Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by Primitive

  • primitive cell
  • primitive condition
  • primitive feature
  • primitive form
  • primitive mantle
  • primitive monoclinic space group p21
  • primitive neuroectodermal tumor
  • primitive neuroectodermal tumour
  • primitive stem cell
  • primitive streak
  • primitive variable

  • Selected Abstracts

    Paris Primitive: Jacques Chirac's Museum on the Quai Branly by Sally Price

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Americanism, Popular Culture and the Primitive: Johannes Vilhelm Jensen, Madame D'Ora (1904)

    ORBIS LITERARUM, Issue 2 2005
    Michael Cowan
    Johannes V. Jensen's novels Madame D'Ora (1904) and Hjulet (The Wheel, 1905) represented some of the most popular works of early twentieth-century Americanist fiction in Europe. Taking Jensen's first novel, Madame D'Ora, as my focus, I show how his work participated in an ambivalent construction of America as an imaginary space of both danger and cultural renewal, one that combined the modern (technology) with a dangerous, ,atavistic' influence. Through an investigation of Jensen's use of tropes of primitivity, in particular, I argue that such literary Americanism in fact represented an effort to work through changes taking place within Europe itself. Specifically, Madame D'Ora deals with the rise of new forms of mass culture and popular entertainment , such as the cinema , and their effect on traditional European intellectuals. Within this context, Jensen represents the new ,American' forms of technology and popular culture both as a hope for overcoming European decadence and as a dangerous form of cultural and psychic primitivization. [source]

    Are Points the Better Graphics Primitives?

    Markus Gross
    Since the early days of graphics the computer based representation of three-dimensional geometry has been one of the core research fields. Today, various sophisticated geometric modelling techniques including NURBS or implicit surfaces allow the creation of 3D graphics models with increasingly complex shape. In spite of these methods the triangle has survived over decades as the king of graphics primitives meeting the right balance between descriptive power and computational burden. As a consequence, today's consumer graphics hardware is heavily tailored for high performance triangle processing. In addition, a new generation of geometry processing methods including hierarchical representations, geometric filtering, or feature detection fosters the concept of triangle meshes for graphics modelling. Unlike triangles, points have amazingly been neglected as a graphics primitive. Although being included in APIs since many years, it is only recently that point samples experience a renaissance in computer graphics. Conceptually, points provide a mere discretization of geometry without explicit storage of topology. Thus, point samples reduce the representation to the essentials needed for rendering and enable us to generate highly optimized object representations. Although the loss of topology poses great challenges for graphics processing, the latest generation of algorithms features high performance rendering, point/pixel shading, anisotropic texture mapping, and advanced signal processing of point sampled geometry. This talk will give an overview of how recent research results in the processing of triangles and points are changing our traditional way of thinking of surface representations in computer graphics - and will discuss the question: Are Points the Better Graphics Primitives? [source]

    Experiences from the Implementation and Use of Multimedia Synchronization Mechanisms

    Theodoros H. Bozios
    This paper presents experiences from the implementation of Multimedia Synchronization Mechanisms related to the support of the many-to-one inter-media synchronization and describes the proposed Synchronization Architecture and its Design Objectives. The main goal of the communication system in the proposed architecture is to maintain the asynchrony levels between the media streams belonging in a Synchronization Group between the levels specitied by the Multimcdia Application. This is achieved through appropriate Synchronization Primitives related to the management and monitoring of the synchronization. The pilper emphasizes on the implementation issues and problems, and the solutions adopted. concluding to the lirst experiences from the use of the synchronization. [source]

    Beyond Lack and Excess: Other Architectures/Other Landscapes

    Gülsüm Baydar Nalbanto
    Familiar binary categories of architecture such as Western/regional, high style/vernacular and modern/primitive are crucial in guarding its disciplinary boundaries. In the first part of my article, by analyzing a number of paradigmatic architectural texts, I argue that notions of lack and excess are instrumental in maintaining the largely superimposed binary constructions of West/non-West and architecture/nonarchitecture. Then, through a particular reading of a non-Western site, I explore ways of rethinking the categories of architecture and non-Western beyond such binary oppositions. [source]

    Abductive Diagnosis Using Time-Objects: Criteria for the Evaluation of Solutions

    Elpida T. Keravnou
    Diagnostic problem solving aims to account for, or explain, a malfunction of a system (human or other). Any plausible potential diagnostic solution must satisfy some minimum criteria relevant to the application. Often there will be several plausible solutions, and further criteria will be required to select the "best" explanation. Expert diagnosticians may employ different, complex criteria at different stages of their reasoning. These criteria may be combinations of some more primitive criteria, which therefore should be represented separately and explicitly to permit their flexible and transparent combined usage. In diagnostic reasoning there is a tight coupling between the formation of potential solutions and their evaluation. This is the essence of abductive reasoning. This article presents an abductive framework for diagnostic problem solving. Time-objects, an association of a property and an existence, are used as the representation formalism and a number of primitive, general evaluation criteria into which time has been integrated are defined. Each criterion provides an intuitive yardstick for evaluating the space of potential solutions. The criteria can be combined as appropriate for particular applications to define plausible and best explanations. The central principle is that when time is diagnostically significant, it should be modeled explicitly to enable a more accurate formulation and evaluation of diagnostic solutions. The integration of time and primitive evaluation criteria is illustrated through the Skeletal Dysplasias Diagnostician (SDD) system, a diagnostic expert system for a real-life medical domain. SDD's notions of plausible and best explanation are reviewed so as to show the difficulties in formalizing such notions. Although we illustrate our work by medical problems, it has been motivated by consideration of problems in a number of other domains (fermentation monitoring, air and ground traffic control, power distribution) and is intended to be of wide applicability. [source]

    DiFi: Fast 3D Distance Field Computation Using Graphics Hardware

    Avneesh Sud
    We present an algorithm for fast computation of discretized 3D distance fields using graphics hardware. Given a set of primitives and a distance metric, our algorithm computes the distance field for each slice of a uniform spatial grid baly rasterizing the distance functions of the primitives. We compute bounds on the spatial extent of the Voronoi region of each primitive. These bounds are used to cull and clamp the distance functions rendered for each slice. Our algorithm is applicable to all geometric models and does not make any assumptions about connectivity or a manifold representation. We have used our algorithm to compute distance fields of large models composed of tens of thousands of primitives on high resolution grids. Moreover, we demonstrate its application to medial axis evaluation and proximity computations. As compared to earlier approaches, we are able to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in the running time. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Distance fields, Voronoi regions, graphics hardware, proximity computations [source]

    Are Points the Better Graphics Primitives?

    Markus Gross
    Since the early days of graphics the computer based representation of three-dimensional geometry has been one of the core research fields. Today, various sophisticated geometric modelling techniques including NURBS or implicit surfaces allow the creation of 3D graphics models with increasingly complex shape. In spite of these methods the triangle has survived over decades as the king of graphics primitives meeting the right balance between descriptive power and computational burden. As a consequence, today's consumer graphics hardware is heavily tailored for high performance triangle processing. In addition, a new generation of geometry processing methods including hierarchical representations, geometric filtering, or feature detection fosters the concept of triangle meshes for graphics modelling. Unlike triangles, points have amazingly been neglected as a graphics primitive. Although being included in APIs since many years, it is only recently that point samples experience a renaissance in computer graphics. Conceptually, points provide a mere discretization of geometry without explicit storage of topology. Thus, point samples reduce the representation to the essentials needed for rendering and enable us to generate highly optimized object representations. Although the loss of topology poses great challenges for graphics processing, the latest generation of algorithms features high performance rendering, point/pixel shading, anisotropic texture mapping, and advanced signal processing of point sampled geometry. This talk will give an overview of how recent research results in the processing of triangles and points are changing our traditional way of thinking of surface representations in computer graphics - and will discuss the question: Are Points the Better Graphics Primitives? [source]

    Evolutionary origins of the purinergic signalling system

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2009
    G. Burnstock
    Abstract Purines appear to be the most primitive and widespread chemical messengers in the animal and plant kingdoms. The evidence for purinergic signalling in plants, invertebrates and lower vertebrates is reviewed. Much is based on pharmacological studies, but important recent studies have utilized the techniques of molecular biology and receptors have been cloned and characterized in primitive invertebrates, including the social amoeba Dictyostelium and the platyhelminth Schistosoma, as well as the green algae Ostreococcus, which resemble P2X receptors identified in mammals. This suggests that contrary to earlier speculations, P2X ion channel receptors appeared early in evolution, while G protein-coupled P1 and P2Y receptors were introduced either at the same time or perhaps even later. The absence of gene coding for P2X receptors in some animal groups [e.g. in some insects, roundworms (Caenorhabditis elegans) and the plant Arabidopsis] in contrast to the potent pharmacological actions of nucleotides in the same species, suggests that novel receptors are still to be discovered. [source]

    Think about the Consequences!

    DIALECTICA, Issue 2 2006
    Nominalism, the Argument from the Philosophy of Logic
    Nominalism (the thesis that there are no abstract objects) faces the task of explaining away the ontological commitments of applied mathematical statements. This paper reviews an argument from the philosophy of logic that focuses on this task and which has been used as an objection to certain specific formulations of nominalism. The argument as it is developed in this paper aims to show that nominalism in general does not have the epistemological advantages its defendants claim it has. I distinguish between two strategies that are available to the nominalist: The Evaluation Programme, which tries to preserve the common truth-values of mathematical statements even if there are no mathematical objects, and Fictionalism, which denies that mathematical sentences have significant truth-values. It is argued that the tenability of both strategies depends on the nominalist's ability to account for the notion of consequence. This is a problem because the usual meta-logical explications of consequence do themselves quantify over mathematical entities. While nominalists of both varieties may try to appeal to a primitive notion of consequence, or, alternatively, to primitive notions of logical or structural possibilities, such measures are objectionable. Even if we are equipped with a notion of either consequence or possibility that is primitive in the relevant sense, it will not be strong enough to account for the consequence relation required in classical mathematics. These examinations are also useful in assessing the possible counter-intuitive appeal of the argument from the philosophy of logic. [source]

    The cranial morphology of Kayentachelys, an Early Jurassic cryptodire, and the early history of turtles

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    Eugene S. Gaffney
    Abstract Gaffney, E.S. and Jenkins, F.A., Jr. 2010. The cranial morphology of Kayentachelys, an Early Jurassic cryptodire, and the early history of turtles. , Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 335,368 The skull morphology of Kayentachelys aprixGaffney et al., 1987, a turtle from the Early Jurassic Kayenta Fm of northern Arizona, demonstrates the presence of cryptodiran synapomorphies in agreement with Gaffney et al. (1987, 1991, 2007), and contrary to the conclusions of Sterli and Joyce (2007), Joyce (2007), Sterli (2008), and Anquetin et al. (2008). Specific characters found in Kayentachelys and diagnostic of cryptodires include the processus trochlearis oticum, the curved processus pterygoideus externus with a vertical plate, and the prefrontal,vomer contact, which are confirmed as absent in the outgroups, specifically the Late Triassic Proganochelys. The Joyce (2007) analysis suffers from the reduction of the signal from skull characters, with a consequently greater reliance on shell characters, resulting in pleurodires being resolved at various positions within the cryptodires. Kayentachelys reveals what a primitive cryptodire would be expected to look like: a combination of primitive and derived characters, with the fewer derived characters providing the best test of its relationships to other turtles. Although incompletely known, the Mid-Late Jurassic Condorchelys, Heckeremys, and Eileanchelys may be early cryptodires close to Kayentachelys. We confirm the Late Triassic Proterochersis as a pleurodire, dating the pleurodire,cryptodire split as Late Triassic or earlier. [source]

    The humerus of Panderichthys in three dimensions and its significance in the context of the fish,tetrapod transition

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2009
    Catherine A. Boisvert
    Abstract The humerus of Panderichthys has been considered to represent a transitional form between that of tetrapodomorph fish such as Eusthenopteron and tetrapods such as Acanthostega. The previous description was based on flattened material and was analysed in the context of the few fossils known at the time. Since then, several new forms have been described such as Gogonasus, Tiktaalik and an isolated humerus from the Catskill Formation. The humeral morphology of Panderichthys rhombolepis and its interpretation in this new context are therefore reassessed with the help of a three-dimensional model produced with the mimics software based on a computed tomography scan of an unflattened specimen as well as comparisons with the originally described material. The humerus of Panderichthys displays a combination of primitive, derived, intermediate and unique characteristics. It is very similar to the morphology of Tiktaalik but when it differs from it, it is most often more derived despite the more basal phylogenetic position that Panderichthys occupies. What emerges from this study is a much more gradual transformation of the humerus morphology from fish to tetrapods and the ability to distinguish autapomorphies more easily. The picture is more complex than previously believed, with many morphological specializations probably reflecting the breadth of ecological specializations already present at the time. [source]

    Microstructure of the silk spigots of the green crab spider Oxytate striatipes (Araneae: Thomisidae)

    Myung-Jin MOON
    Abstract The genus Oxytate L. Koch, 1878 comprises a homogeneous group of nocturnal crab spiders that have silk apparatuses even though they do not spin webs to trap prey. We examined the microstructure of the silk spinning apparatus of the green crab spider Oxytate striatipes, using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The silk glands of the spider were classified into three types: ampullate, pyriform and aciniform. The spigots of these three types of silk gland occur in both sexes. Two pairs of major ampullate glands send secretory ductules to the anterior spinnerets, and another two pairs of minor ampullate glands supply the median spinnerets. In addition, the pyriform glands send ductules to the anterior spinnerets (45 pairs in females and 40 pairs in males), and the aciniform glands feed silk into the median (9,12 pairs in females and 7,10 pairs in males) and the posterior (30 pairs in both sexes) spinnerets. The spigot system of O. striatipes is simpler and more primitive than other wandering spiders: even the female spiders possess neither tubuliform glands for cocoon production nor triad spigots for web-building. [source]

    Erythropoiesis and red cell function in vertebrate embryos

    R. Baumann
    Abstract All vertebrate embryos produce a specific erythroid cell population , primitive erythrocytes , early in development. These cells are characterized by expression of the specific embryonic haemoglobins. Many aspects of primitive erythropoiesis and the physiological function of primitive red cells are still enigmatic. Nevertheless, recent years have seen intensive efforts to characterize in greater detail the molecular events underlying the initiation of erythropoiesis in vertebrate embryos. Several key genes have been identified that are necessary for primitive and the subsequent definitive erythropoiesis, which differs in several aspect from primitive erythropoiesis. This review gives in its first part a short overview dealing with comparative aspects of primitive and early definitive erythropoiesis in higher and lower vertebrates and in the second part we discuss the physiological function of primitive red cells based mainly on results from mammalian and avian embryos. [source]

    Distribution and structure of the initial dental enamel formed in incisors of young wild-type and Tabby mice

    Amer Sehic
    Mouse incisor enamel can be divided into four layers: an inner prism-free layer; an inner enamel with prism decussation; outer enamel with parallel prisms; and a superficial prism-free layer. We wanted to study how this complex structural organization is established in the very first enamel formed in wild-type mice and also in Tabby mice where enamel coverage varies considerably. Unworn incisors from young female wild-type and Tabby mice were ground, etched, and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. In both wild-type and Tabby mice, establishment of the enamel structural characteristics in the initially formed enamel proceeded as follows, going from the incisal tip in an apical direction: (i) a zone with prism-free enamel, (ii) a zone with occasional prisms most often inclined incisally, and (iii) a zone where prism decussation was gradually established in the inner enamel. The distribution of enamel in Tabby mice exhibited considerable variability. The sequence of initial enamel formation in mouse incisors mimics development from a primitive (prism-free) structure to an evolved structure. It is suggested that genes controlling enamel distribution are not associated with genes controlling enamel structure. The control of ameloblast configuration, life span, organization in transverse rows, and movement is important for establishing the characteristic mature pattern of mouse incisor enamel. [source]

    Rudabánya: A late miocene subtropical swamp deposit with evidence of the origin of the African apes and humans

    László Kordos
    Abstract Rudabánya, a rich late Miocene fossil site in northern central Hungary, has yielded an abundant record of fossil primates, including the primitive catarrhine Anapithecus and the early great ape Dryopithecus. While the affinities of Anapithecus are not clear, Dryopithecus is clearly a great ape sharing numerous characteristics of its dental, cranial and postcranial anatomy with living great apes. Like all Miocene hominids (great apes and humans), Dryopithecus is more primitive in a number of ways than any living hominid, which is probably related to the passage of time since the divergence of the various lineages of living hominids, allowing for similar refinements in morphology and adaptation to take place independently. On the other hand, Dryopithecus (and Ouranopithecus) share derived characters with hominines (African apes and humans), and Sivapithecus (and Ankarapithecus) share derived characters with orangutans, thus dating the split between pongines and hominines to a time before the evolution of these fossil great apes. Pongines and hominines follow similar fates in the late Miocene, the pongines moving south into Southeast Asia from southern or eastern Asia and the hominines moving south into East Africa from the Mediterranean region, between 6 to 9 Ma. [source]

    Evidence for plant viruses in the region of Argentina Islands, Antarctica

    Valery Polischuk
    Abstract This work focused on the assessment of plant virus occurrence among primitive and higher plants in the Antarctic region. Sampling occurred during two seasons (2004/5 and 2005/6) at the Ukrainian Antarctic Station ,Academician Vernadskiy' positioned on Argentina Islands. Collected plant samples of four moss genera (Polytrichum, Plagiatecium, Sanionia and Barbilophozia) and one higher monocot plant species, Deschampsia antarctica, were further subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test for the presence of common plant viruses. Surprisingly, samples of Barbilophozia and Polytrichum mosses were found to contain antigens of viruses from the genus Tobamovirus, Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, which normally parasitize angiosperms. By contrast, samples of the monocot Deschampsia antarctica were positive for viruses typically infecting dicots: Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus. Serological data for Deschampsia antarctica were supported in part by transmission electron microscopy observations and bioassay results. The results demonstrate comparatively high diversity of plant viruses detected in Antarctica; the results also raise questions of virus specificity and host susceptibility, as the detected viruses normally infect dicotyledonous plants. However, the means of plant virus emergence in the region remain elusive and are discussed. [source]

    Not so old Archaea , the antiquity of biogeochemical processes in the archaeal domain of life

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Since the archaeal domain of life was first recognized, it has often been assumed that Archaea are ancient, and harbor primitive traits. In fact, the names of the major archaeal lineages reflect our assumptions regarding the antiquity of their traits. Ancestral state reconstruction and relaxed molecular clock analyses using newly articulated oxygen age constraints show that although the archaeal domain itself is old, tracing back to the Archean eon, many clades and traits within the domain are not ancient or primitive. Indeed many clades and traits, particularly in the Euryarchaeota, were inferred to be Neoproterozoic or Phanerozoic in age. Both Eury- and Crenarchaeota show increasing metabolic and physiological diversity through time. Early archaeal microbial communities were likely limited to sulfur reduction and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, and were confined to high-temperature geothermal environments. However, after the appearance of atmospheric oxygen, nodes containing a wide variety of traits (sulfate and thiosulfate reduction, sulfur oxidation, sulfide oxidation, aerobic respiration, nitrate reduction, mesophilic methanogenesis in sedimentary environments) appear, first in environments containing terrestrial Crenarchaeota in the Meso/Neoproterozoic followed by environments containing marine Euryarchaeota in the Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic. This provides phylogenetic evidence for increasing complexity in the biogeochemical cycling of C, N, and S through geologic time, likely as a consequence of microbial evolution and the gradual oxygenation of various compartments within the biosphere. This work has implications not only for the large-scale evolution of microbial communities and biogeochemical processes, but also for the interpretation of microbial biosignatures in the ancient rock record. [source]

    Deconstructing helicoplacoids: reinterpreting the most enigmatic Cambrian echinoderms

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3 2005
    James Sprinkle
    Abstract Helicoplacoids, the most enigmatic group of Early Cambrian echinoderms, have a spirally plated, inverted pear- to spindle-shaped theca with numerous interambulacral pleats and a long triradiate ambulacrum. They occur in western Laurentia along with the earliest edrioasteroids and epispire-bearing eocrinoids(?), but unlike these other groups, helicoplacoids do not show pentameral symmetry around a centrally located, upward-facing mouth. It is uncertain where the major body openings were located in helicoplacoids, where new plates were added during thecal growth, and whether helicoplacoids were primitive, pre-pentameral, stem-group echinoderms or derived, relatively specialized forms that had lost several ambulacra. We made highly modified, side-layout, plating diagrams of different helicoplacoid species by cutting the theca apart half-way between the spiraling ambulacra, leaving four to six interambulacral pleats on each side. This deconstructed thecal strip resulted in an elongate sigmoid-shaped plating diagram with a long central single or paired ambulacrum that is interpreted as three ambulacral branches (A down, C and D up) around a central mouth on the side of the theca. The unrolled plating diagram resembles an elongate French curve drawing template with nearly parallel sides, a large or small sigmoidal top (where the theca is rounded and the interambulacral pleats converge), and an open deviated bottom, where the interambulacral pleats turn down to a truncated conical base. The two upward-extending ambulacra are only one to two interambulacral pleats apart, which only slightly increases the plating strip width. New interambulacral plates are added at the summit and base, and interambulacral pleats rarely branch elsewhere. New floor and cover plates are added at the top and bottom distal ambulacral tips. If this plating model is correct, the anus (which has still not been identified) should be located near the thecal summit where the C and D ambulacra end, and all imperforate extraxial plating has apparently been lost from the theca. If upright, spirally pleated helicoplacoids with three ambulacra were derived from attached, domal or pyrgate, pentameral edrioasteroids, numerous changes must have occurred in the thecal shape, number of ambulacra, and interambulacral areas. These changes either occurred gradually in a sequence, or a single major change (spiralled body form?) caused all the others to rapidly follow. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    PRICE: primitive centred schemes for hyperbolic systems

    E. F. Toro
    Abstract We present first- and higher-order non-oscillatory primitive (PRI) centred (CE) numerical schemes for solving systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations written in primitive (or non-conservative) form. Non-conservative systems arise in a variety of fields of application and they are adopted in that form for numerical convenience, or more importantly, because they do not posses a known conservative form; in the latter case there is no option but to apply non-conservative methods. In addition we have chosen a centred, as distinct from upwind, philosophy. This is because the systems we are ultimately interested in (e.g. mud flows, multiphase flows) are exceedingly complicated and the eigenstructure is difficult, or very costly or simply impossible to obtain. We derive six new basic schemes and then we study two ways of extending the most successful of these to produce second-order non-oscillatory methods. We have used the MUSCL-Hancock and the ADER approaches. In the ADER approach we have used two ways of dealing with linear reconstructions so as to avoid spurious oscillations: the ADER TVD scheme and ADER with ENO reconstruction. Extensive numerical experiments suggest that all the schemes are very satisfactory, with the ADER/ENO scheme being perhaps the most promising, first for dealing with source terms and secondly, because higher-order extensions (greater than two) are possible. Work currently in progress includes the application of some of these ideas to solve the mud flow equations. The schemes presented are generic and can be applied to any hyperbolic system in non-conservative form and for which solutions include smooth parts, contact discontinuities and weak shocks. The advantage of the schemes presented over upwind-based methods is simplicity and efficiency, and will be fully realized for hyperbolic systems in which the provision of upwind information is very costly or is not available. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Adaptive secure multicast in wireless networks

    Yiliang Han
    Abstract Secure multicast is one of the majority services in the near future. The frameworks for IP multicast cannot be directly applied in wireless networks. To address the natural issues of wireless multicast and enhance the efficiency, an adaptive secure multicast framework based on a new primitive called multi-recipient generalized signcryption and a multi-recipient generalized signcryption scheme based on the gap Diffie,Hellman problem (MGSC-GDH) are proposed. The key technologies to construct a high-performance adaptive scheme including identification function, randomness reusing are investigated. The framework provides separate or joint encryption and signature functions according to users' identities and requirements transparently, and has the ability to aggregate multiple unicast besides the common multicast service. Therefore, overheads are reduced sharply for multiple functions which are provided with a single primitive. By the precise reduction, the gap-bridge between the security of a base scheme and the corresponding multi-recipient generalized signcryption scheme is built, which is a direct measure to quantify the security. Analysis shows that MGSC-GDH is a semantic secure multi-recipient generalized signcryption scheme and more efficient than other similar schemes in computational and communicational aspects. It is suitable for dynamic environment for rekeying is avoided when membership changes. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tinea imbricata or Tokelau

    Alexandro Bonifaz MB
    Tinea imbricata (TI) or Tokelau is a superficial mycosis caused by Trichophyton concentricum, an anthropophilic dermatophyte. It is endemic in some islands of the South Pacific (Polynesia), South-East Asia, Central and South America, and Mexico, and is most often seen in individuals living in primitive and isolated conditions. The skin lesions are characteristically concentric and lamellar (imbricata: in Latin, tiled) plaques of scale. Predisposing conditions include humidity, inheritance, and immunologic factors. The diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds, supported by skin scrapings and culture. Tokelau is a chronic and highly relapsing disease and, although no first-line treatment exists, best results are obtained with oral griseofulvin and terbinafine and a topical combination of keratolytic ointments, such as Whitfield's. TI is a disease model that allows the correlation of a series of environmental, genetic, immunologic, and therapeutic conditions. [source]

    Two new species of DiaphanosomaFischer, 1850(Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera) from the United States

    Nikolai M. Korovchinsky
    Abstract Two new species of the genus Diaphanosoma,D. oligosetum and D. dorotheae, from Louisiana and North Carolina respectively, are described. The former species has large head with protruding dorsal part, large lanceolate spine on the basipodite's distal outer end, an extremely reduced number of antennal setae, up to six in adult specimens, and unique armament of valve margin. On the whole, it shows the pronounced combination of primitive and specialized morphological traits. D. dorotheae is a member of D. brachyurum species group differing from its other known representatives in presence of a small but very conspicuous spine on the end of proximal segment of antennal exopodite and a variable number of setae (seven or eight) on the distal segment of the branch. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Geological age of the Yokawa Formation of the Kobe Group (Japan) on the basis of terrestrial mammalian fossils

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2007
    Takehisa Tsubamoto
    Abstract The age of the Yokawa Formation of the Cenozoic Kobe Group distributed in Hyogo Prefecture of western Japan based on mammalian fossils is discussed. Two fossil dental specimens of terrestrial mammals discovered from the lowest part of the Yokawa Formation in the Sanda area are described. These two fossils described here are: (i) a right mandibular fragment with p2,m3 of Bothriodon sandaensis sp. nov. (selenodont anthracotheriid artiodactyl), which appears to be the most primitive among the species of the genus; and (ii) right m1,m3 of cf. Hyrachyus sp. (primitive rhinocerotoid perissodactyl). In the lower part of the Yokawa Formation, Zaisanamynodon (amynodontid perissodactyl) was previously reported. The morphology (,evolutionary stage') of B. sandaensis is indicative of the latest Middle to Late Eocene, that of cf. Hyrachyus sp. is indicative of the Early to Middle Eocene, and Zaisanamynodon is indicative of the Late Middle to Late Eocene. Therefore, the fossil mammals of the Yokawa Formation indicate an latest Middle Eocene (ca. 38 Ma) correlation for the lower part of the formation, as a working hypothesis. Although the resolution of the geological age based on these mammalian fossils is relatively low compared to that based on marine index fossils, this result is concordant with the recent radiometric correlation of the lower part of the Yokawa Formation in the Sanda area. [source]

    Functional anatomy of the forelimb in Promegantereon* ogygia (Felidae, Machairodontinae, Smilodontini) from the Late Miocene of Spain and the origins of the sabre-toothed felid model

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 3 2010
    Manuel J. Salesa
    Abstract We examine the functional anatomy of the forelimb in the primitive sabre-toothed cat Promegantereon ogygia in comparison with that of the extant pantherins, other felids and canids. The study reveals that this early machairodontine had already developed strong forelimbs and a short and robust thumb, a combination that probably allowed P. ogygia to exert relatively greater forces than extant pantherins. These features can be clearly related to the evolution of the sabre-toothed cat hunting method, in which the rapid killing of prey was achieved with a precise canine shear-bite to the throat. In this early sabre-toothed cat from the Late Miocene, the strong forelimbs and thumb were adapted to achieve the rapid immobilization of prey, thus decreasing the risk of injury and minimizing energy expenditure. We suggest that these were the major evolutionary pressures that led to the appearance of the sabre-toothed cat model from the primitive forms of the Middle Miocene, rather than the hunting of very large prey, although these adaptations reached their highest development in the more advanced sabre-toothed cats of the Plio-Pleistocene, such as Smilodon and Homotherium. Although having very different body proportions, these later animals developed such extremely powerful forelimbs that they were probably able to capture relatively larger prey than extant pantherins. [source]

    Quantifying temporal bone morphology of great apes and humans: an approach using geometric morphometrics

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 6 2002
    Charles A. Lockwood
    Abstract The hominid temporal bone offers a complex array of morphology that is linked to several different functional systems. Its frequent preservation in the fossil record gives the temporal bone added significance in the study of human evolution, but its morphology has proven difficult to quantify. In this study we use techniques of 3D geometric morphometrics to quantify differences among humans and great apes and discuss the results in a phylogenetic context. Twenty-three landmarks on the ectocranial surface of the temporal bone provide a high level of anatomical detail. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to register (adjust for position, orientation and scale) landmark data from 405 adults representing Homo, Pan, Gorilla and Pongo. Principal components analysis of residuals from the GPA shows that the major source of variation is between humans and apes. Human characteristics such as a coronally orientated petrous axis, a deep mandibular fossa, a projecting mastoid process, and reduced lateral extension of the tympanic element strongly impact the analysis. In phenetic cluster analyses, gorillas and orangutans group together with respect to chimpanzees, and all apes group together with respect to humans. Thus, the analysis contradicts depictions of African apes as a single morphotype. Gorillas and orangutans lack the extensive preglenoid surface of chimpanzees, and their mastoid processes are less medially inflected. These and other characters shared by gorillas and orangutans are probably primitive for the African hominid clade. [source]

    A subpopulation of peritoneal macrophages form capillary-like lumens and branching patterns in vitro

    Mirela Anghelina
    Abstract Objective: We have previously shown that monocytes/macrophages (MC/Mph) influence neovascularization by extracellular matrix degradation, and by direct incorporation into growing microvessels. To date, neither the phenotype of these cells, nor the stages of their capillary-like conversion were sufficiently characterized. Methods: We isolated mouse peritoneal Mph from transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins either ubiquitously, or specifically in the myelocytic lineage. These Mph were embedded in Matrigel which contained fluorescent protease substrates, exposed to an MCP-1 chemotactic gradient, and then examined by confocal microscopy after various intervals. Results: Within 3 hrs after gel embedding, we detected TIMP-1 and MMP-12 dependent proteolysis of the matrix surrounding Mph, mostly in the direction of high concentrations of MCP-1. After 2 days, Mph developed intracellular vacuoles containing degradation product. At 5 days these vacuoles were enlarged and/or fused to generate trans-cellular lumens in approximately 10% of cells or more (depending on animal's genetic background). At this stage, Mph became tubular, and occasionally organized in three-dimensional structures resembling branched microvessels. Conclusion: Isolated mouse peritoneal Mph penetrate Matrigel and form tunnels via a metalloprotease-driven proteolysis and phagocytosis. Following a morphological adjustment driven by occurrence, enlargement and/or fusion process of intracellular vacuoles, similar to that described in bona fide endothelium, a subpopulation of these cells end up by lining a capillary-like lumen in vitro. Thus we show that adult Mph, not only the more primitive ,endothelial progenitors', have functional properties until now considered defining of the endothelial phenotype. [source]

    Embryonic development of Galloisiana yuasai Asahina, with special reference to external morphology (Insecta: Grylloblattodea)

    Toshiki Uchifune
    Abstract The embryogenesis of Grylloblattodea, one of the most primitive of the polyneopteran orders, is described using Galloisiana yuasai with special reference to external morphology. The egg membranes are characterized by an endochorion crossed by numerous vertical aeropyles and a fairly thin vitelline membrane, features shared by Mantophasmatodea. The inner layer formation is of the fault type. Serosal elements in the amnioserosal fold differentiate into hydropylar cells, to function in water absorption together with specialized amniotic structures, i.e., an amniotic strand and a thickened amnion. The germ band is of the short germ type. The germ band immerses deep into the yolk after its full elongation along the egg surface, and in this respect blastokinesis closely resembles that of Mantophasmatodea. The embryological features, i.e., those on egg membranes and blastokinesis, may suggest a closer affinity of Grylloblattodea and Mantophasmatodea. Appendages, ectodermal invaginations, and sternal and pleural sclerites are discussed in the light of serial homology, to provide a new basis for elucidating the insect body plan. Appendages are divided into the proximal coxopodite and distal telopodite, the former being divided further into the subcoxa and coxa. Subcoxal and coxal elements are identified in the mandible as well as in the abdominal appendages. The subcoxa is divided into the epimeron and episternum by the pleural suture in thoracic segments. Likewise, in the abdominal segments the subcoxa is divided into two, although the homologs of the epimeron and episternum are not sclerotized, and in the labial segment the subcoxal derivative or the postmentum is divided into the submentum and mentum. Two coxal endites bulge out from the medial side of the gnathal appendages. The mandibular molar and incisor, maxillary lacinia and galea, and labial glossa and paraglossa are serially homologous with each other. In the thoracic segments the original embryonic sternum or "protosternum" is largely replaced by subcoxal elements, and merely remains as a small anterior presternum and a posterior spinasternum. A major part of the venter is represented by the derivatives of the episternum such as an extensive basisternum, katepisternum, and trochantin and the medial element of the epimeron. The pleuron is derived from the episternal elements or the anepisternum and preepisternum, which bears a spiracle in the mesothorax and metathorax, and the lateral element of the epimeron. The homolog of the preepisternum in the prothorax is the cervical sclerite, but with no spiracle developed. A median ventral invagination arises in the thoracic segments as a spina, and the homolog of the spina develops into the eversible sac in the first abdominal segment. J. Morphol. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Synthetic popularity reflects chemical reactivity

    Bartlomiej Kowalczyk
    Abstract Large and diverse databases of chemical reactions contain statistically significant information about the propensities of molecules to undergo specific chemical transformations. It is shown that this information can be quantified to reflect reaction thermodynamics/kinetics and can be used to construct primitive (yet accurate) reactivity indices from the counts of reported reactions involving molecules/molecular positions of interest. These indices correlate with frontier orbital (FO) populations or Hammett , and , parameters for a range of reactions involving aromatic substrates. These findings suggest that large chemical databases are not only a historical repository of chemical knowledge but also tools with which one can make useful chemical predictions. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Karyotype and cytogeography of the genus Heracleum (Apiaceae) in the Hengduan Mountains

    Xian-Lan DENG
    Abstract In the present study, the karyotypes of 34 populations belonging to 11 species and one variety of Heracleum from the Hengduan Mountains in China were examined. Chromosome numbers and the karyotypes of three species (H. souliei, H. kingdoni, and H. wenchuanense) are reported for the first time, as are the karyotypes of H. moellendorffii and H. henryi (tetraploid). Populations of H. candicans, H. franchetii, and H. kingdoni in the Hengduan Mountains were found to consist of a mixture of diploid and tetraploid plants. Except for four species of Heracleum, namely H. candicans, H. franchetii, H. henryi, and H. kingdoni, which have both diploid and tetraploid karyotypes, all other species of Heracleum are were found to be diploid. All karyotypes were found to belong to the 2A type of Stebbins, with the exception of H. candicans var. obtusifolium, which belongs to 2B, and H. hemsleyanum and H. franchetii (Mt. Dujuan, Daocheng, Sichuan, China), which belong to 1A. There was only a slight difference in the karyotype asymmetry index, which suggests a close kinship for species of Heracleum and that the entire phylogenetic development of Heracleum is relatively primitive. Species that exhibited advanced morphological features were also more advanced in karyotype structure, with the order of karyotype evolution being 1A,2A,2B. This phenomenon indicates that the species distributed in the Hengduan Mountains have not diverged completely and that the Hengduan Mountains are a relatively young and active area for the evolution of Heracleum. Polyploidization in Heracleum may be an important evolutionary mechanisms for some species, generating diversity. The biological attributes, distribution range, and the geological history of the genus have all played a part in accelerating the evolution through polyploidization or aneuploidization. It is known that as the distribution latitude of Heracleum decreases from north to south, the chromosome number, ploidy level, and asymmetry structure appear to increase. In the Hengduan Mountains, these tendencies are also evident. Finally, based on all the available cytogeographic data, we speculate that the more advanced tetraplont or aneuploid species of Heracleum in India may be derived from early diplont species that were distributed in the Caucasus region and Hengduan Mountains. The dispersal of Heracleum was from Eurasia to India, because this correlates with the emergence of the Himalayan Mountains through tectonic movement. Thus, the Hengduan Mountains are not only a center of diversity for Heracleum, but also a center of active speciation in modern times. [source]