Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Primers

  • allele-specific primer
  • appropriate primer
  • cesead ii opaque primer
  • chain reaction primer
  • confronting two-pair primer
  • consensus primer
  • degenerate oligonucleotide primer
  • degenerate primer
  • diagnostic primer
  • fluorescent primer
  • forward primer
  • gene primer
  • gene-specific primer
  • ii opaque primer
  • issr primer
  • microsatellite primer
  • oligonucleotide primer
  • opaque primer
  • pcr primer
  • polymerase chain reaction primer
  • random primer
  • reaction primer
  • reverse primer
  • rrna primer
  • same primer
  • sequence-specific primer
  • species-specific primer
  • specific pcr primer
  • specific primer
  • two-pair primer
  • universal primer

  • Terms modified by Primers

  • primer adhesive
  • primer combination
  • primer design
  • primer extension
  • primer pair
  • primer pair specific
  • primer sequence
  • primer set
  • primer specific
  • primer system
  • primer used

  • Selected Abstracts


    Suzanne M. Budge
    First page of article [source]


    This paper argues that dual economy models deserve a central place in the analysis of growth in developing countries. The paper shows how these models can be used to analyse the output losses associated with factor misallocation, aggregate growth in the presence of factor market distortions, international differences in sectoral productivity and the potential role of increasing returns to scale. Above all, small-scale general equilibrium models can be used to investigate the interactions between growth and labour markets, to shed new light on the origins of pro-poor and labour-intensive growth, and to explore the role of the informal sector. [source]

    A Primer on Topological Persistence

    Herbert Edelsbrunner
    The idea of topological persistence is to look at homological features that persist along a nested sequence of topo-logical spaces. As a typical example, we may take the sequence of sublevel sets of a function. The combinatorial characterization of persistence in terms of pairs of critical values and fast algorithms computing these pairs make this idea practical and useful in dealing with the pervasive phenomenon of noise in geometric and visual data. This talk will 1. recall the relatively short history of persistence and some of its older roots; 2. introduce the concept intuitively while pointing out where algebra is needed to solidify the more difficult steps; 3. discuss a few applications to give a feeling of the potential of the method in dealing with noise and scale. Besides the initial concept, the talk will touch upon recent extensions and their motivation. [source]

    Topical Antibacterial Agents for Wound Care: A Primer

    Candace Thornton Spann MD
    Although often overlooked, topical antibiotic agents play an important role in dermatology. Their many uses include prophylaxis against cutaneous infections, treatment of minor wounds and infections, and elimination of nasal carriage of Stapylococcus aureus. For these indications, they are advantageous over their systemic counterparts because they deliver a higher concentration of medication directly to the desired area and are less frequently implicated in causing bacterial resistance. The ideal topical antibiotic has a broad spectrum of activity, has persistent antibacterial effects, and has minimal toxicity or incidence of allergy. [source]

    Primer and interviews: Gene regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Julie C. Kiefer
    Abstract The animal and plant kingdoms use many of the same molecular tools to build decidedly different multicellular organisms. Learning how plants approach challenges common to both kingdoms can inspire new ways of thinking in the animal biologist. This primer introduces how a weed from the mustard family, Arabidopsis thaliana, has been used to work through developmental problems. It also compares and contrasts gene regulation tools in animals and plants. Accompanying the primer is a discussion of current topics in root development with Arabidopsis researchers Philip N. Benfey, Ph.D., and Kenneth D. Birnbaum, Ph.D. Developmental Dynamics 238:2449,2458, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A Primer of Drug Action: A Comprehensive Guide to the Actions, Uses, and Side Effects of Psychoactive Drugs

    Femke T.A. Buisman-Pijlman

    Adhesive bonding of titanium,aluminum,niobium alloy with nine surface preparations and three self-curing resins

    Hiroaki Yanagida
    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the adhesive performance of metal conditioners when used for bonding between auto-polymerizing methacrylic resins and a titanium alloy. Disk specimens were cast from a titanium,aluminum,niobium (Ti,6Al,7Nb) alloy, air-abraded with alumina, and bonded with 24 combinations of eight metal conditioners (Acryl Bond, ACB; All-Bond 2 Primer B, ABB; Alloy Primer, ALP; Cesead II Opaque Primer, COP; Metafast Bonding Liner, MBL; Metal Primer II, MPII; MR Bond, MRB; Super-Bond liquid, SBL) and three autopolymerizing methacrylic resins (Repairsin, RE; Super-Bond C & B, SB; Tokuso Rebase; TR). Unprimed specimens were used as controls. Shear bond strengths were determined both before and after thermocycling (4,60°C, 20, 000 cycles). The ALP-SB group recorded the greatest post-thermocycling bond strength (21.8 MPa) followed by the COP-SB group (17.8 MPa) and the MPII-SB group. The post-thermocycling bond strengths of the unprimed-SB group and the ALP-RE group were statistically comparable. No significant differences were found among the nine TR resin groups, and these groups showed the lowest bond strength. In conclusion, the use of one of the three conditioners (ALP, COP, and MPII) in combination with the SB resin is recommended for bonding the Ti,6Al,7Nb alloy. [source]

    Adhesive bonding of titanium nitride-plated stainless steel for magnetic attachments

    Yohsuke Taira
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adhesive bonding of resin to titanium nitride ion-plated stainless steel in order for magnetic attachments to survive in the oral environment. Two primers, Cesead II Opaque Primer (CPII) and Metal Primer II (MPII), and one bonding agent, Super-Bond C&B (SB), were used. The surfaces of stainless steel disks were ground and then plated with titanium nitride. After the primer and SB resin were applied, a self-curing resin was bonded to the metal surfaces. Shear bond strengths were determined after 24 h of water storage and after 2,000 thermocycles. Titanium nitride ion-plated stainless steel showed bond strength comparable to the non-plated material. After thermocycling, all specimens of the group no primer/no SB were debonded. The bond strengths of groups CPII/no SB, MPII/no SB and no primer/SB were significantly lower bond strengths than groups CPII/SB and MPII/SB. An appropriate combination of primer and bonding agent should be selected when bonding a magnetic attachment to the denture base. [source]

    Molecular diagnosis of Phytophthora lateralis in trees, water, and foliage baits using multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2001
    L. M. Winton
    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based protocol for detection of Phytophthora lateralis in plant tissues and water is described. Base-pair (bp) deletions in both of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions in P. lateralis were used to design complementary PCR primer sequences that amplify a 738 bp fragment only if P. lateralis DNA is present in the sample. Universal control primers based on conserved sequences of the nuclear ribosomal small subunit are included in a multiplexed reaction, providing an internal check on the procedure. The universal primers amplify an approximately 550 bp fragment that is common to plants, protists, and true fungi. The procedure reliably detects P. lateralis in cedar stem tissues and in roots. Positive reactions were obtained with as few as 200 P. lateralis zoospores in water. Diagnostic moléculaire par PCR multiplex pour détecter Phytophthora lateralis dans les arbres, l'eau et le feuillage utilisé comme piège Un protocole basé sur la PCR est décrit pour détecter Phytophthora lateralis dans les tissus végétaux et l'eau. Des délétions de paires de bases dans chacune des régions ITS de l'ADN ribosomal de P. lateralis ont été utilisées pour définir des amorces de PCR qui n'amplifient un fragment de 738 paires de bases que si l'ADN de P. lateralis est présent dans l'échantillon. Des amorces universelles basées sur des régions conservées de la petite sous-unité de l'ADN ribosomal nucléaire ont été incluses dans une réaction de PCR multiplex, fournissant ainsi un témoin interne de la réaction. Ces amorces universelles amplifient un fragment de 550 pb qui est commun aux plantes, aux protistes et aux champignons vrais. Ce protocole permet la détection de P. lateralis dans les tiges et dans les racines du Chamaecyparis. Des réactions positives ont été obtenues avec seulement 200 zoospores de P. lateralis dans l'eau. Molekulare Diagnose von Phytophthora lateralis in Bäumen, Wasser und als Köder benutzten Blättern mittels Multiplex-PCR Eine auf der PCR beruhende Methode zum Nachweis von Phytophthora lateralis in Pflanzengeweben und Wasser wird beschrieben. Deletionen in den beiden ITS Regionen der ribosomalen DNA von P. lateralis wurden zur Synthese von PCR-Primern ausgenutzt, die ein 738 Basenpaare langes Fragment nur dann amplifizieren, wenn P. lateralis in der Probe vorhanden ist. Universelle Primer, die konservierten Sequenzen der kleinen Unterheit der ribosomalen Kern-DNA entsprechen, wurden als interne Kontrollen in die Multiplex-PCR miteinbezogen. Diese Primer amplifizieren ein ungefähr 550 Basenpaare langes Fragment, das sowohl bei Pflanzen als auch bei Protisten und höheren Pilzen vorkommt. Mit der Methode liess sich P. lateralis im Stamm und in den Wurzeln von Lawsons Scheinzypresse verlässlich nachweisen. Für den Nachweis von P. lateralis im Wasser waren mindestens 200 Zoosporen nötig. [source]

    A Primer of GIS: Fundamental Geographic and Cartographic Concepts , By Francis Harvey

    Marji Puotinen
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A Primer on Multilevel Modeling

    Andrew F. Hayes
    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is growing in use throughout the social sciences. Although daunting from a mathematical perspective, MLM is relatively easy to employ once some basic concepts are understood. In this article, I present a primer on MLM, describing some of these principles and applying them to the analysis of a multilevel data set on doctor,patient communication during medical consultations. [source]

    Microsatellite polymorphism and genetic distances between the dog, red fox and arctic fox

    J. Klukowska
    Summary This study compared polymorphism of nine canine-derived microsatellites (MS) (CPH1, CPH3, CPH6, CPH11, 2004, 2010, 2140, 2168 and 2319) in three species of the family Canidae. The DNA samples of 151 dogs, 53 arctic foxes and 91 red foxes were examined. The canine-derived primers did not amplify two MS (CPH1 and CPH11) in genome samples of the arctic fox. The most polymorphic MS in the studied species was the one named 2319. For majority of the loci mean allele size was higher in the dog than in two fox species. The genetic distances between the species were estimated using three formulas: DS, Da and (,,)2. The estimated distances between both fox species were the smallest, while those between the dog and the arctic fox were the largest. Zusammenfassung Genetische Distanz zwischen Hund, Rotfuchs und arktischen Fuchs auf der Basis von Mikrosatelliten Diese Arbeit vergleicht genetische Polymorphismen an neun vom Hund abgeleiteten Mikrosatelliten (CPH1, CPH3, CPH6, CPH11, 2004, 2010, 2140, 2168 und 2319) in drei Arten der Familie der Canidae. Es wurden DNA-Proben von 151 Hunden, 53 arktischer Füchse und 91 Rotfüchse untersucht. Zwei der vom Hund übertragenen Primer (CPH1 und CPH11) führten zu keiner Amplifikation beim arktischen Fuchs. Die meisten Allele innerhalb der untersuchten Arten zeigte der Mikrosatellit 2319. An den meisten Genorten wurde beim Hund eine größere mittlere Allelgröße beobachtet als bei den beiden Fuchsarten. Die genetische Distanz zwischen den Arten wurde mit den drei Maßen Ds, Da und (,µ)2 geschätzt. Zwischen arktischem Fuchs und Rotfuchs wurde die geringste, zwischen Hund und arktischen Fuchs die größte genetische Distanz, geschätzt. [source]

    HARTL, D. L.: A Primer of Population Genetics.

    Inc. Publishers, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland

    Effects of adhesive systems and luting agents on bonding of fiber posts to root canal dentin

    Francesca Monticelli
    Abstract The study evaluated the influence of different luting materials on the microtensile bond strength of glass fiber posts to root canal dentin. Thirty extracted maxillary premolars were endodontically treated, and the roots were prepared for post cementation using the FRC Postec system (Vivadent). Two luting materials (Multilink, Vivadent and Clearfil Photo Core, Kuraray) were used in combination with three adhesive: Multilink Primer (Vivadent), Clearfil Photo Bond, and Clearfil New Bond (Kuraray). A composite build-up was performed around the root to provide adequate gripping during testing. Specimens were cut to obtain beams with the post in the center and with the radicular dentin overlaid by the composite build-up on each side. Microtensile testing was performed with a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The failure mode was classified under a stereomicroscope and four representative beams of each group were selected for SEM analysis. Bond strength data that were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons tests revealed that adhesive systems, luting materials, and the interaction between these two factors significantly influenced the bond strength results (p < 0.01). Multilink applied with its own adhesive system obtained the best results, while the lowest bond strength was achieved with clearfil photo core in combination with multilink primer. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2006 [source]

    A Primer on Financial Contagion

    Marcello Pericoli
    Abstract., This paper presents a theoretical framework to highlight possible channels for the international transmission of financial shocks. We first review the different definitions and measures of contagion adopted by the literature. We then use a simple multi-country asset pricing model to classify the main elements of the current debate on contagion and provide a stylized account of how a crisis in one country can spread to the world economy. In particular, the model shows how crises can be transmitted across countries, without assuming ad hoc portfolio management rules or market imperfections. Finally, tracking our classification, we survey the results of the empirical literature on contagion. [source]

    Adhesive bonding of super-elastic titanium,nickel alloy castings with a phosphate metal conditioner and an acrylic adhesive

    H. Matsumura
    summary, The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the bonding characteristics of super-elastic titanium,nickel (Ti,Ni) alloy castings. Disk specimens were cast from a Ti,Ni alloy (Ti-50·85Ni mol%) using an arc centrifugal casting machine. High-purity titanium and nickel specimens were also prepared as experimental references. The specimens were air-abraded with alumina, and bonded with an adhesive resin (Super-Bond C & B). A metal conditioner containing a phosphate monomer (Cesead II Opaque Primer) was also used for priming the specimens. Post-thermocycling average bond strengths (MPa) of the primed groups were 41·5 for Ti,Ni, 30·4 for Ti and 19·5 for Ni, whereas those of the unprimed groups were 21·6 for Ti, 19·3 for Ti,Ni and 9·3 for Ni. Application of the phosphate conditioner elevated the bond strengths of all alloy/metals (P < 0·05). X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that nickel was attached to the debonded resin surface of the resin-to-nickel bonded specimen, indicating that corrosion of high-purity nickel occurred at the resin,nickel interface. Durable bonding to super-elastic Ti,Ni alloy castings can be achieved with a combination of a phosphate metal conditioner and a tri- n -butylborane-initiated adhesive resin. [source]

    Adhesive bonding of composite material to cast titanium with varying surface preparations

    H. Yanagida
    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the surface preparation effects of eight metal conditioners and an adhesive system on bonding between a prosthodontic composite material and cast titanium. Eight primers designed for conditioning base metal alloys (Acryl Bond, All-Bond 2 Primer B, Alloy Primer, Cesead II Opaque Primer, Eye Sight Opaque Primer, Metafast Bonding Liner, Metal Primer II, and MR Bond) as well as a surface modification technique (Siloc) were assessed. Disk specimens cast from titanium (T-Alloy H) were either primed with one of the eight primers or treated with the Siloc system, and then bonded with a light-activated composite material (Artglass). Bond durability was evaluated by thermocycling (4 and 60 °C, 1 min each, 20 000 cycles). After thermocycling, two groups either primed with the Cesead II Opaque Primer material or treated with the Siloc system exhibited significantly greater bond strength (20·0 and 19·0 MPa) than the other groups (0·2,12·6 MPa, P < 0·05). These two systems are considered to be useful for improving bonding between the titanium and the composite material tested. [source]

    A Primer on Adoption Law

    ABSTRACT This article surveys major aspects of adoption law encountered by judges, lawyers, and child care professionals. The authors, whose new Children and the Law casebook is already required reading in nearly three dozen law schools, analyze both historical and contemporary materials, and both statutory and case law. [source]

    Problem-Solving Courts: A Brief Primer

    LAW & POLICY, Issue 2 2001
    Greg Berman
    This essay traces the history of problem-solving courts (including drug courts, community courts, domestic violence courts and others), outlines problem-solving principles, and answers a basic set of questions about these new judicial experiments: Why now? What forces have sparked judges and attorneys across the country to innovate? What results have problem-solving courts achieved? And what , if any , trade-offs have been made to accomplish these results? [source]

    INVITED REVIEW: Molecular analysis of predation: a review of best practice for DNA-based approaches

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    R. A. KING
    Abstract Molecular analysis of predation, through polymerase chain reaction amplification of prey remains within the faeces or digestive systems of predators, is a rapidly growing field, impeded by a lack of readily accessible advice on best practice. Here, we review the techniques used to date and provide guidelines accessible to those new to this field or from a different molecular biology background. Optimization begins with field collection, sample preservation, predator dissection and DNA extraction techniques, all designed to ensure good quality, uncontaminated DNA from semidigested samples. The advantages of nuclear vs. mitochondrial DNA as primer targets are reviewed, along with choice of genes and advice on primer design to maximize specificity and detection periods following ingestion of the prey by the predators. Primer and assay optimization are discussed, including cross-amplification tests and calibratory feeding experiments. Once primers have been made, the screening of field samples must guard against (through appropriate controls) cross contamination. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions provide a means of screening for many different species simultaneously. We discuss visualization of amplicons on gels, with and without incorporation of fluorescent primers. In more specialized areas, we examine the utility of temperature and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to examine responses of predators to prey diversity, and review the potential of quantitative polymerase chain reaction systems to quantify predation. Alternative routes by which prey DNA might get into the guts of a predator (scavenging, secondary predation) are highlighted. We look ahead to new technologies, including microarrays and pyrosequencing, which might one day be applied to this field. [source]

    The Daubert Standard, A Primer for Pain Specialists

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 1 2003
    Ronald J. Kulich PhD
    First page of article [source]

    Minimum Reporting Requirements for Proteomics: A MIAPE Primer

    Chris F. Taylor Dr.Article first published online: 9 OCT 200
    Amongst other functions, the Human Proteome Organization's Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO PSI) facilitates the generation by the proteomics community of guidelines that specify the appropriate level of detail to provide when describing the various components of a proteomics experiment. These guidelines are codified as the MIAPE (Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment) specification, the first modules of which are now finalized. This primer describes the structure and scope of MIAPE, places it in context amongst reporting specifications for other domains, briefly discusses related informatics resources and closes by considering the ramifications for the proteomics community. [source]

    Emergency Medicine Clerkship Primer: A Manual for Medical Students

    Kapil Dhingra MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Picturing Theology: A Primer on Early Christian Art

    Lee M. Jefferson
    For the religionist, the benefits of delving into early Christian art are quite tangible. Images from different eras of Christian history elucidate significant developments in the tradition, greatly enhancing the understanding of theological and historical movements. Christian art is a useful and effective medium to shed light on different aspects of Christian history, as students and observers can readily witness and make connections between images and architecture created centuries ago to more contemporary art. The study of Christian art is a truly interdisciplinary endeavor that yields positive results. However, it is important to understand the origins and development of the Christian visual tradition and to review the existing scholarship in the field. Christian art did not arrive ex nihilo; it derived from the rich tapestry of the existing visual language in antiquity which included influences from outside Christianity. In this essay, I will trace the development of early Christian art and demonstrate that Christian images arose from their Greco-Roman environment. The study of early Christian art is useful in recognizing how art and imagery conveyed theological concepts and reflected historical circumstances pertinent to Christian origins. The development of a Christian visual language testifies to the larger human desire to see and witness elements of faith. To ,see' God with the eyes of the spirit, early Christians wanted to see their faith in paint, glass, gold and stone; a desire that is not ,early' or ,modern' but timeless. [source]

    Expanded Genetic Alphabets in the Polymerase Chain Reaction,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 1 2010
    Zunyi Yang Dr.
    Gesäuberte PCR: DNA-Polymerasen wurden entdeckt, die zwei zusätzliche Nucleotid-,Buchstaben" (Z und P) in ein erweitertes DNA-Alphabet einfügen, sodass Polymerasekettenreaktionen (PCR) mit sechs Buchstaben möglich werden. Wenn der Einbau in externe Primer bei einer dreifachen Multiplex-PCR betrachtet wurde, lieferten Primer, die Z und P enthielten, deutlich sauberere Resultate. [source]

    A Primer on Linear Models by MONAHAN, J. F.

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 3 2009
    Muni S. Srivastava
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A Transaction Cost Primer on Farm Organization

    Douglas W. Allen
    Agricultural economists, with their knowledge of farming, are well positioned to take advantage of the fertile ground of economic organization. The transaction cost paradigm is particularly useful in addressing such questions and is outlined in this paper. The overriding theme in the transaction cost approach is that patterns of ownership and contracts are chosen to mitigate transaction costs, which result from attempts to establish and maintain property rights. In agriculture, transaction costs are heavily influenced by Mother Nature. Nature's uncertainty, via weather and pests, leads to moral hazard and seasonal forces impose constraints on production cycles that are not often found in the production of most other commodities. Applications in land contracts, asset control, and business organization are discussed. [source]

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and its application in Alzheimer's disease

    Pravat K. Mandal
    Abstract Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a noninvasive tool to measure the chemical composition of tissues (in vivo) and characterize functional metabolic processes in different parts of the human organs. It provides vital biological information at the molecular level. Combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an integrated MRI/MRS examination provides anatomical structure, pathological function, and biochemical information about a living system. MRS provides a link between the biochemical alterations and the pathophysiology of disease. This article provides a comprehensive description of the MRS technique and its application in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. This review is a primer for students and researchers seeking a firm theoretical understanding of MRS physics as well as its application in clinical AD research. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 30A: 40,64, 2007. [source]

    Primer and interviews: Gene regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Julie C. Kiefer
    Abstract The animal and plant kingdoms use many of the same molecular tools to build decidedly different multicellular organisms. Learning how plants approach challenges common to both kingdoms can inspire new ways of thinking in the animal biologist. This primer introduces how a weed from the mustard family, Arabidopsis thaliana, has been used to work through developmental problems. It also compares and contrasts gene regulation tools in animals and plants. Accompanying the primer is a discussion of current topics in root development with Arabidopsis researchers Philip N. Benfey, Ph.D., and Kenneth D. Birnbaum, Ph.D. Developmental Dynamics 238:2449,2458, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Piloting the zebrafish genome browser

    Anthony DiBiase
    Abstract This correspondence is a primer for the zebrafish research community on zebrafish tracks available in the UCSC Genome Browser at based on Sanger's Zv4 assembly. A primary capability of this facility is comparative informatics between humans (as well as many other model organisms) and zebrafish. The zebrafish genome sequencing project has played important roles in mutant mapping and cloning, and comparative genomic research projects. This easy-to-use genome browser aims to display and download useful genome sequence information for zebrafish mutant mapping and cloning projects. Its user-friendly interface expedites annotation of the zebrafish genome sequence. Developmental Dynamics 235:747,753, 2006. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]