Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Progeny

  • backcross progeny
  • differentiated progeny
  • f1 progeny
  • f2 progeny
  • female progeny
  • half-sib progeny
  • hybrid progeny
  • male progeny

  • Terms modified by Progeny

  • progeny plant
  • progeny production
  • progeny sex ratio
  • progeny test

  • Selected Abstracts

    Emergence of long-term memory for conditioned aversion in the rat fetus

    Nadège Gruest
    Abstract Pregnant rats were subjected to garlic essential oil as the conditioned stimulus and 45 min later to LiCl as the unconditioned stimulus either on embryonic Days 15 and 16 (E15 and E16) or on 18 and 19 (E18 and E19). Control dams received only garlic, LiCl, or water. Progenies were tested on garlic drinking 6 weeks after the exposure to the stimuli via the mothers. In the E18 to 19 group, rats that were exposed to paired garlic,LiCl expressed a significant aversion for garlic. In the E15 to 16 group, no significant differences appeared between subgroups. These results confirm that an associative memory can be established before birth and suggests that this ability potentially emerges in a short time window of 3 days at the end of gestation. Moreover, it appears that a long-term memory can be acquired in utero and retained to be expressed postnatally when animals are autonomous. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 44: 189,198, 2004. [source]

    Inheritance mode and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Yan Hua Wang
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a serious pest that causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a field population of N. lugens collected from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, showed a 964-fold resistance compared with the laboratory strain. Progenies of reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1,) showed similar dose,mortality responses (LC50) to imidacloprid, and also exhibited a similar degree of dominance (D), 0.58 for F1 and 0.63 for F1,. Chi-square analyses of self-bred and backcross progenies (F2, F2, and BC respectively) rejected the hypothesis for a single gene control of the resistance. The estimated realized heritability (h2) of imidacloprid resistance was 0.1141 in the resistant strain of N. lugens. CONCLUSION: The results showed that imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens was autosomal and was expressed as an incompletely dominant trait, probably controlled by multiple genes. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Production of germ-line chimeras by the transfer of cryopreserved gonadal germ cells collected from 7- and 9-day-old chick embryos

    Atsushi TAJIMA
    ABSTRACT Gonadal germ cells (GGC) were collected from the gonads of 7- or 9-day-old White Leghorn chick embryos and suspended in freezing medium containing 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The cell suspension was frozen at ,1°C/min. until the temperature reached ,80°C. Then, the cells were immersed in liquid nitrogen at ,196°C and stored for 3,4 months. Approximately 50 frozen/thawed GGC were injected into the dorsal aorta of each 2-day-old Rhode Island Red (RIR) embryo, from which blood was drawn before germ-cell injection. The injected embryos were incubated until they hatched and the chicks were raised until sexually mature. On reaching sexual maturity, a progeny test was performed by mating recipient chicks with normal RIR of the opposite sex. Progenies were obtained from male germ cell recipients that were injected with germ cells collected from 7- and 9-day-old embryos. The results demonstrated that frozen/thawed GGC collected from 7- or 9-day-old fertilized eggs can be used to produce male germ-line chimeras. [source]

    Exposure of pacific herring to weathered crude oil: Assessing effects on ova,

    Mark G. Carls
    Abstract In order to determine if exposure to Exxon Valdez oil would adversely affect progeny, reproductively mature Pacific herring were confined in water contaminated with weathered crude oil. Progeny were generally not affected by a 16-d parental exposure to initial aqueous concentrations of ,58 ,g/L total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), yielding concentrations of up to 9.7 ,g/g in ova. In contrast, previous research indicated that a 16-d direct exposure of herring eggs to similarly weathered oil was detrimental to developing embryos at total initial PAH concentrations of 9 ,g/L. Progeny of exposed fish could have been insulated from toxic effects for two reasons. First, as an apparent result of partitioning and metabolism in parental tissues, lower concentrations and less toxic PAHs were preferentially accumulated by ova (primarily naphthalenes; 84,92%). Second, peak exposure concentrations occurred before cell differentiation. The opposite was true for directly exposed eggs; the more toxic multi-ring PAHs (e.g., phenanthrenes and chrysenes) and alkyl-substituted homologues were accumulated, and internal concentrations increased during cell division, differentiation, and organ development. Thus, Pacific herring embryos are more critically sensitive to oil pollution than are gametes. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2000
    Nickolas M. Waser
    Abstract., Outbreeding depression in progeny fitness may arise from disruption of local adaptation, disruption of allelic coadaptation, or a combination of these "environmental" and "physiological" mechanisms. Thus the minimum spatial scale over which outbreeding depression arises should depend on the spatial scale of gene dispersal and (with an environmental mechanism) of change in selection regimes. We previously reported substantial outbreeding depression in lifetime fitness of progeny resulting from crosses among parents separated by 100 m in natural populations of the herbaceous plant Ipomopsis aggregata. In this paper we explore the effect of crossing distance on fitness in two additional experiments begun in 1987 and 1990. We planted seed progeny derived from partial diallel crossing designs in randomized blocks in maternal environments and scored emergence of seedlings, survival, and eventual flowering of individuals over the subsequent six to eight years. Nested within each diallel design were crossing distances of 1 m, 10 m, and 100 m. Compared to 1-m and 10-m progeny, 100-m progeny of the 1987 diallel suffered a significant reduction in seedling emergence, and both 1-m and 100-m progeny that survived to flower achieved lower ,-values on average than 10-m progeny. Total outbreeding depression suffered by 100-m relative to 10-m progeny was approximately 10%, compared to approximately 30% in our earlier study of I. aggregata. Progeny of 10-m crosses also outperformed 1-m and 100-m progeny of the 1990 diallel by approximately 5%, but no difference among crossing distance treatments was significant. Thus, the magnitude of outbreeding depression in 100-m crosses varied among experiments. This is not surprising given likely spatial and temporal variation in gene flow and selection regimes, different population histories, and different parental and progeny environments. Characterizing outbreeding depression on the shortest spatial scales over which it is expressed, as well as its variation and causes, is worthwhile because it promises to shed light on the earliest stages of angiosperm speciation. [source]

    Genetic Regulation of Bone Traits Is Influenced by Sex and Reciprocal Cross in F2 Progeny From GK and F344 Rats,,

    Sofia Lagerholm
    Abstract A genome-wide linkage analysis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for bone phenotypes was performed in an F2 intercross of inbred spontaneously type 2 diabetic GK and normoglycemic F344 rats (108 males and 98 females). The aim of the study was to locate genome regions with candidate genes affecting trabecular and cortical bone and to investigate the effects of sex and reciprocal cross. pQCT was used to determine tibial bone phenotypes in the F2 rats, comprising reciprocal crosses with divergent mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Sex and reciprocal cross-separated QTL analyses were performed followed by assessment of specific interactions. Four genome-wide significant QTLs linked to either cortical vBMD, tibia length, body length, or metaphyseal area were identified in males on chromosomes (chr) 1, 8, and 15. In females, three significant QTLs linked to cortical BMC or metaphyseal total vBMD were identified on chr 1 and 2. Several additional suggestive loci for trabecular and cortical traits were detected in both males and females. Four female-specific QTLs on chr 2, 3, 5, and 10 and four reciprocal cross-specific QTLs on chr 1, 10, and 18 were identified, suggesting that both sex and mt genotype influence the expression of bone phenotypes. [source]

    The Interaction of Gestational and Postnatal Ethanol Experience on the Adolescent and Adult Odor-Mediated Responses to Ethanol in Observer and Demonstrator Rats

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
    Amber M. Eade
    Background:, Gestational ethanol exposure enhances the adolescent reflexive sniffing response to ethanol odor. Postnatal exposures of naïve animals as either an observer (i.e., conspecific) or demonstrator (i.e., intoxicated peer) using a social transmission of food odor preference paradigm also yields enhanced odor-mediated responses. Studies on the interaction of fetal and postnatal exposures using the social transmission paradigm have been limited to the responses of observers. When combined, the enhanced response is greater than either form of exposure alone and, in observer females, yields adult persistence. The absence of a male effect is noteworthy, given that chemosensory mechanisms are suggested to be an important antecedent factor in the progression of ethanol preference. Observers gain odor information on the breath of the demonstrator through social interaction. Demonstrators experience the pharmacologic properties of ethanol along with retronasal and hematogenic olfaction. Thus, we tested whether augmentation of the fetal ethanol-induced behavioral response with postnatal exposure as a demonstrator differed from that as an observer. We also examined whether re-exposure as a demonstrator yields persistence in both sexes. Methods:, Pregnant dams were fed an ethanol containing or control liquid diet throughout gestation. Progeny received four ethanol or water exposures: one every 48 hours through either intragastric infusion or social interaction with the infused peer beginning on P29. The reflexive behavioral sniffing response to ethanol odor was tested at postnatal (P) day 37 or P90, using whole-body plethysmography. Results:, When tested in either adolescence or adulthood - fetal ethanol exposed adolescent ethanol observers and demonstrators significantly differed in their odor-mediated response to ethanol odor both between themselves and from their respective water controls. Nonetheless, adolescent ethanol re-exposure as a demonstrator, like an observer, enhanced the reflexive sniffing response to ethanol odor at both testing ages by augmenting the known effects of prior fetal ethanol experience. At each age, the magnitude of the enhanced odor response in demonstrators was similar to that of observers. Interestingly, only re-exposure as a demonstrator resulted in persistence of the behavioral response into adulthood in both sexes. Conclusions:, The method of ethanol re-exposure plays an important role in prolonging the odor-mediated effects of fetal exposure. While ethanol odor-specific exposure through social interaction is important, additional factors such as the pairing of retronasal and hematogenic olfaction with ethanol's intoxicating properties appear necessary to achieve persistence in both sexes. [source]

    Isolation, Characterization and Preliminary Genetic Analysis of Laboratory Tricyclazole-resistant Mutants of the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe grisea

    C. Q. Zhang
    Abstract The minimum inhibitory concentration of tricyclazole for hyphal melanization (MIC-H) was adopted to detect the sensitivity of 129 Magnaporthe grisea isolates collected in China in 2000. Results showed that the mean MIC-H was 0.2 ,g/ml and no isolate with a MIC-H ,1 ,g/ml was detected. Therefore, 1 ,g/ml was chosen as a discriminatory dose to identify resistant mutants generated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Only three low-level resistant (R) mutants derived from the sensitive (S) isolate TH16 were obtained. In addition, fitness decrease was observed for all mutants, with lower sporulation ability and pathogenicity to rice than that of the wild strain TH16. Four crosses between S × R and S × S were tested to determine the inheritance mode of resistance during the process of sexual recombination by analysing the sensitivity of hybrid F1 progeny to tricyclazole. Progeny of crosses between a tricyclazole-sensitive strain and tricyclazole-resistant mutants segregated in a 1 : 1 (R : S) ratio and no segregation was found in the cross of S × S, indicating that each mutant contained a single gene for resistance. No nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes in the coding sequences for 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase (4HNR) and 1,3,8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase (3HNR) were found between resistant mutants and sensitive strains. Therefore, it is preliminarily concluded that tricyclazole resistance in M. grisea was conferred by a one-locus mutation in a single Mendelian gene other than those encoding for 4HNR or 3HNR. [source]

    Investigating the role of ABC transporters in multifungicide insensitivity in Phytophthora infestans

    SUMMARY Isolates of the oomycete Phytophthora infestans exhibit a wide range of intrinsic sensitivities to fungicides, which potentially influences the application rates of chemicals needed to control potato late blight. To help understand what determines such levels of sensitivity, a genetic approach was employed which followed the segregation of sensitivities to structurally diverse fungicides such as metalaxyl and trifloxystrobin. Progeny exhibited broad distributions of sensitivity phenotypes, consistent with the behaviour of a quantitative trait. Measurements of the inhibition of strains by seven fungicides revealed that basal sensitivities to metalaxyl and trifloxystrobin, and to cymoxanil and dimethomorph, correlated at the 95% confidence level. These compounds have distinct modes of action, suggesting the involvement of a multifungicide efflux phenomenon mediated by ABC transporters. To determine whether such proteins contribute to variation in sensitivity, 41 full transporters and 13 half transporters were identified from P. infestans and their mRNA levels compared in strains exhibiting higher or lower sensitivities to fungicides. No correlation was observed between the expression of any ABC transporter and fungicide sensitivity. Other genes, or variation in the activities of the transporters, may therefore explain the differences between strains. Five ABC transporters were induced by several fungicides in strains with both higher and lower sensitivities to fungicides, which probably reflects the existence of a network for protecting against natural and artificial toxins. [source]

    Strong evidence for a fire blight resistance gene of Malus robusta located on linkage group 3

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 5 2007
    A. Peil
    Abstract Fire blight (FB), caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is a dangerous disease on pome fruit, including apple. The FB-susceptible cultivar ,Idared' was crossed with the resistant wild species clone Malus × robusta 5. A segregating population of 146 progeny has been tested by artificial shoot inoculation for susceptibility to FB. Progeny were infected from 0% to 100% of the shoot length. To identify chromosomal regions or loci responsible for resistance to FB of Malus × robusta 5, a set of microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeat, SSRs) was chosen covering all linkage groups of apple. Up to eight different microsatellites were bulked to one mutliplex PCR using four different labels and a fifth label for a size standard. Fifty-nine microsatellite markers out of 72 SSRs were polymorphic. Fifty-four of 66 loci detected could be mapped and were useful for the detection of related resistant loci. Alleles of microsatellites Hi03d06, CH03g07 and CH03e03 originating from the resistant donor M. robusta were associated with resistance to Erwinia amylovora. Up to eighty percent of the phenotypic variation could be explained by the interval spanned by SSRs CH03g07 and CH03e03, indicating the presence of a major resistance gene. All three microsatellites are located on the distal part of linkage group 3, spanning 15 cM. The SSR marker CH03e03 can be regarded as diagnostic marker for FB resistance. Only seven progeny expressing allele b (184 bp) of CH03e03 showed blighted shoot lengths of more than 30% and only nine progeny lacking allele b showed blighted shoot lengths of <30%. By setting a threshold of 30% shoot necrosis for resistance to FB, the 146 individuals segregate into 71 susceptible and 75 resistant plants, and resistance to FB maps 9 cM away from marker CH03e03. [source]

    Quantitative trait loci with effects on feed efficiency traits in Hereford × composite double backcross populations

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 6 2009
    G. C. Márquez
    Summary Two half-sib families of backcross progeny were produced by mating F1 Line 1 Hereford (L1) × composite gene combination (CGC) bulls with L1 and CGC cows. Feed intake and periodic weights were measured for 218 backcross progeny. These progenies were genotyped using 232 microsatellite markers that spanned the 29 BTA. Progeny from L1 and CGC females was analysed separately using composite interval mapping to find quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting daily dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). Results from both backcrosses were pooled to find additional QTL. In the backcross to L1, QTL were detected for RFI and DMI on BTA11, FCR on BTA16, and ADG on BTA9. In the backcross to CGC, QTL were detected for RFI on BTA10, FCR on BTA12 and 16 and ADG on BTA15 and 17. After pooling, QTL were detected for RFI on BTA 2, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13 and 16; for FCR on BTA 9, 12, 16, 17 and 21; for ADG on BTA 9, 14, 15, 17; and for DMI on BTA 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 20 and 23. [source]

    Life-cycle toxicity of dibutyltin to the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) and implications of the ubiquitous tributyltin impurity in test material

    Thomas F. Lytle
    Abstract Dibutyltin (DBT) is used in the plastics polymerization process as a catalyst in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products and is the primary degradation product of tributyltin (TBT), an antifoulant in marine paint. DBT and other organotin compounds make their way into the environment through antifoulants, PVC processing plants, and PVC products maintained in water and water-handling systems. A flow-through saltwater life-cycle toxicity test was conducted to determine the chronic effect of DBT to the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede), an estuarine species. Embryos were monitored through hatch, maturation, growth, and reproduction in DBT concentrations of 158, 286, 453, 887, and 1510 µg l,1. Progeny were monitored for survival as embryos and fry/juveniles, and growth for 30 days post-isolation. Mean length of parental generation fish was significantly reduced on day 30 at DBT concentrations ,887 µg l,1, setting the lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) at 887 µg l,1 and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) at 453 µg l,1. Fecundity, as egg viability, was significantly reduced at the LOEC. Survival of parental and progeny generation embryos and mean length, wet weight and dry weight of progeny generation juveniles were not significantly affected at concentrations ,LOEC. TBT, a toxic impurity in DBT reversibly produced in DBT by the process of comproportionation, was also monitored throughout this study. Comparing measured levels of TBT in this study with levels exerting toxic effects in an earlier TBT life-cycle study with C. variegatus suggests biological responses in this study were likely due to the TBT impurity and not to DBT alone. Results indicate that TBT impurity as low as 0.1% may have a significant influence on the perceived toxicity of DBT and that spontaneous production of TBT in DBT may be the major source of biological toxicity of DBT. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Polygenic Control of Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy Phenotypes in the Genetic Absence Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2004
    Gabrielle Rudolf
    Summary: Purpose: Generalized nonconvulsive absence seizures are characterized by the occurrence of synchronous and bilateral spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) on electroencephalographic recordings, concomitant with behavioral arrest. The GAERS (genetic absence rats from Strasbourg) strain, a well-characterized inbred model for idiopathic generalized epilepsy, spontaneously develops EEG paroxysms that resemble those of typical absence seizures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic control of SWD variables by using a combination of genetic analyses and electrophysiological measurements in an experimental cross derived from GAERS and Brown Norway (BN) rats. Methods: SWD subphenotypes were quantified on EEG recordings performed at both 3 and 6 months in a cohort of 118 GAERS × BN F2 animals. A genome-wide scan of the F2 progenies was carried out with 146 microsatellite markers that were used to test each marker locus for evidence of genetic linkage to the SWD quantitative traits. Results: We identified three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in chromosomes 4, 7, and 8 controlling specific SWD variables in the cross, including frequency, amplitude, and severity of SWDs. Age was a major factor influencing the detection of genetic linkage to the various components of the SWDs. Conclusions: The identification of these QTLs demonstrates the polygenic control of SWDs in the GAERS strain. Genetic linkages to specific SWD features underline the complex mechanisms contributing to SWD development in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. [source]

    Genetic variability of the ,bark canker resistance' character in several natural provenances of Cupressus sempervirens

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    A. Santini
    Summary Several Aegean (Greece) and Anatolian (Turkey) cypress provenances were studied for resistance variability to bark canker, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Seiridium cardinale. The investigation also examined whether the low disease rate within the natural area of cypress was due to genetic or geographic-climatic reasons. Results demonstrated strong variability for the ,bark canker resistance' character, in particular for trees within families. As trees from the provenances studied were not found to have genetic superiority for bark canker resistance, the above-mentioned low disease rate could be due to geographic-climatic barriers that inhibit the development of the fungus or its ability to infect the host. Several half-sib progenies exhibited high resistance, suggesting that this character is totally inherited through the maternal line. Should this finding be confirmed by further research, it would facilitate the task of genetic improvement for resistance, allowing progenies of resistant trees to be obtained. [source]

    Sperm characteristics and teratology in rats following vas deferens occlusion with RISUG and its reversal

    N. K. Lohiya
    Summary The functional success of the reversal of vas occlusion by styrene maleic anhydride (RISUG), using the solvent vehicle, Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO), has been investigated. Reversal with DMSO was carried out in Wistar albino rats 90 days after bilateral vas occlusion. The body weight, organ weight, sperm characteristics, fertility test and teratology, including skeletal morphology were evaluated in vas occlusion and reversal animals and in F1 progenies to assess the functional success of the occlusion and reversal. Body weight, organ weight and the cauda epididymal sperm characteristics of vas occlusion and reversal animals and of F1 progenies were comparable to control. Ejaculated spermatozoa in the vaginal smear showed detached head/tail, acrosomal damage, bent midpiece, bent tail and morphological aberrations in sperm head after vas occlusion, which returned to normal, 90 days after reversal. Monthly fertility test, post-injection showed 0% fertility, which improved gradually and 100% fertility was achieved 90 days after reversal. The fertility/pregnancy/implantation record and skeletal morphology of the offspring were comparable to control. The results suggest functional success and safety of vas occlusion reversal by DMSO. [source]

    Variation in Crown and Root Organic Reserves Among Lucerne Genotypes of Different Morphology and Flower Colour

    F. Fornasier
    Abstract Previous evidence indicates that differences in the concentration of underground organic reserves can drive the survival and growing ability of lucerne under cold and defoliation stresses. In order to provide the selection process with further information on compounds that may influence plant performance under grazing, we assessed variations in cold-season concentrations of nitrogen and carbon reserves on genotypes that had been identified for morphological features that possibly enhance grazing tolerance. The selected genotypes encompassed distinct morphological patterns (defined as ,models') and different taxa within the Medicago sativa complex, as shown by different flower colours. Crown concentrations of reserves were determined on 90 genotypes, whereas root concentrations were measured on a subsample of 15 genotypes. Wide intergenotypic variation was observed for all reserve substances. Comparisons among models and among flower colour classes highlighted the high concentrations of crown carbohydrates and root and crown-soluble proteins of the model coded as ,D1', characterized by prostrate, rhizomatous habit and long dormancy, which largely corresponded to plants with yellow or variegated flowers, typical of ssp. falcata and ×,varia, respectively. There was a strong ,flower colour × storage organ' interaction for sugar concentration, and the results suggested a preferential compartment of sugars in the roots of purple-flowered genotypes that belonged to the ssp. sativa. A rank correlation analysis indicated a positive relationship between persistence after two years under grazing of half-sib progenies deriving from 19 genotypes out of the 90 and crown concentrations of carbohydrates of the 19 mother plants. [source]

    Similarity in the begging calls of nestling Red-winged Blackbirds

    Ken Yasukawa
    ABSTRACT Although individually distinct begging calls may permit parents to recognize their offspring, birds nesting in dense breeding colonies where fledglings intermingle might benefit from additional adaptations. For example, if the calls of all nestlings in a brood were similar, parents would need to recognize only one brood call instead of the identity calls of each nestling. We recorded nestling Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) to determine whether their calls function to identify individuals (identity call hypothesis) or broods (brood call hypothesis). We used spectrogram cross-correlation and dynamic time warping as well as call duration, peak frequency, and frequency range to estimate the similarity of begging calls of nestling Red-winged Blackbirds. We recorded individual nestlings on day 5 and on day 9 of the nestling period to determine whether calls of individuals were more similar than calls of different nestlings, and whether calls of broodmates were more similar than calls of nestlings from different broods. We found that calls of 8-d-old individuals were more similar than calls of different nestlings, but the calls of broodmates were not more similar than those of nestlings from different broods. These results were consistent with the identity call hypothesis. We then compared begging calls of pairs of nestlings recorded separately and together on day 9. We found that the calls of 8-d-old nestlings recorded together were more similar than when they were recorded separately. In addition, using playback of begging calls from normal broods and artificial "broods" constructed from the calls of single nestlings, we found that females returned with food sooner in response to the calls of single nestlings (with enhanced call similarity) than to those of normal broods. Our results suggest that similar begging calls may be beneficial for both nestlings and parents, with broodmates fed at higher rates when their calls are more similar and, after fledging, parents needing to recognize only one brood call instead of the identity calls of each fledgling. SINOPSIS Aunque las diferencias individuales en los llamados de reclamo les pueden permitir a los padres reconocer a su progenie, aves que nidifican en grandes colonias de anidación donde los polluelos pueden mezclarse pueden obtener beneficios mediante adaptaciones adicionales. Por ejemplo, si los llamados de todos los polluelos en el nido son similares los padres necesitarian reconocer solo un tipo de reclamo de los polluelos en vez de identificar llamados individuales de los polluelos. Grabamos polluelos de Agelaius phoeniceus para determinar si sus llamados son usados para identificar individuos (Hipotesis de la identidad del polluelo) o para identificar a la progenie (Hipotesis de la identidad de la progenie). Usamos espectrogramas de correlación cruzada y dinamica del tiempo de combeo al igual que la duración del reclamo, el pico de frecuencia y frecuencia del rango para estimar la similaridad de los llamados de los polluelos de Agelaius phoeniceus. Grabamos polluelos individuales de 5 y 9 días de nacidos para determinar si los llamados de los individuos eran más similares a llamados de otros polluelos y si los llamados dentro de una progenie eran ma similares a llamados de otra progenie. Encontramos que los llamados de polluelos de 8 días de nacidos eran más similares que los llamados de diferentes polluelos, pero los polluelos de una misma progenie no fueron más similares que polluelos de diferentes progenies. Esto resultados concuerdan con la hipotesis de la identidad del polluelo. Después comparamos los llamados de parejas de polluelos grabados por separado y los que fueron grabados juntos el día 9. Encontramos que los llamados de polluelos de 8 días de nacidos grabados juntos fueron mas similares que cuando los polluelos fueron grabados por separado. Adicionalmente, usando playback de llamado de polluelos de progenies normales y progenies "artificales" construidos basado en llamado de un solo polluelo, encontramos que las hembras regresaron más rapidamente con alimento en respuesta al llamado de un solo polluelo (con realzamiento en la similaridad del llamado) que para las progenies normales. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la similaridad en los llamados de los reclamos pueden ser beneficiosos tanto para los polluelos como los padres, en donde las tasa de alimentación es mayor cuando sus llamados son mas similares, y después de abandonar el nido cuando los padres necesitan reconocer un solo llamado de la progenie en vez de tener que identificar llamados individuales de cada volanton. [source]

    Sibling cannibalism in dorada under experimental conditions.

    II. Effect of initial size heterogeneity, light regime on early cannibalism
    Cannibalism among embryos and larvae of Brycon moorei (Characidae) occurs during daytime and night-time, and persists under permanent darkness. Embryos and larvae of dorada-provisioned with formulated feed over the first week of exogenous feeding did not survive, except for those exerting cannibalism. When offered alternative fish prey [embryos of Prochilodus magdalenae (0·5,0·8 mg) and Oreochromis niloticus (9,10 mg)], 1-day-old embryos of dorada preferred preying on these, thereby reducing early cannibalism. However, this promoted depensatory growth and more intense cannibalism later in the larval stage. Dorada provisioned with Artemia nauplii in excess showed more homogeneous growth and higher survival, most cannibalistic acts being restricted to the first 24 h of exogenous feeding, just after oral teeth were fully developed (21 h after hatching). Provisioning dorada with Artemia nauplii a few hours before their oral teeth were fully developed reduced early cannibalism from 41 to 15%. High proportions of deformed fish caused higher mortality, both directly and indirectly, as they promoted early cannibalism, depensatory growth and more intense cannibalism among larvae. The initial sorting of embryos, based on their occupation of the water column improved survival significantly during the first week of exogenous feeding, up to 52% in progenies containing <10% of deformed fish. Size-grading of larvae and young juveniles over the next 2 weeks reduced cannibalism to 2·6 and 1·9% day,, in the first and second weeks, respectively. These results indicate that cannibalism in dorada can be mitigated efficiently through appropriate rearing procedures, and open promising perspectives for the intensive culture of this fast-growing tropical species. [source]

    Consistency of resistance to attack by the green spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) in different ontogenetic stages of Sitka spruce

    S. Harding
    Abstract 1,The susceptibility of different genotypes of 29-year-old Sitka spruce to damage by the green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum, was investigated in a progeny trial where aphid damage on individual trees had previously been assessed twice in an earlier stage of ontogenetic development. The progeny trial comprised 14 open-pollinated families originating from a clonal seed orchard that had been established using mature spruce trees selected for aphid resistance. 2,Previous investigations had demonstrated that resistance was inherited by the offspring, and that differences in resistance between progenies of the individual orchard clones were highly significant. 3,Susceptibility to aphid attack was recorded as the percentage loss of previous year's needles. Differences in susceptibility recorded between the juvenile trees were found to persist after the trees had developed into the closed-canopy, sexually reproducing stage. Needle loss of the families was significantly less than that of the reference population of Sitka spruce. 4,Hybrids between Sitka spruce and white spruce were defoliated more heavily than pure Sitka spruce, and the difference increased with age. 5,Family heritability of resistance was estimated as 0.60 compared to 0.73 when the trees were assessed in the juvenile stage. The genetic correlation based on family means between damage in the juvenile and sexually reproducing stand was high (0.83), indicating a high consistency of resistance to the aphid over years and ontogenetic stages. 6,A skewed distribution of defoliation indicated that major genes are involved in the expression of resistance, and that the genetics behind resistance has a nonadditive component. [source]

    Genetic Analysis and Molecular Mapping of a Rolling Leaf Mutation Gene in Rice

    Ji-Cai Yi
    Abstract A rice mutant with rolling leaf, namely ,- rl, was obtained from M2 progenies of a native indica rice stable strain Qinghuazhan (QHZ) from mutagenesis of dry seeds by ,-rays. Genetic analysis using the F2 population from a cross between this mutant and QHZ indicated the mutation was controlled by a single recessive gene. In order to map the locus for this mutation, another F2 population with 601 rolling leaf plants was constructed from a cross between ,- rl and a japonica cultivar 02428. After primary mapping with SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers, the mutated locus was located at the short arm of chromosome 3, flanked by RM6829 and RM3126. A number of SSR, InDel (insertion/deletion) and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers within this region were further developed for fine mapping. Finally, two markers, SNP121679 and InDel422395, were identified to be flanked to this locus with genetic distances of 0.08 cM and 0.17 cM respectively, and two SNP markers, SNP75346 and SNP110263, were found to be co-segregated with this locus. These results suggested that this locus was distinguished from all loci for the rolling leaf mutation in rice reported so far, and thus renamed rl10(t). By searching the rice genome database with closely linked markers using BLAST programs, an e -physical map covering rl10(t) locus spanning about a 50 kb region was constructed. Expression analysis of the genes predicted in this region showed that a gene encoding putative flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) was silenced in ,- rl, thus this is the most likely candidate responsible for the rolling leaf mutation. [source]

    Genetic Mapping of Magnaporthe grisea Avirulence Gene Corresponding to Leaf and Panicle Blast Resistant QTLs in Jao Hom Nin Rice Cultivar

    Tanee Sreewongchai
    Abstract The avirulence characteristic of Magnaporthe grisea isolate TH16 corresponding to Jao Hom Nin (JHN) rice cultivar was studied by mapping population of 140 random ascospore progenies derived from the cross between B1-2 and TH16 isolates. Segregation analyses of the avirulence characteristic performing on JHN rice at the seedling and flowering stages were performed in this mapping population. We used the reference map of Guy11/2539 to choose microsatellite DNA markers for mapping the avirulence gene. The genetic map of this population was constructed from 39-microsatellite markers. The genetic map was spanned by covering seven chromosomes with an average distance of 11.9 cM per marker. In mapping population the distribution of pathogenic and non-pathogenic progenies on JHN rice were found to be fitted to 1 : 1 ratio for two of the rice stages, seedling and flowering stages. The Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis for avirulence genes corresponding to two rice stages were located at the same region on chromosome 2 between markers Pyms305 and Pyms435. The LOD score and percentage of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) on two rice stages were 5.01/16.69 and 6.73/20.26, respectively. These loci were designated as Avr-JHN(lb) and Avr-JHN(pb) corresponding to leaf and panicle blast characteristics. The findings of this study can be the initial step for positional cloning and identifying any function of avirulence genes corresponding to leaf and panicle blast characteristics. [source]

    Genetic Analysis of the Latent Period of Stripe Rust in Wheat Seedlings

    H. Dehghani
    Abstract Genetics of slow-rusting resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) was studied by a half-diallel design using six wheat varieties, Tiritea (susceptible), Tancred, Kotare, Otane, Karamu, and Briscard. The parents and 15 F1 progenies were evaluated in the greenhouse by three pathotypes 7E18A,, 38E0A+, and 134E134A+. The latent period was measured as the number of days from inoculation to the appearance of the first pustule. For each pathotype a randomized complete block design was used and data were analysed by methods of Griffing and Hayman. The range of average degree of dominance was from complete dominance to over-dominance. Positive and negative degrees of dominance were observed for each pathotype that showed the reversal of dominance. Analysis of variance showed the importance of both additive and dominance effects in controlling the latent period. Broad-sense heritabilities were 0.99 and narrow-sense heritabilities ranged from 0.85 to 0.94. Briscard and Karamu for the pathotypes 38E0A+ and 134E134A+, Kotare for the pathotype 7E18A, and Tancred for the pathotype 38E0A+ had significant and positive general combining ability (GCA) (more resistance) for latent period. The crosses of Kotare with Tancred, Briscard and Karamu indicated the highest and positive specific combining ability (SCA) for the pathotype 7E18A,. Significant additive genetic component and moderate narrow-sense heritability indicate the possibility of improving for longer latent period of stripe rust in breeding programmes. [source]

    Hypersensitivity of Plum Genotypes to Plum Pox Virus

    The hypersensitive response (HR) of plum hybrid K4 as an active defence mechanism is directed against certain plum pox virus (PPV) strains/isolates of the type CG but not against type DI. There is no clear correlation between the HR of K4 and serological differences of the PPV strains D, M and C, respectively. A total of 14 genotypes out of 21 progenies of K4 reacted necrotically and were proved to be either hypersensitive and field resistant or highly sensitive and not field resistant. The HR can be connected with a complete or with an incomplete virus localization in K4 and some of its progenies. The remaining genotypes were more or less sensitive and tolerant, respectively. Growth of buds from PPV-CG-infected plum cultivars on K4 differed in the degree of systemic virus invasion in the plant as a trait of quantitative virus resistance. The percentage of growing buds correlated with the level of quantitative PPV resistance. [source]

    Diversity in phenotypic and nutritional traits in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor), a nutritionally underutilised crop

    Sudhir Shukla
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Assessment of genetic diversity in a crop-breeding programme helps in the identification of diverse parental combinations to create segregating progenies with maximum genetic variability and facilitates introgression of desirable genes from diverse germplasm into the available genetic base. RESULTS: In the present study, 39 strains of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) were evaluated for eight morphological and seven quality traits for two test seasons to study the extent of genetic divergence among the strains. Multivariate analysis showed that the first four principal components contributed 67.55% of the variability. Cluster analysis grouped the strains into six clusters that displayed a wide range of diversity for most of the traits. CONCLUSION: Cluster analysis has proved to be an effective method in grouping strains that may facilitate effective management and utilisation in crop-breeding programmes. The diverse strains falling in different clusters were identified, which can be utilised in different hybridisation programmes to develop high-foliage-yielding varieties rich in nutritional components. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Male killing in three species of the tripunctata radiation of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    H. Montenegro
    Abstract An excess of females in progenies is commonly referred to as sex-ratio (SR). In this report, we describe three new occurrences of SR in species of the tripunctata radiation, Drosophila neocardini, Drosophila ornatifrons and Drosophila paraguayensis. Repeated backcrosses with males from normal strains were used to maintain the SR strains in the laboratory, always with all-female broods. The egg,larva viability of the SR strains was approximately half that of a normal strain, and antibiotic treatment restored the production of males in SR strains. PCR screening with Spiroplasma -specific primers showed that only SR strains tested positive for Spiroplasma. The results showed that in the three species, SR was maternally inherited and involved early male-killing bacteria, most likely spiroplasmas. These new occurrences increase the number of cytoplasmic male killers described in Drosophila from 11 to 14. In this particular collection of flies, one quarter (3 out of 12) of the species from the tripunctata radiation of Drosophila was infected with a male killer, suggesting that this group may be a hot spot for the presence of male-killing organisms. Resumen El término ,sex-ratio' se refiere a un exceso de hembras en camadas. En este estudio, describimos tres nuevas ocurrencias de ,sex-ratio' en especies de la radiación tripunctata, Drosophila neocardini, D. ornatifrons y D. paraguayensis. Cruzas repetidas con machos de linajes normales fueron usadas para mantener los linajes con ,sex-ratio' en laboratorio, siempre con crías compuestas solo por hembras. La viabiladad de los huevos y larvas de los linajes con ,sex-ratio' fue aproximadamente mitad de la de los linajes normales, y tratamientos con antibióticos restablecieron la producción de machos en los linajes con ,sex-ratio'. En una investigación con PCR usando primers específicos para Spiroplasma, apenas linajes con ,sex-ratio' presentaron resultados positivos. Los resultados mostraron que en las tres especies el ,sex-ratio' fue heredado de las madres y involucra bacterias que matan a los machos en el principio del desenvolvimiento, probablemente del género Spiroplasma. Estas nuevas ocurrencias aumentan el numero de matadores de machos citoplasmaticos descritos en Drosophila de 11 para 14. En este caso específico, un quarto (3 en 12) de las especies de la radiación tripunctata de Drosophila fue infectado con un matador de machos, lo que sugiere que este grupo es un ,hot spot' para la presencia de organismos androcidas. [source]

    Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in plant populations: susceptible signals in plant traits and methodological approaches

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 24 2008
    Abstract Conservation of genetic diversity, one of the three main forms of biodiversity, is a fundamental concern in conservation biology as it provides the raw material for evolutionary change and thus the potential to adapt to changing environments. By means of meta-analyses, we tested the generality of the hypotheses that habitat fragmentation affects genetic diversity of plant populations and that certain life history and ecological traits of plants can determine differential susceptibility to genetic erosion in fragmented habitats. Additionally, we assessed whether certain methodological approaches used by authors influence the ability to detect fragmentation effects on plant genetic diversity. We found overall large and negative effects of fragmentation on genetic diversity and outcrossing rates but no effects on inbreeding coefficients. Significant increases in inbreeding coefficient in fragmented habitats were only observed in studies analyzing progenies. The mating system and the rarity status of plants explained the highest proportion of variation in the effect sizes among species. The age of the fragment was also decisive in explaining variability among effect sizes: the larger the number of generations elapsed in fragmentation conditions, the larger the negative magnitude of effect sizes on heterozygosity. Our results also suggest that fragmentation is shifting mating patterns towards increased selfing. We conclude that current conservation efforts in fragmented habitats should be focused on common or recently rare species and mainly outcrossing species and outline important issues that need to be addressed in future research on this area. [source]

    Molecular analysis of natural populations of Populus nigra L. intermingled with cultivated hybrids

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 8 2003
    T. Fossati
    Abstract In this study six simple sequence repeats (SSR or microsatellites) were selected for their ability to fingerprint a total of 60 commercial clones of Populus deltoides Marsh. and Populus × canadensis Moench (typically derived from crosses between Populus nigra L and P. deltoides) and to characterize a natural population of P. nigra growing along the Ticino river in the North of Italy. Out of six SSRs used, four microsatellite loci were found to have alleles which were species-specific to P. deltoides and could therefore be used as markers for introgression of P. deltoides into P. nigra. In the studied region hybrid poplars and P. deltoides commercial clones are cultivated as monoclonal stands close to the area where black poplar has its natural habitat. SSR analysis was performed to investigate whether there was evidence of introgression between the natural population and the monoclonal plantations of hybrids and P. deltoides clones cultivated in the surrounding area. Three stages of the natural population were analysed: a group of old trees about a hundred years old, a younger population (aged 2,30 years) and the seedlings of three females of this population. Alleles specific to P. deltoides were detected only in the old cohort of the natural population, while no introgression was observed in the younger individuals and their progenies. These results were also confirmed by isozyme analysis of loci PGI-B, PGM and LAP-A, which were previously identified as diagnostic for P. nigra, P. deltoides and P.×canadensis. [source]

    The first meiosis of resynthesized Brassica napus, a genome blender

    NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 1 2010
    E. Szadkowski
    Summary ,Polyploidy promotes the restructuring of merged genomes within initial generations of resynthesized Brassica napus, possibly caused by homoeologous recombination at meiosis. However, little is known about the impact of the first confrontation of two genomes at the first meiosis which could lead to genome exchanges in progeny. Here, we assessed the role of the first meiosis in the genome instability of synthetic B. napus. ,We used three different newly resynthesized B. napus plants and established meiotic pairing frequencies for the A and C genomes. We genotyped the three corresponding progenies in a cross to a natural B. napus on the two homoeologous A1 and C1 chromosomes. Pairing at meiosis in a set of progenies with various rearrangements was scored. ,Here, we confirmed that the very first meiosis of resynthesized plants of B. napus acts as a genome blender, with many of the meiotic-driven genetic changes transmitted to the progenies, in proportions that depend significantly on the cytoplasm background inherited from the progenitors. ,We conclude that the first meiosis generates rearrangements on both genomes and promotes subsequent restructuring in further generations. Our study advances the knowledge on the timing of genetic changes and the mechanisms that may bias their transmission. [source]

    Genetic heterogeneity in rheumatoid arthritis mouse models induced by extrinsic and intrinsic factors

    Shinichi Mizuki
    A cumulative effect of the susceptibility genes with polymorphic alleles may be responsible for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to clarify whether susceptibility to RA is under the control of common allelic loci between two different RA models induced by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice and arthritis in MRL/Mp (MRL) mice associated with the Fas deficient mutant gene, Faslpr, respectively. CIA was examined in mice of parental DBA/1 and MRL, (MRL × DBA/1) F1 and (MRL × DBA/1) F2 progenies. In genome-wide screening of the severity in the F2 using microsatellite markers, significant linkage was observed on chromosomes 5 and 17 at map position of D5Mit259 and H-2, respectively, associated with DBA/1 alleles, while there was no loci associated with arthritis of MRL- Faslpr mice previously identified. In a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, the locus on chromosome 5 showed the highest peak at map position 35 cM (LOD score 6.0). This study may indicate that the arthritis induced by extrinsic and intrinsic factors is under the control of a different combination of susceptibility genes with common and different alleles, possibly simulating the genetic heterogeneity of RA. [source]

    Inheritance mode and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Yan Hua Wang
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a serious pest that causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a field population of N. lugens collected from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, showed a 964-fold resistance compared with the laboratory strain. Progenies of reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1,) showed similar dose,mortality responses (LC50) to imidacloprid, and also exhibited a similar degree of dominance (D), 0.58 for F1 and 0.63 for F1,. Chi-square analyses of self-bred and backcross progenies (F2, F2, and BC respectively) rejected the hypothesis for a single gene control of the resistance. The estimated realized heritability (h2) of imidacloprid resistance was 0.1141 in the resistant strain of N. lugens. CONCLUSION: The results showed that imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens was autosomal and was expressed as an incompletely dominant trait, probably controlled by multiple genes. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]