rapid elimination of the antibody to protect patients from bleedings and on reinduction of long-term immune tolerance. Clinical data, short- and long-term treatment results of 67 patients diagnosed by our centre are presented. Patients were treated depending on their bleeding severity either by an immunosuppressive treatment alone, or in case of life-threatening bleedings, by a combined protocol (modified Bonn,Malmö protocol, MBMP) consisting of antibody depletion through immunoadsorption, intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, immunosuppression and high-dose factor VIII (FVIII) substitution. Mild bleedings occurred in two patients who were treated successfully alone by immunosuppression. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 90% of the patients treated with MBMP (60). Of the six patients (10%) who achieved a partial remission (PR), four suffered from cancer. Mortality under MBMP was not seen. In contrast, five patients, in whom diagnosis of AH was delayed, experienced fatal outcome during surgical interventions before initiation of MBMP treatment. Prognosis in AH depends mainly on its prompt diagnosis. Treatment procedures should be adapted to bleeding severity and inhibitor titres. Under these conditions, AH is a potentially curable autoimmune disorder with an excellent prognosis. [source]

    Post-Dural Puncture Headache: Part II , Prevention, Management, and Prognosis

    HEADACHE, Issue 9 2010
    David Bezov MD
    Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a frequent complication of lumbar puncture, performed for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes or accidentally, as a complication of epidural anesthesia. As PDPH can be disabling, clinicians who perform these procedures should be familiar with strategies for preventing this disorder. Since the best preventative measures sometimes fail, clinicians should also be familiar with the therapeutic approaches for PDPH. Herein, we review the procedure-related risk factors for PDPH, the prognosis of PDPH and the studies of PDPH treatment. We divide the therapeutic approach to PDPH into 4 stages: conservative management, aggressive medical management, conventional invasive treatments, and the very rarely employed less conventional invasive treatments and provide management algorithm to facilitate treatment. [source]

    Prognosis of follicular lymphomas

    Stefano Luminari
    Abstract Follicular lymphoma (FL) is as an indolent neoplasia with median survival measured in decades. Nevertheless, some patients have poor progression-free survival and overall survival. Several treatment approaches are proposed for patients with FL, however criteria to rationalize treatment decisions are lacking. Studies have been performed to build up prognostic indices that are useful for defining risk-adapted treatment recommendations. Available indices are based on parameters that have an independent role in predicting patient survival and that are variably correlated with the features of the disease, with the characteristics of the patient and with the effects of treatment. Two new prognostic indices have recently been proposed for FL: the Italian Lymphoma Intergroup (ILI) index and the Follicular Lymphoma International prognostic Index (FLIPI). Both indices are based on large series of patients and exhibit differences in their ability to discriminate between patients with different probabilities of survival. In recent years, with the advent of gene expression profile studies, our knowledge of the biology of FL is changing as novel data become available about the lymphoma cell and about the role of the microenvironment; these studies have already provided novel prognostic tools for identifying patients with more aggressive disease. Further data and large international cooperative studies are needed to translate into clinical practice the novel acquisitions of biology and therapeutics. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Case Report: Atheroembolic renal disease in a 72-year-old patient through coronary intervention after myocardial infarction

    Anna Laura HERZOG
    Abstract Cholesterol embolization or atheroembolic renal disease (AERD) is an often underdiagnosed issue in patients featuring a prevalent risk profile. It is a multisystemic disease with progressive renal insufficiency due to foreign body reaction of cholesterol crystals flushed into a small vessel system of the kidneys from the arteriosclerotic plaques. The most common setting in which it occurs is iatrogenic after vascular catheterization and less frequent spontaneously. Typical clinical symptoms are delayed impairment of renal function, cutaneous manifestations such as livedo reticularis or purple toes with persistingly palpable arterial pulse, myalgia, systemic symptoms such as weight loss and fever, and abdominal and neurological symptoms. Diagnosis is generally made by clinical appearance, risk profile, and interval of time from intervention; a definitive diagnosis can only be made by renal biopsy. Even though the exact incidence is not known because most patients do not undergo biopsy due to older age, comorbidity, and other explanations for loss of renal function, it is estimated to be 4% after vascular intervention. Patient and renal outcome is dependent on comorbidity, risk profile, and preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD). About 30% of patients are estimated to require maintenance dialysis and these patients have a high risk of death within 24 months after the first renal replacement therapy. Prognosis is also influenced by severity. The case reported is a 72-year-old male patient with preexisting CKD stage 3 undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention after myocardial infarction and consecutive AERD with typical clinical appearance 6 weeks after the event. [source]

    Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
    Kazutaka Obama
    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a neoplasm arising in the liver, and its incidence is increasing in Japan as well as in Western countries. Prognosis of patients with this type of tumor remains unsatisfactory because no effective chemotherapeutic drugs are available, we have no sensitive tumor markers to detect this tumor in its early stage, and it is difficult to identify a high-risk group for the disease. To clarify the molecular mechanism of tumorigenesis and identify molecular targets for diagnosis and treatment, we analyzed global gene-expression profiles of 25 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas using tumor cell populations purified by laser microbeam microdissection and a cDNA microarray containing 27,648 genes. We identified 52 genes that were commonly upregulated and 421 that were downregulated in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas compared with noncancerous biliary epithelial cells. From the 52 upregulated genes, we selected P-cadherin and survivin for further investigation and corroborated enhanced expression of their products in cancer tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, comparison between tumors with lymph node metastasis and those without metastasis identified 30 genes that were associated with lymph node involvement. In conclusion, these data should be helpful for a better understanding of the tumorigenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and should contribute to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this type of tumor. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the HEPATOLOGY website ( (HEPATOLOGY 2005.) [source]

    Evaluation of newly developed combination therapy of intra-arterial 5-fluorouracil and systemic pegylated interferon ,-2b for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal venous invasion: preliminary results

    Kazuhiro Kasai
    Aim:, Prognosis is extremely poor for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with portal invasion. The present study evaluated the efficacy of combined intra-arterial 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and systemic pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN),-2b in patients with advanced HCC. Methods:, The subjects comprised nine HCC patients with portal vein thrombosis treated using subcutaneous administration of PEG-IFN,-2b (50,100 µg on day 1 of every week, for 4 weeks) and intra-arterial infusion of 5-FU (250 mg/day for 5 h on days 1,5 of every week, for 4 weeks). For four patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, oral administration of ribavirin (400,800 mg/day) was added. At the end of every cycle, response to therapy was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines. Results:, Partial response (PR) was observed in seven of nine patients, with stable or progressive disease in the remaining two patients. Tumors were resectable in three patients displaying PR after treatment. Tumor markers decreased significantly after therapy. Serum HCV-RNA titers were markedly decreased and became undetectable in all patients with HCV infection. National Cancer Institute,Common Toxicity Criteria: version 3.0 (NCI-CTC) grade 3 thrombocytopenia was seen in one case at the end of treatment, but was resolved with cessation of treatment. Other adverse effects were manageable. Conclusion:, Combination therapy with intra-arterial 5-FU and systemic PEG-IFN,-2b may be useful as a palliative treatment for patients with advanced HCC. A prospective controlled trial using a larger population of patients with advanced HCC is needed to evaluate this new combination therapy. [source]

    Next-Gen Databasing Links Mutations with Prognosis and Clinical Outcome

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 8 2010
    Rolf H. Sijmons
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Prognosis for splicing factor PRPF8 retinitis pigmentosa, novel mutations and correlation between human and yeast phenotypes,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 5 2010
    Katherine V. Towns
    Abstract PRPF8 -retinitis pigmentosa is said to be severe but there has been no overview of phenotype across different mutations. We screened RP patients for PRPF8 mutations and identified three new missense mutations, including the first documented mutation outside exon 42 and the first de novo mutation. This brings the known RP-causing mutations in PRPF8 to nineteen. We then collated clinical data from new and published cases to determine an accurate prognosis for PRPF8 -RP. Clinical data for 75 PRPF8 -RP patients were compared, revealing that while the effect on peripheral retinal function is severe, patients generally retain good visual acuity in at least one eye until the fifth or sixth decade. We also noted that prognosis for PRPF8 -RP differs with different mutations, with p.H2309P or p.H2309R having a worse prognosis than p.R2310K. This correlates with the observed difference in growth defect severity in yeast lines carrying the equivalent mutations, though such correlation remains tentative given the limited number of mutations for which information is available. The yeast phenotype is caused by lack of mature spliceosomes in the nucleus, leading to reduced RNA splicing function. Correlation between yeast and human phenotypes suggests that splicing factor RP may also result from an underlying splicing deficit. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]