Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Privacy

  • online privacy
  • personal privacy

  • Terms modified by Privacy

  • privacy protection
  • privacy right

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT. This article draws from the foundation provided by the ongoing debate about geosurveillance to frame a discussion of the use of tracking technologies in public transit. Specifically, it uses the case of public transit to illustrate the uncomfortable debate about compromises that come with increased surveillance to enhance public safety and security. The article begins with a discussion of the evolution of the debate about geosurveillance, casting the use of surveillance technologies in public transit within this framework. Next, it describes and discusses the implementation of automatic vehicle locators and closed-circuit television in public transit. The following sections focus on the risks to individual privacy that accompany implementation of these technologies, then describe an unusual effort to draw attention to the prevalence of increased surveillance in public spaces in an effort to expose the risks. The article concludes by making the case that public transit is a place where surveillance provides clear benefits but where the humans who review the surveillance data must interpret and use them responsibly to minimize the risks to individual privacy. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2009
    ABSTRACT Bioinformatics is a new field of study whose ethical implications involve a combination of bioethics, computer ethics and information ethics. This paper is an attempt to view some of these implications from the perspective of Buddhism. Privacy is a central concern in both computer/information ethics and bioethics, and with information technology being increasingly utilized to process biological and genetic data, the issue has become even more pronounced. Traditionally, privacy presupposes the individual self but as Buddhism does away with the ultimate conception of an individual self, it has to find a way to analyse and justify privacy that does not presuppose such a self. It does this through a pragmatic conception that does not depend on a positing of the substantial self, which is then found to be unnecessary for an effective protection of privacy. As it may be possible one day to link genetic data to individuals, the Buddhist conception perhaps offers a more flexible approach, as what is considered to be integral to an individual person is not fixed in objectivity but depends on convention. [source]


    Coline Covington
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Distributed parallel compilation of MSBNs

    Xiangdong An
    Abstract Multiply sectioned Bayesian networks (MSBNs) support multiagent probabilistic inference in distributed large problem domains. Inference with MSBNs can be performed using their compiled representations. The compilation involves moralization and triangulation of a set of local graphical structures. Privacy of agents may prevent us from compiling MSBNs at a central location. In earlier work, agents performed compilation sequentially via a depth-first traversal of the hypertree that organizes local subnets, where communication failure between any two agents would crush the whole work. In this paper, we present an asynchronous compilation method by which multiple agents compile MSBNs in full parallel. Compared with the traversal compilation, the asynchronous one is robust, self-adaptive, and fault-tolerant. Experiments show that both methods provide similar quality compilation to simple MSBNs, but the asynchronous one provides much higher quality compilation to complex MSBNs. Empirical study also indicates that the asynchronous one is consistently faster than the traversal one. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personalization versus Customization: The Importance of Agency, Privacy, and Power Usage

    S. Shyam Sundar
    What makes customization so appealing? Is it because the content is tailored or because the user feels greater agency? Study 1 tested these propositions with a news-aggregator Website that was either personalized (system-tailored), customized (user-tailored), or neither. Power users rated content quality higher when it had a customizable interface, whereas nonpower users preferred personalized content. In Study 2, half the participants were told that their browsing information may be used for providing requested services while the other half was told that it would not be used. The interaction found in Study 1 was observed only under conditions of low privacy, with the pattern being reversed under high privacy. Significant three-way interactions were found for sense of control and perceived convenience. Personalisierung vs. Kundenorientierung: Die Rolle von Agentschaft, Privatheit und Machtausübung Dieser Artikel dokumentiert zwei Studien. Studie 1 setzte Vielnutzer und Normalnutzer einer Nachrichtenaggregationswebseite aus, welche entweder personalisiert (system-zugeschnitten), kundenorientiert (nutzerzugeschnitten) oder keines von beiden war. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine Kreuzinteraktion dahingehend, dass Vielnutzer die Qualität des Inhalts höher einstuften, wenn sie die kundenorientierte Oberfläche nutzten, während Normalnutzer den personalisierten Inhalt bevorzugten. In Studie 2 wurde der Hälfte der Teilnehmer erzählt, dass ihre Surfinformationen möglicherweise genutzt werden, um die abgefragten Angebote bereitzustellen. Der anderen Hälfte wurde gesagt, dass dies nicht geschehe. Die Ergebnisse duplizieren das Kreuzmuster der ersten Studie, allerdings nur für die Niedrige-Privatheit-Bedingung. Das Muster kehrt sich für die Hohe-Privatheit-Kondition um. Signifikante 3-Wege-Interaktionen wurden für Wahrnehmung von Kontrolle und wahrgenommene Verbraucherfreundlichkeit gefunden. Schlüsselbegriffe: Kundenorientierung, Personalisierung, Agentschaft, Vielnutzung, Privatheit, wahrgenommene Kontrolle, wahrgenommene Verbraucherfreundlichkeit, Online-Nachrichten, Gatekeeping, Portal Adaptation ou personnalisation : L'importance de l'agentivité, de la confidentialité et de l'intensité de l'utilisation Résumé Cet article fait état de deux études. La première a présentéà de grands utilisateurs et à des utilisateurs réguliers un site web agrégateur de nouvelles qui était adaptéà l'utilisateur (conçu par le système), personnalisé (façonné par l'utilisateur lui-même) ou qui n'était ni l'un ni l'autre. Les résultats révèlent une interaction asymétrique en ce que les grands utilisateurs notaient plus favorablement la qualité du contenu lorsque le site avait une interface personnalisée, alors que les utilisateurs réguliers préféraient le contenu adapté. Dans la seconde étude, la moitié des participants ont été avisés que l'information sur leur navigation pourrait être utilisée afin de leur offrir les services demandés, alors que l'autre moitié a été avisée que cette information ne serait pas utilisée. Les résultats montrent que le modèle asymétrique révélé dans la première étude ne s'observait que sous les conditions de faible confidentialité, alors que le rapport s'inversait dans le contexte de forte confidentialité. Des interactions triangulaires significatives ont été démontrées pour le sentiment de contrôle et pour le sentiment de commodité. Mots clés : adaptation, personnalisation, agentivité, grands utilisateurs, vie privée, sentiment de contrôle, sentiment de commodité, nouvelles en ligne, portail La Personalización versus la Adaptación al Cliente La Importancia de la Agencia, la Privacidad, y el Uso del Poder Resumen Este manuscrito presenta dos estudios. El estudio 1 expuso a los usuarios de poder, así como a los usuarios regulares a una página agregada de noticias de Internet que estuvo ó personalizada (adaptada al sistema), ó adaptada al cliente (adaptada al usuario), ó a ninguna de las dos. Los hallazgos revelaron una interacción de cruce tal que los usuarios con poder estimaron al contenido como de mayor calidad cuando tenían una interfaz adaptada al usuario, mientras que los usuarios sin poder prefirieron el contenido personalizado. En el estudio 2, se les dijo a la mitad de los participantes que la forma en la que buscaban información podría ser usada para proveer los servicios solicitados mientras que a la otra mitad se le dijo que no sería usada. Los resultados revelaron que la pauta de cruzamiento encontrada en el estudio 1 fue observada solo en condiciones de privacidad baja, mientras que la pauta fue reversa bajo las condiciones de privacidad alta. Las interacciones significativas de 3 partes fueron encontradas para el sentido del control y la percepción de la conveniencia. Palabras Claves: Adaptado al cliente, personalización, agencia, poder de uso, privacidad, control percibido, percepción de conveniencia, noticias online, guardián, portal. [source]

    Guest Editorial: Privacy and dignity in residential care homes: cross-cultural issues

    Diana T.F. Lee
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Feeling at home in nursing homes

    Anke J.E. De Veer PhD
    Feeling at home in nursing homes Aim.,The purpose of this study was to examine determinants of feeling at home and in particular the privacy in nursing homes in The Netherlands. The first question was to what extent nursing homes differed in the degree residents feel at home and experience privacy. The second question was whether feeling at home is related to privacy in the nursing homes. Background.,Feeling at home is of particular importance to residents of nursing homes because the average length of stay in The Netherlands is about 16 months. A growing number of people are of the opinion that the privacy of the residents has to be improved. Privacy in nursing homes, therefore, has been high on the political agenda over the last few years. Four aspects of privacy were distinguished: privacy related to the characteristics of the building, privacy as a consequence of the attitude of nurses towards residents, privacy in terms of choice and control over time schedules and activities, and privacy related to the amount of disturbance caused by other residents. Design.,The data were collected from individual interviews with 686 residents and family-members in 36 nursing homes in The Netherlands. Results.,Following quantitative data analysis, it was found that nursing homes differed in the proportion of residents feeling at home as well as in three aspects of privacy. Differences in feeling at home were found to be related to privacy, especially to the perceived attitudes of nurses and perceived disturbance caused by other residents. A weak relationship was found between residents and their perceived privacy of the building. Conclusions.,A significant amount of variation in privacy was found at the nursing home level. This implies that feeling at home is not only individually determined but can be influenced by the nursing home's management policy. [source]

    Facebook and Online Privacy: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Unintended Consequences

    Bernhard Debatin
    This article investigates Facebook users' awareness of privacy issues and perceived benefits and risks of utilizing Facebook. Research found that Facebook is deeply integrated in users' daily lives through specific routines and rituals. Users claimed to understand privacy issues, yet reported uploading large amounts of personal information. Risks to privacy invasion were ascribed more to others than to the self. However, users reporting privacy invasion were more likely to change privacy settings than those merely hearing about others' privacy invasions. Results suggest that this lax attitude may be based on a combination of high gratification, usage patterns, and a psychological mechanism similar to third-person effect. Safer use of social network services would thus require changes in user attitude. [source]

    The Taste for Privacy: An Analysis of College Student Privacy Settings in an Online Social Network

    Kevin Lewis
    The rapid growth of contemporary social network sites (SNSs) has coincided with an increasing concern over personal privacy. College students and adolescents routinely provide personal information on profiles that can be viewed by large numbers of unknown people and potentially used in harmful ways. SNSs like Facebook and MySpace allow users to control the privacy level of their profile, thus limiting access to this information. In this paper, we take the preference for privacy itself as our unit of analysis, and analyze the factors that are predictive of a student having a private versus public profile. Drawing upon a new social network dataset based on Facebook, we argue that privacy behavior is an upshot of both social influences and personal incentives. Students are more likely to have a private profile if their friends and roommates have them; women are more likely to have private profiles than are men; and having a private profile is associated with a higher level of online activity. Finally, students who have private versus public profiles are characterized by a unique set of cultural preferences,of which the "taste for privacy" may be only a small but integral part. Résumé Le goût pour la vie privée : Une analyse des paramètres de vie privée des étudiants universitaires dans un réseau social en ligne L,expansion rapide des sites de réseaux sociaux (SRS) contemporains a coïncidé avec une croissance de la préoccupation pour la vie privée. Les étudiants universitaires et les adolescents affichent régulièrement des informations personnelles sur des profils qui peuvent être consultés par un très grand nombre d'inconnus, informations qui pourraient potentiellement être utilisées de façon dommageable. Les SRS comme Facebook et MySpace permettent aux usagers de contrôler le niveau de vie privée de leur profil, limitant ainsi l,accès à ces informations. Dans cet article, nous considérons la préférence pour la vie privée comme étant notre unité d'analyse. Nous analysons les facteurs qui peuvent prédire si un étudiant ou une étudiante a un profil privé ou public. À partir d,un nouvel ensemble de données sur les réseaux sociaux basé sur Facebook, nous soutenons que les comportements de protection de la vie privée sont une conséquence d'influences sociales et de motivations personnelles : les étudiants sont plus susceptibles d,avoir un profil privé si leurs amis et leurs colocataires en ont un; les femmes sont plus susceptibles que les hommes d'avoir des profils privés et avoir un profil privé est associéà un niveau plus élevé d,activité en ligne. Finalement, les étudiants qui ont des profils privés plutôt que publics sont caractérisés par un ensemble unique de préférences culturelles,desquelles le « goût pour la vie privée » peut n'être qu'une partie, petite mais intégrante. Abstract Studierende und Privatsphäre: Eine Analyse der Privatsphäre-Einstellungen in einem sozialen Online-Netzwerk Das derzeitig rasante Wachstum sozialer Netzwerke geht einher mit einer steigenden Besorgnis über die Privatsphäre. Studierende und Jugendliche geben routinemäßig persönliche Informationen auf ihren Profilen preis, die von vielen auch unbekannten Personen eingesehen und potentiell missbraucht werden kann. Soziale Netzwerke wie Facebook und MySpace geben ihren Nutzern die Möglichkeit, die Privatsphäre ihrer Profile per Einstellung zu beschränken und damit den Zugang zu diesen Informationen zu kontrollieren. In diesem Artikel nutzen wir die individuelle Präferenz für Privatsphäre als Analyseeinheit und untersuchen die Faktoren, mit denen man vorhersagen kann, ob ein Studierender ein eher privates oder öffentliches Profil hat. Auf Basis eines Facebook-Datensatzes argumentieren wir, dass das Verhalten bezüglich der Privatsphäre-Parameter das Ergebnis sozialer Einflüsse und persönlicher Anreize ist. Studierende haben dann häufiger ein privates Profil, wenn ihre Freunde und Mitbewohner eines haben; Frauen haben häufiger private Profile als Männer; und ein privates Profil geht einher mit stärker ausgeprägter Online-Aktivität. Letztendlich lassen sich Studierende mit einem privaten vs. öffentlichen Profil durch ein einmaliges Set an kulturellen Präferenzen charakterisieren , die Vorlieben bezüglich der Privatheit mögen dabei nur ein kleiner aber wichtiger Teil sein. Resumen El Sabor de la Privacidad: Un Análisis de las Opciones de Privacidad en una Red Social Online de Estudiantes Universitarios de Grado El crecimiento rápido de los sitios de redes sociales (SNSs) ha coincidido con un incremento en la preocupación de la privacidad personal. Estudiantes universitarios de grado y adolescentes proveen en forma rutinaria de información personal en sus perfiles que puede ser vista por un gran número de personas desconocidas y puede ser usada en formas potencialmente dañinas. Los SNSs como Facebook y MySpace permiten a los usuarios ejercer control sobre el nivel de privacidad de sus perfiles, limitando así el acceso a esta información. En este articulo, usamos a la preferencia por la privacidad como nuestra unidad de análisis en sí misma, y analizamos los factores que predicen si un estudiante usa perfiles privados versus públicos. Usando unos datos de una nueva red social en Facebook, argumentamos que el comportamiento de la privacidad es el resultado de influencias sociales e incentivos personales. Los estudiantes tuvieron una tendencia mayor a tener perfiles privados si sus amigos y compañeros de cuarto los tenían; las mujeres más que los hombres tuvieron mayores tendencias hacia los perfiles privados; y el tener un perfil privado fue asociado con un mayor nivel de actividad online. Finalmente, los estudiantes que tenían perfiles privados versus públicos fueron caracterizados por una colección de preferencias culturales,de las cuales el "sabor por la privacidad" puede ser una parte pequeña pero integral. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Consumer Perceptions of Privacy and Security Risks for Online Shopping

    Government and industry organizations have declared information privacy and security to be major obstacles in the development of consumer-related e-commerce. Risk perceptions regarding Internet privacy and security have been identified as issues for both new and experienced users of Internet technology. This paper explores risk perceptions among consumers of varying levels of Internet experience and how these perceptions relate to online shopping activity. Findings provide evidence of hypothesized relationships among consumers' levels of Internet experience, the use of alternate remote purchasing methods (such as telephone and mail-order shopping), the perceived risks of online shopping, and online purchasing activity. Implications for online commerce and consumer welfare are discussed. [source]

    Privacy and Commercial Use of Personal Data: Policy Developments in the United States

    Priscilla Regan
    In the online and offline worlds, the value of personal information , especially information about commercial purchases and preferences , has long been recognised. Exchanges and uses of personal information have also long sparked concerns about privacy. Public opinion surveys consistently indicate that overwhelming majorities of the American public are concerned that they have lost all control over information about themselves and do not trust organisations to protect the privacy of their information. Somewhat smaller majorities favour federal legislation to protect privacy. Despite public support for stronger privacy protection, the prevailing policy stance for over thirty years has been one of reluctance to legislate and a preference for self-regulation by business to protect privacy. Although some privacy legislation has been adopted, policy debates about the commercial uses of personal information have been dominated largely by business concerns about intrusive government regulation, free speech and the flow of commercial information, costs, and effectiveness. Public concerns about privacy, reflected in public opinion surveys and voiced by a number of public interest groups, are often discredited because individuals seem to behave as though privacy is not important. Although people express concern about privacy, they routinely disclose personal information because of convenience, discounts and other incentives, or a lack of understanding of the consequences. This disconnect between public opinion and public behaviour has been interpreted to support a self-regulatory approach to privacy protections with emphasis on giving individuals notice and choice about information practices. In theory the self-regulatory approach also entails some enforcement mechanism to ensure that organisations are doing what they claim, and a redress mechanism by which individuals can seek compensation if they are wronged. This article analyses the course of policy formulation over the last twenty years with particular attention on how policymakers and stakeholders have used public opinion about the commercial use of personal information in formulating policy to protect privacy. The article considers policy activities in both Congress and the Federal Trade Commission that have resulted in an emphasis on "notice and consent." The article concludes that both individual behaviour and organisational behaviour are skewed in a privacy invasive direction. People are less likely to make choices to protect their privacy unless these choices are relatively easy, obvious, and low cost. If a privacy protection choice entails additional steps, most rational people will not take those steps. This appears logically to be true and to be supported by behaviour in the physical world. Organisations are unlikely to act unilaterally to make their practices less privacy invasive because such actions will impose costs on them that are not imposed on their competitors. Overall then, the privacy level available is less than what the norms of society and the stated preferences of people require. A consent scheme that is most protective of privacy imposes the largest burden on the individual, as well as costs to the individual, while a consent scheme that is least protective of privacy imposes the least burden on the individual, as well as fewer costs to the individual. Recent experience with privacy notices that resulted from the financial privacy provisions in Gramm-Leach-Bliley supports this conclusion. Finally, the article will consider whether the terrorist attacks of 11 September have changed public opinion about privacy and what the policy implications of any changes in public opinion are likely to be. [source]

    Technologies, Security, and Privacy in the Post-9/11 European Information Society

    Michael Levi
    Since 11 September 2001, many ,hard' and ,soft' security strategies have been introduced to enable more intensive surveillance and control of the movement of `suspect populations'. Suicide bombings have since generated a step-change in asymmetric threat analysis and public perceptions of risk. This article reviews how post-9/11 ,security' issues intersect with existing and emerging technologies, particularly those relating to identity, location, home, and work that will form the backbone of the European Information Society. The article explores the complexities generated by the way that these technologies work, sites of nationalist resistance, and formal bureaucratic roles. Many of the planned surveillance methods and technologies are convergence technologies aiming to bring together new and existing data sources, but are unable to do so because of poor data quality and the difficulty of using the integrated data to reduce serious crime risks. The delay may enable legal compliance models to be developed in order to protect the principles of privacy that are set out in the ECHR and the EC Data Protection Directive. Though (moral) panics produce changes in law, the article emphasizes the constraining effects of law. [source]

    Three Songs about Privacy, by R.E.M.

    Fred Everett Maus
    First page of article [source]

    Protecting Medical Privacy: Challenges in the Age of Genetic Information

    Sheri A. Alpert
    This article examines the privacy issues that arise from the convergence of two trends: the computerization of medical records, and the increasingly detailed level of personal genetic information that will potentially be placed within the electronic medical record. The article discusses the privacy and public policy implications for medical care, group identity, and familial relationships arising from the transition toward electronic medical records which will increasingly contain highly detailed genetic information. As such, the article focuses on the confidentiality of the electronic medical record, the increasing prevalence and sophistication of genetic testing and analysis, and the implications of electronic genetic information. [source]

    Privacy, Property, and the Family in the Age of Genetic Testing: Observations from Transformative Feminism

    Elisabeth Boetzkes
    First page of article [source]

    Privacy, professionalism and Facebook: a dilemma for young doctors

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 8 2010
    Joanna MacDonald
    Medical Education 2010: 44: 805,813 Objectives, This study aimed to examine the nature and extent of use of the social networking service Facebook by young medical graduates, and their utilisation of privacy options. Methods, We carried out a cross-sectional survey of the use of Facebook by recent medical graduates, accessing material potentially available to a wider public. Data were then categorised and analysed. Survey subjects were 338 doctors who had graduated from the University of Otago in 2006 and 2007 and were registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand. Main outcome measures were Facebook membership, utilisation of privacy options, and the nature and extent of the material revealed. Results, A total of 220 (65%) graduates had Facebook accounts; 138 (63%) of these had activated their privacy options, restricting their information to ,Friends'. Of the remaining 82 accounts that were more publicly available, 30 (37%) revealed users' sexual orientation, 13 (16%) revealed their religious views, 35 (43%) indicated their relationship status, 38 (46%) showed photographs of the users drinking alcohol, eight (10%) showed images of the users intoxicated and 37 (45%) showed photographs of the users engaged in healthy behaviours. A total of 54 (66%) members had used their accounts within the last week, indicating active use. Conclusions, Young doctors are active members of Facebook. A quarter of the doctors in our survey sample did not use the privacy options, rendering the information they revealed readily available to a wider public. This information, although it included some healthy behaviours, also revealed personal information that might cause distress to patients or alter the professional boundary between patient and practitioner, as well as information that could bring the profession into disrepute (e.g. belonging to groups like ,Perverts united'). Educators and regulators need to consider how best to advise students and doctors on societal changes in the concepts of what is public and what is private. [source]

    E-Commerce and Information Privacy: Privacy Policies as Personal Information Protectors

    Corey A. Ciocchetti
    First page of article [source]

    Workplace Privacy and Discrimination Issues Related to Genetic Data: A Comparative Law Study of the European Union and the United States

    Nancy J. King

    Small area population disease burden

    Richard Taylor
    Small area health statistics has assumed increasing importance as the focus of population and public health moves to a more individualised approach of smaller area populations. Small populations and low event occurrence produce difficulties in interpretation and require appropriate statistical methods, including for age adjustment. There are also statistical questions related to multiple comparisons. Privacy and confidentiality issues include the possibility of revealing information on individuals or health care providers by fine cross-tabulations. Interpretation of small area population differences in health status requires consideration of migrant and Indigenous composition, socio-economic status and rural-urban geography before assessment of the effects of physical environmental exposure and services and interventions. Burden of disease studies produce a single measure for morbidity and mortality-disability adjusted life year (DALY)-which is the sum of the years of life lost (YLL) from premature mortality and the years lived with disability (YLD) for particular diseases (or all conditions). Calculation of YLD requires estimates of disease incidence (and complications) and duration, and weighting by severity. These procedures often mean problematic assumptions, as does future discounting and age weighting of both YLL and YLD. Evaluation of the Victorian small area population disease burden study presents important cross-disciplinary challenges as it relies heavily on synthetic approaches of demography and economics rather than on the empirical methods of epidemiology. Both empirical and synthetic methods are used to compute small area mortality and morbidity, disease burden, and then attribution to risk factors. Readers need to examine the methodology and assumptions carefully before accepting the results. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2009
    ABSTRACT Bioinformatics is a new field of study whose ethical implications involve a combination of bioethics, computer ethics and information ethics. This paper is an attempt to view some of these implications from the perspective of Buddhism. Privacy is a central concern in both computer/information ethics and bioethics, and with information technology being increasingly utilized to process biological and genetic data, the issue has become even more pronounced. Traditionally, privacy presupposes the individual self but as Buddhism does away with the ultimate conception of an individual self, it has to find a way to analyse and justify privacy that does not presuppose such a self. It does this through a pragmatic conception that does not depend on a positing of the substantial self, which is then found to be unnecessary for an effective protection of privacy. As it may be possible one day to link genetic data to individuals, the Buddhist conception perhaps offers a more flexible approach, as what is considered to be integral to an individual person is not fixed in objectivity but depends on convention. [source]

    Electronic Commerce and Consumer Privacy: Establishing Online Trust in the U.S. Digital Economy

    Thomas A. Hemphill
    First page of article [source]

    DoubleClick and Consumer Online Privacy: An E-Commerce Lesson Learned

    Thomas A. Hemphill
    First page of article [source]


    Jorge L. Ahumada
    The author explores how psychoanalysis mutates in its passing from the privacies of the session to the public spaces of academia, shifting away from enquiry into unfolding unconscious psychic processes guided by its method, and from the clinically based notions Freud and his diverse followers constructed, here called the ,Freudian unconscious'. In postmodern intellectual contexts Freud's work fuels a ,Nietzschean unconscious', issuing from public lecterns in the protagonistic, self-creating feats of a ,psychoanalytic discourse'. The ideology of such mutation ishere traced from Nietzsche on to Heidegger and Kojave, and then to Lacan and Laplanche. It reflects the might of the ,death of evidences' and the Romantic penchant for the limit-experience and the primacy accorded to the creative imagination. Discourse as revelation rests on a ,paradox of the enunciation' whereby the subject (author) of the statement is taken to be identical to the subject (matter) of the statement. Banishing the boundaries of illusion and evidence, and of self-overcoming and insight, academic ,psychoanalytic discourse'creates a ,return of the idols' in ,theoretical' narcissistic identification. [source]

    Confidentiality, privacy, and public safety: Managing information disclosure disputes between hospitals and law enforcement agencies

    R. Kyle Friesen
    This article explores the conflict that exists throughout North America from the intersection of privacy rights of patients and law enforcement needs for access to patients' personal records and the process by which a disclosure protocol was successfully negotiated and implemented. [source]

    Social Media's Second Act: Toward Sustainable Brand Engagement

    Tom Briggs
    Effective social brands are like friends. You can trust them. You can build a community around them. But once that community begins to reach around the globe, you had better keep it real and you had better respect its personal privacy. [source]

    Female Adolescents and Their Sexuality: Notions of Honour, Shame, Purity and Pollution during the Floods

    DISASTERS, Issue 1 2000
    Sabina Faiz Rashid
    This paper explores the experiences of female adolescents during the 1998 floods in Bangladesh, focusing on the implications of socio-cultural norms related to notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution. These cultural notions are reinforced with greater emphasis as girls enter their adolescence, regulating their sexuality and gender relationships. In Bangladeshi society, adolescent girls are expected to maintain their virginity until marriage. Contact is limited to one's families and extended relations. Particularly among poorer families, adolescent girls tend to have limited mobility to safeguard their ,purity'. This is to ensure that the girl's reputation does not suffer, thus making it difficult for the girl to get married. For female adolescents in Bangladesh, a disaster situation is a uniquely vulnerable time. Exposure to the unfamiliar environment of flood shelters and relief camps, and unable to maintain their ,space' and privacy from male strangers, a number of the girls were vulnerable to sexual and mental harassment. With the floods, it became difficult for most of the girls to be appropriately `secluded'. Many were unable to sleep, bathe or get access to latrines in privacy because so many houses and latrines were underwater. Some of the girls who had begun menstruation were distressed at not being able to keep themselves clean. Strong social taboos associated with menstruation and the dirty water that surrounded them made it difficult for the girls to wash their menstrual cloths or change them frequently enough. Many of them became separated from their social network of relations, which caused them a great deal of anxiety and stress. Their difficulty in trying to follow social norms have had far-reaching implications on their health, identity, family and community relations. [source]

    LC-MS: a powerful tool in workplace drug testing

    E. Gallardo
    Abstract Workplace drug testing is a well-established application of forensic toxicology and it aims to reduce workplace accidents caused by affected workers. Several classes of abused substances may be involved, such as alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opiates and also prescription drugs, such as benzodiazepines. The use of alternative biological specimens such as hair, oral fluid or sweat in workplace drug testing presents several advantages over urinalysis,mainly the fact that sample collection can be performed easily without infringing on the examinee's privacy, so the subject is more likely to perform the test. However, drugs are usually present in these alternative specimens at low concentrations and the amount of sample available for analysis is small. The use of highly sensitive techniques is therefore necessary. In fact, the successful interface of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has brought a new light into bioanalytical and forensic sciences as it allows the detection of drugs and metabolites at concentrations that are difficult to analyse using the more commonly adopted GC-MS based techniques. This paper will discuss the importance of LC-MS in supporting workplace drug-testing programmes. The combination of LC-MS with innovative instrumentation such as triple quadrupoles, ion traps and time-of-flight mass spectrometers will also be focused. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Is Privately-provided Electronic Money Next?

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2000
    Catherine England
    To survive, any new electronic money will need to provide some advantage to its users, such as lower transaction costs, increased privacy, a greater ability to avoid taxes, or a more stable value than its government-provided competitors. Any successful new money will have to overcome substantial barriers to entry, however. These barriers to entry occur primarily in the form of the costs of switching to a different means of payment and require an understanding of the role played by ,network economics.' Unless a substantial number of the individuals and businesses with whom a person trades use the same money, any new means of payment will have little value. A temptation facing government regulators will be to extend and expand regulations to apply to new means of payment and forms of money. A more productive role of governments is to attempt to protect their own money-creation franchises by minimising the advantages offered by privately-provided alternatives. Governments should enforce contracts and punish fraud while remaining vigilant with respect to inflation, keep tax rates low and protect the privacy of their citizens. [source]

    Workplace privacy between coworkers

    Lynn D. Lieber
    First page of article [source]

    General practitioners' and family physicians' negative beliefs and attitudes towards discussing smoking cessation with patients: a systematic review

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2005
    Florian Vogt
    ABSTRACT Objective, To estimate the proportion of general practitioners (GPs) and family physicians (FPs) with negative beliefs and attitudes towards discussing smoking cessation with patients. Methods A systematic review. Study selection All studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals, which allowed the extraction of the proportion of GPs and FPs with negative beliefs and attitudes towards discussing smoking cessation. Data synthesis Negative beliefs and attitudes were extracted and categorised. Proportions were synthesized giving greater weight to those obtained from studies with larger samples. Those assessed in two or more studies are reported. Results Across 19 studies, eight negative beliefs and attitudes were identified. While the majority of GPs and FPs do not have negative beliefs and attitudes towards discussing smoking with their patients, a sizeable minority do. The most common negative beliefs were that such discussions were too time-consuming (weighted proportion: 42%) and were ineffective (38%). Just over a quarter (22%) of physicians reported lacking confidence in their ability to discuss smoking with their patients, 18% felt such discussions were unpleasant, 16% lacked confidence in their knowledge, and relatively few considered discussing smoking outside of their professional duty (5%), or that this intruded upon patients' privacy (5%), or that such discussion were inappropriate (3%). Conclusions In addition to providing skills training, interventions designed to increase the implementation of smoking cessation interventions by primary care physicians may be more effective if they address a range of commonly held negative beliefs and attitudes towards discussing smoking cessation. These include beliefs and values that influence primary care physicians' judgements about whether discussing smoking is an effective use of their time. [source]