Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Primatol

  • j primatol

  • Selected Abstracts

    Fallback foods and dietary partitioning among Pan and gorilla

    Juichi Yamagiwa
    Abstract Recent findings on the strong preference of gorillas for fruits and the large dietary overlap between sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees has led to a debate over the folivorous/frugivorous dichotomy and resource partitioning. To add insight to these arguments, we analyze the diets of sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees inhabiting the montane forest of Kahuzi-Biega National Park (DRC) using a new definition of fallback foods (Marshall and Wrangham: Int J Primatol 28 [2007] 1219,1235). We determined the preferred fruits of Kahuzi chimpanzees and gorillas from direct feeding observations and fecal analyses conducted over an 8-year period. Although there was extensive overlap in the preferred fruits of these two species, gorillas tended to consume fewer fruits with prolonged availability while chimpanzees consumed fruits with large seasonal fluctuations. Fig fruit was defined as a preferred food of chimpanzees, although it may also play a role as the staple fallback food. Animal foods, such as honey bees and ants, appear to constitute filler fallback foods of chimpanzees. Tool use allows chimpanzees to obtain such high-quality fallback foods during periods of fruit scarcity. Among filler fallback foods, terrestrial herbs may enable chimpanzees to live in small home ranges in the montane forest, whereas the availability of animal foods may permit them to expand their home range in arid areas. Staple fallback foods including barks enable gorillas to form cohesive groups with similar home range across habitats irrespective of fruit abundance. These differences in fallback strategies seem to have shaped different social features between sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees. Am J Phys Anthropol 140:739,750, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Food mechanical properties in three sympatric species of Hapalemur in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar

    Nayuta Yamashita
    Abstract We investigated mechanical dietary properties of sympatric bamboo lemurs, Hapalemur g. griseus, H. aureus, and H. (Prolemur) simus, in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Each lemur species relies on bamboo, though previous behavioral observations found that they specialize on different parts of a common resource (Tan: Int J Primatol 20 1999 547,566; Tan: PhD dissertation 2000 State University of New York, Stony Brook). On the basis of these earlier behavioral ecology studies, we hypothesized that specialization on bamboo is related to differences in mechanical properties of specific parts. We quantified mechanical properties of individual plant parts from the diets of the bamboo lemur species using a portable tester. The diets of the Hapalemur spp. exhibited high levels of mechanical heterogeneity. The lemurs, however, could be segregated based on the most challenging (i.e., mechanically demanding) foods. Giant bamboo culm pith was the toughest and stiffest food eaten, and its sole lemur consumer, H. simus, had the most challenging diet. However, the mechanical dietary properties of H. simus and H. aureus overlapped considerably. In the cases where lemur species converged on the same bamboo part, the size of the part eaten increased with body size. Plant parts that were harvested orally but not necessarily masticated were the most demanding, indicating that food preparation may place significant loads on the masticatory apparatus. Finally, we describe how mechanical properties can influence feeding behavior. The elaborate procurement processes of H. simus feeding on culm pith and H. griseus and H. aureus feeding on young leaf bases are related to the toughnesses of protective coverings and the lemurs' exploitation of mechanical vulnerabilities in these plants. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The range of passive arm circumduction in primates: Do hominoids really have more mobile shoulders?

    Lap Ki Chan
    Abstract Hominoids and lorines are assumed to possess greater shoulder mobility than other primates. This assumption is based on morphological characteristics of the shoulder, rather than on empirical data. However, recent studies have shown that the glenohumeral joint of hominoids is not more mobile than that of other primates (Chan LK. 2007. Glenohumeral mobility in primates. Folia Primatol (Basel) 78(1):1,18), and the thoracic shape of hominoids does not necessarily promote shoulder mobility (Chan LK. 2007. Scapular position in primates. Folia Primatol (Basel) 78(1):19,35). Moreover, lorines differ significantly from hominoids in both these features, thus challenging the assumption that both hominoids and lorines have greater shoulder mobility. The present study aims to test this assumption by collecting empirical data on shoulder mobility in 17 primate species. Passive arm circumduction (a combination of glenohumeral and pectoral girdle movement) was performed on sedated subjects (except humans), and the range measured on the video images of the circumduction. The motion differed among primate species mostly in the craniodorsal directions, the directions most relevant to the animal's ability to brachiate and slow climb. Hylobatids possessed the highest craniodorsal mobility among all primate species studied. However, nonhylobatid hominoids did not have greater craniodorsal mobility than arboreal quadrupedal monkeys, and lorines did not have greater craniodorsal mobility than arboreal quadrupedal prosimians. Nonhylobatid hominoids and lorines had similar craniodorsal mobility, but this was due to a longer clavicle, more dorsal scapula, and lower glenohumeral mobility in the former, and a shorter clavicle, less dorsal scapula, and greater glenohumeral mobility in the latter. This study provides evidence for the reexamination of the brachiation, slow climbing, and vertical climbing hypotheses. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Testing extraction and storage parameters for a fecal hormone method

    David J. Pappano
    Abstract Four experiments were conducted to test different aspects of a "field-friendly" fecal hormone extraction method that utilizes methanol extraction in the field followed by storage on C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. Fecal samples were collected from geladas (Theropithecus gelada) housed at the Bronx Zoo, and the experiments were conducted in a laboratory setting to ensure maximum control. The experiments were designed to either simulate the conditions to which fecal samples are subjected during fieldwork or improve on an existing protocol. The experiments tested the relationship between fecal hormone metabolite preservation/recovery and: (1) the amount of time a sample is stored at ambient temperature; (2) the number of freeze/thaw cycles a sample undergoes; (3) the effectiveness of different extraction solutions; and (4) the effectiveness of different cartridge washes. For each experiment, samples were assayed by radioimmunoassay for fecal glucocorticoid (GC) and testosterone (T) metabolites. Results for each of the experiments were as follows. First, storage at ambient temperature did not affect hormone levels until 4 weeks of storage, with significant increases for both GC and T metabolites at 4 weeks. Second, hormone levels significantly decreased in samples after two freeze/thaw cycles for GCs and six freeze/thaws cycles for T. Third, for both GCs and T, hormone extraction using various methanol solutions was significantly higher than using 100% ethanol. Finally, using a 20% methanol solution to wash cartridges significantly increased GC levels but had no effect on T levels. These results suggest that, when utilizing C18 cartridges for fecal steroid storage, researchers should consider several methodological options to optimize hormone preservation and recovery from fecal samples. Am. J. Primatol. 72:934,941, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mated pairs of owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) exhibit sex differences in response to unfamiliar male and female conspecifics

    Christy K. Wolovich
    Abstract In socially monogamous species, mate-guarding could be a reproductive strategy that benefits both males and females, especially when males contribute to parental care. By actively guarding mates, males may reduce their chances of being cuckolded, whereas females that mate-guard may reduce the likelihood that their mates will desert them or acquire additional mates, and hence limit or reduce paternal care of offspring. Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) are socially monogamous with biparental care of young and, hence, potential beneficiaries of mate-guarding. We presented mated pairs of captive owl monkeys (A. nancymaae) with unfamiliar male and female conspecifics, to determine if either member of the pair exhibits intraspecific aggression toward an intruder or stays close to its mate, behaviors indicative of mate-guarding. Male mates were more responsible for the maintenance of close proximity between mates than females. Male mates also exhibited elevated levels of behavior that signify arousal when presented with a male conspecific. These responses by mated male owl monkeys are consistent with patterns that may help prevent cuckoldry. Am. J. Primatol. 72:942,950, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ape behavior in two alternating environments: comparing exhibit and short-term holding areas

    S.R. Ross
    Abstract In many facilities, primates are voluntarily transferred between different enclosures on a daily basis to facilitate animal husbandry and exhibit maintenance. This procedure is particularly relevant in the management of great apes living in zoos, where the requirements of functional management must be balanced with the desire to maintain enriching and naturalistic exhibit enclosures that benefit ape residents and attract the visiting public. In these settings, examinations of ape behavior and welfare typically focus exclusively on activity in the primary exhibit area. However, physical, social and sensory experiences unique to each area may shape different patterns of behavior. In the current study, zoo-living chimpanzees and gorillas were moved each day from exhibit areas to off-exhibit holding areas for a short duration as a part of regular management procedures. Behavioral data indicated species-specific reactions to the holding area, including increased aggression and self-directed behavior by chimpanzees and increased activity and prosocial behavior among gorilla subjects. Both species showed more feeding-foraging behavior while in the exhibit enclosure. Results suggest that holding areas may not meet all behavior needs of captive great apes and demonstrate the importance of including all components of the captive enclosure in comprehensive analyses of great ape behavior and welfare. Am. J. Primatol. 72:951,959, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The ontogeny of handling hard-to-process food in wild brown capuchins (Cebus apella apella): evidence from foraging on the fruit of Maximiliana maripa

    Noëlle Gunst
    Abstract We examined age-related differences in wild brown capuchins' foraging efficiency and the food-processing behaviors directed toward maripa palm fruit (Maximiliana maripa). A detailed comparison of the different foraging techniques showed that plucking the fruit from the infructescence constituted the main difficulty of this task. Foraging efficiency tended to increase with age, with a threshold at which sufficient strength allowed immatures by the age of three to reach adult-level efficiency. Youngsters spent more time than older individuals browsing the infructescence and pulling the fruit in an attempt to harvest it. Infants tried to compensate for their inability to pluck fruit by adopting alternative strategies but with low payback, such as gnawing unplucked fruit and opportunistically scrounging others' partially processed food. Although around 2 years of age, young capuchins exhibited all of the behaviors used by adults, they did not reach adult-level proficiency at feeding on maripa until about 3 years (older juveniles). We compared this developmental pattern with that of extractive foraging on beetle larvae (Myelobia sp.) hidden in bamboo stalks, a more difficult food for these monkeys [Gunst N, Boinski S, Fragaszy DM. Behaviour 145:195,229, 2008]. For maripa, the challenge was mainly physical (plucking the fruit) once a tree was encountered, whereas for larvae, the challenge was primarily perceptual (locating the hidden larvae). For both foods, capuchins practice for years before achieving adult-level foraging competence, and the timeline is extended for larvae foraging (until 6 years) compared with maripa (3 years). The differing combinations of opportunities and challenges for learning to forage on these different foods illustrate how young generalist foragers (i.e. exploiting a large number of animal and plant species) may compensate for their low efficiency in extractive foraging tasks by showing earlier competence in processing less difficult but nutritious foods, such as maripa fruit. Am. J. Primatol. 72:960,973, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The communicative content of the common marmoset phee call during antiphonal calling

    Cory T. Miller
    Abstract Vocalizations are a dominant means of communication for numerous species, including nonhuman primates. These acoustic signals are encoded with a rich array of information available to signal receivers that can be used to guide species-typical behaviors. In this study, we examined the communicative content of common marmoset phee calls, the species-typical long distance contact call, during antiphonal calling. This call type has a relatively stereotyped acoustic structure, consisting of a series of long tonal pulses. Analyses revealed that calls could be reliably classified based on the individual identity and social group of the caller. Our analyses did not, however, correctly classify phee calls recorded under different social contexts, although differences were evident along individual acoustic parameters. Further tests of antiphonal calling interactions showed that spontaneously produced phee calls differ from antiphonal phee calls in their peak and end frequency, which may be functionally significant. Overall, this study shows that the marmoset phee call has a rich communicative content encoded in its acoustic structure available to conspecifics during antiphonal calling exchanges. Am. J. Primatol. 72:974,980, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Effects of food, proximity, and kinship on social behavior in ringtailed lemurs

    Gena C. Sbeglia
    Abstract Efforts to understand the variation in primate social systems and their underlying interaction patterns have focused on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the socioecological model, food distribution and abundance have been argued to be the primary influences on the social behavior of primate species. We examined the relationship of food resources and two intrinsic factors,kinship and proximity,with patterns of affiliative and agonistic relationships in two semi-free ranging ringtailed lemur, Lemur catta, social groups (N=14) at The Duke Lemur Center in Durham, NC. In analyzing these three factors concurrently within the same system, we attempt to establish their relative power in explaining the characteristics of social relationships. Patterns of affiliation and high-intensity agonism were best explained by kinship. Proximity also explained affiliation but did not explain agonism, which varied considerably between groups. The influence of food on social interactions was highly variable between the two groups and, therefore, did not convincingly account for the social behavior patterns we observed. Finally, different intensities of agonism have different patterns and should be analyzed individually. The variation between social groups makes it difficult for us to conclude that any one factor is primarily and universally responsible for patterns of social behavior in this species. Am. J. Primatol. 72:981,991, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Nutrient transport within and between habitats through seed dispersal processes by woolly monkeys in north-western Amazonia

    Pablo R. Stevenson
    Abstract The contribution of vertebrate animals to nutrient cycling has proven to be important in various ecosystems. However, the role of large bodied primates in nutrient transport in neotropical forests is not well documented. Here, we assess the role of a population of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha lugens) as vectors of nutrient movement through seed dispersal. We estimated total seed biomass transported by the population within and between two habitats (terra firme and flooded forests) at Tinigua Park, Colombia, and quantified potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) content in seeds of 20 plant species from both forests. Overall, the population transported an estimated minimum of 11.5 (±1.2 SD),g of potassium, 13.2 (±0.7),g of phosphorus and 34.3 (±0.1),g nitrogen, within 22.4 (±2.0),kg of seeds ha,1,y,1. Approximately 84% of all nutrients were deposited in the terra firme forest mostly through recycling processes, and also through translocation from the flooded forest. This type of translocation represents an important and high-quality route of transport since abiotic mechanisms do not usually move nutrients upwards, and since chemical tests show that seeds from flooded forests have comparatively higher nutrient contents. The overall contribution to nutrient movement by the population of woolly monkeys is significant because of the large amount of biomass transported, and the high phosphorus content of seeds. As a result, the phosphorus input generated by these monkeys is of the same order of magnitude as other abiotic mechanisms of nutrient transport such as atmospheric deposition and some weathering processes. Our results suggest that via seed dispersal processes, woolly monkey populations can contribute to nutrient movement in tropical forests, and may act as important nutrient input vectors in terra firme forests. Am. J. Primatol. 72:992,1003, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Pattern of maternal circulating CRH in laboratory-housed squirrel and owl monkeys

    M.L. Power
    Abstract The anthropoid primate placenta appears to be unique in producing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Placental CRH is involved in an endocrine circuit key to the production of estrogens during pregnancy. CRH induces cortisol production by the maternal and fetal adrenal glands, leading to further placental CRH production. CRH also stimulates the fetal adrenal glands to produce dehydroepiandrostendione sulfate (DHEAS), which the placenta converts into estrogens. There are at least two patterns of maternal circulating CRH across gestation among anthropoids. Monkeys examined to date (Papio and Callithrix) have an early-to-mid gestational peak of circulating CRH, followed by a steady decline to a plateau level, with a possible rise near parturition. In contrast, humans and great apes have an exponential rise in circulating CRH peaking at parturition. To further document and compare patterns of maternal circulating CRH in anthropoid primates, we collected monthly blood samples from 14 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and ten owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) during pregnancy. CRH immunoreactivity was measured from extracted plasma by using solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Both squirrel and owl monkeys displayed a mid-gestational peak in circulating CRH: days 45,65 of the 152-day gestation for squirrel monkeys (mean±SEM CRH=2,694±276,pg/ml) and days 60,80 of the 133-day gestation for owl monkeys (9,871±974,pg/ml). In squirrel monkeys, circulating CRH declined to 36% of mean peak value by 2 weeks before parturition and then appeared to increase; the best model for circulating CRH over gestation in squirrel monkeys was a cubic function, similar to previous results for baboons and marmosets. In owl monkeys, circulating CRH appeared to reach plateau with no subsequent significant decline approaching parturition, although a cubic function was the best fit. This study provides additional evidence for a mid-gestational peak of maternal circulating CRH in ancestral anthropoids that has been lost in the hominoid lineage. Am. J. Primatol. 72:1004,1012, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Variation in physiological health of diademed sifakas across intact and fragmented forest at Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar

    Mitchell T. Irwin
    Abstract As undisturbed habitat becomes increasingly rare, managers charged with ensuring the survival of endangered primate species must increasingly utilize disturbed and degraded habitats in species survival plans. Yet we have an imperfect understanding of the true long-term viability of primate populations in disturbed habitat, and census data can be misleading because density is not necessarily correlated with habitat quality and population viability in predictable ways. Here we present clinical laboratory data on hematology, serum biochemistry, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, iron analytes, viral serology, and parasitology of diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema), derived from the capture of 26 individuals spanning eight groups and two habitats (undisturbed vs. disturbed and fragmented) at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar. Blood from fragment individuals had significantly lower values for several factors: white blood cell counts, bilirubin, total protein, albumin, calcium, sodium, chloride, manganese, zinc, iron and total iron-binding capacity. Several biochemical variables were higher in immature individuals, probably due to active growth. The large number of interhabitat differences suggests that habitat disturbance has an impact on physiological health within this population, perhaps reflecting dietary stress and/or immunosuppression. These results, combined with previous data showing altered diet, slower juvenile growth, and reduced activity in disturbed forest fragments, suggest that fragment sifakas may be less healthy than continuous forest groups. Finally, Tsinjoarivo sifakas have extremely low blood urea nitrogen (perhaps reflecting protein limitation) and selenium levels relative to other lemurs. Despite their survival and reproduction in the short term in fragments, these sifakas may represent a riskier conservation investment than conspecifics in undisturbed forest, and may be more susceptible to environmental stressors. However, more data on the fitness consequences of these biochemical differences are needed for a better interpretation of their impacts on long-term viability prospects. Am. J. Primatol. Am. J. Primatol. 72:1013,1025, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Variation in dental wear and tooth loss among known-aged, older ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta): a comparison between wild and captive individuals

    Frank P. Cuozzo
    Abstract Tooth wear is generally an age-related phenomenon, often assumed to occur at similar rates within populations of primates and other mammals, and has been suggested as a correlate of reduced offspring survival among wild lemurs. Few long-term wild studies have combined detailed study of primate behavior and ecology with dental analyses. Here, we present data on dental wear and tooth loss in older (>10 years old) wild and captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Among older ring-tailed lemurs at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar (n=6), the percentage of severe dental wear and tooth loss ranges from 6 to 50%. Among these six individuals, the oldest (19 years old) exhibits the second lowest frequency of tooth loss (14%). The majority of captive lemurs at the Indianapolis Zoo (n=7) are older than the oldest BMSR lemur, yet display significantly less overall tooth wear for 19 of 36 tooth positions, with only two individuals exhibiting antemortem tooth loss. Among the captive lemurs, only one lemur (a nearly 29 year old male) has lost more than one tooth. This individual is only missing anterior teeth, in contrast to lemurs at BMSR, where the majority of lost teeth are postcanine teeth associated with processing specific fallback foods. Postcanine teeth also show significantly more overall wear at BMSR than in the captive sample. At BMSR, degree of severe wear and tooth loss varies in same aged, older individuals, likely reflecting differences in microhabitat, and thus the availability and use of different foods. This pattern becomes apparent before "old age," as seen in individuals as young as 7 years. Among the four "older" female lemurs at BMSR, severe wear and/or tooth loss do not predict offspring survival. Am. J. Primatol. 72:1026,1037, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The ethnoprimatological approach in primatology,

    Agustin Fuentes
    Abstract Recent and long-term sympatries between humans and nonhuman primates (hereafter primates) are central to the behavioral ecology, conservation, and evolutionary trajectories of numerous primate species. Ethnoprimatology emphasizes that interconnections between humans and primates should be viewed as more than just disruptions of a "natural" state, and instead anthropogenic contexts must be considered as potential drivers for specific primate behavioral patterns. Rather than focusing solely on the behavior and ecology of the primate species at hand, as in traditional primatology, or on the symbolic meanings and uses of primates, as in socio-cultural anthropology, ethnoprimatology attempts to merge these perspectives into a more integrative approach. As human pressures on environments continue to increase and primate habitats become smaller and more fragmented, the need for a primatology that considers the impact of human attitudes and behavior on all aspects of primate lives and survival is imperative. In this special issue, we present both data-driven examples and more general discussions that describe how ethnoprimatological approaches can be both a contribution to the core theory and practice of primatology and a powerful tool in our goal of conservation action. Am. J. Primatol. 72:841,847, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Macaques in farms and folklore: exploring the human,nonhuman primate interface in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Erin P. Riley
    Abstract The island of Sulawesi is an ecologically diverse and anthropogenically complex region in the Indonesian archipelago; it is home to multiple macaque species and a key locus of human,nonhuman primate interconnections. Here, we review the ethnoprimatology of Sulawesi by exploring two primary domains of the human,macaque interface: overlapping resource use and cultural perceptions of macaques. Crop raiding is the primary form of overlapping resource use. While the raiding of cacao plantations predominates in Central and South Sulawesi, subsistence crops (e.g., sweet potato and maize) are most vulnerable on Buton, Southeast Sulawesi. Despite this overlap levels of conflict are generally low, with farmers showing considerable tolerance. This tolerance can be explained by positive perceptions of the macaques despite their crop raiding behavior, and the finding that in some areas macaques figure prominently in local folklore, hence affording them protection. These findings provide some hope for the future management and conservation of these endemic macaques. Am. J. Primatol. 72:848,854, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Human,nonhuman primate interactions amongst Tikuna people: perceptions and local initiatives for resource management in Amacayacu in the Colombian Amazon

    Hannah E. Parathian
    Abstract This study assesses the impact of hunting on the densities of nonhuman primates in two indigenous Tikuna territories (Mocagua and San Martín), overlapping Amacayacu National Park in the Colombian Amazon. Large-bodied primates were once favored prey by Tikunas, but are now rarely hunted owing to the diminishing primate populations. We evaluate the effect of a hunting ban on woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha) by the residents of Mocagua, using qualitative and quantitative methods. Hunting records showed that from February 2005 to February 2009, a total of 25,142,kg of mammal bushmeat were harvested in Mocagua and San Martín. Primates constituted 345,kg of the total harvest. From 223,kg of large-bodied primates extracted for subsistence purposes, 160,kg were hunted in San Martín and 64,kg in Mocagua. Large-bodied primates made up 70% of the total primate biomass in Mocagua (398,kg/km2) and 22% in San Martín (199,kg/km2). From dietary records, we found bushmeat constituted 30% of protein consumption in Mocagua and 37% in San Martín. Primates were absent in records from Mocagua, and appeared only three times in those from San Martín suggesting inconsistencies with hunting data. Despite its moderate consumption, bushmeat was identified as a highly valued food source during focus group activities. Primate pet-keeping and part utilization were observed in San Martín but not in Mocagua, possibly as a consequence of fewer primates being hunted. We suggest that Mocagua provides an example of how community-based conservation strategies can be achieved, where opportunities for employment in tourism and alternative food sources are available. Am. J. Primatol. 72:855,865, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Local attitudes and perceptions toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii) and other nonhuman primates in northern Sumatra, Indonesia

    Gail Campbell-Smith
    Abstract Human,wildlife conflicts, such as crop-raiding, increase as people expand their agricultural activities into wildlife habitats. Crop-raiding can reduce tolerance toward species that are already threatened, whereas potential dangers posed by conflicts with large-bodied species may also negatively influence local attitudes. Across Asia, wild pigs and primates, such as macaques, tend to be the most commonly reported crop raiders. To date, reports of crop-raiding incidents involving great apes have been less common, but incidents involving orangutans are increasingly emerging in Indonesia. To investigate the interplay of factors that might explain attitudes toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii), focal group discussions and semi-structured interviews were conducted among 822 farmers from 2 contrasting study areas in North Sumatra. The first study area of Batang Serangan is an agroforest system containing isolated orangutans that crop-raid. In contrast, the second area of Sidikalang comprises farmlands bordering extensive primary forest where orangutans are present but not reported to crop-raid. Farmers living in Batang Serangan thought that orangutans were dangerous, irrespective of earlier experience of crop-raiding. Farmers placed orangutans as the third most frequent and fourth most destructive crop pest, after Thomas' leaf monkey (Presbytis thomasi), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Although most (57%) farmers across both study areas were not scared of wildlife species, more than a quarter (28%) of the farmers' feared orangutans. Farmers in Batang Serangan were generally more tolerant toward crop-raiding orangutans, if they did not perceive them to present a physical threat. Most (67%) Batang Serangan farmers said that the local Forestry Department staff should handle crop-raiding orangutans, and most (81%) said that these officials did not care about such problems. Our results suggest that efforts to mitigate human,orangutan conflict may not, per se, change negative perceptions of those who live with the species, because these perceptions are often driven by fear. Am. J. Primatol. 72:866,876, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Exploring cultural drivers for wildlife trade via an ethnoprimatological approach: a case study of slender and slow lorises (Loris and Nycticebus) in South and Southeast Asia

    K.A.I. Nekaris
    Abstract Illegal and unsustainable trade in wildlife is a major conservation challenge. For Asian primates, economic and cultural traditions, and increased forest access mean that trade may have become detrimental for certain species. Slow and slender lorises (Nycticebus and Loris) are primates particularly prevalent in trade, determined until now by focused counts of lorises in regional markets. Here, we use international trade statistics and a participant,observer approach to assess culturally specific drivers for trade in lorises in South and Southeast Asia, to provide a broader context to help mitigate this practice. Analysis of international records for the last 30 years revealed that live animal trade was more prevalent than trade in body parts (slow lorises, 86.4%; slender lorises, 91.4%), with Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand the largest exporters. We then examine drivers of international and domestic trade based on long-term data from 1994,2009 in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and Indonesia. We show that slender lorises are important in Sri Lankan folklore, but their use as pets and for traditional medicine is rare. Trade in Bengal slow and pygmy lorises in Cambodia for use in traditional medicines, a practice with deeply historical roots, is widespread. Despite its own set of myths about the magical and curative properties of lorises, trade in Javan, Bornean, and greater slow lorises in Indonesia is largely for pets. Conservation practices in Asia are often generalized and linked with the region's major religions and economies. We show here that, in the case of wildlife trade, culturally specific patterns are evident among different ethnic groups, even within a country. Revealing such patterns is the foundation for developing conservation management plans for each species. We suggest some participatory methods for each country that may aid in this process. Am. J. Primatol. 72:877,886, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Attacks on local persons by chimpanzees in Bossou, Republic of Guinea: long-term perspectives

    Kimberley J. Hockings
    Abstract Attacks on humans by nonhuman primates are one of the most serious causes of human,primate conflict, and strongly influence people's perceptions and tolerance of nonhuman primates. Despite their importance, systematic and extensive records of such attacks are rare. Here, we report the attacks that occurred on local persons by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Republic of Guinea, from 1995 to 2009. There have been a total of 11 attacks during this period, the majority of which were directed toward children. They varied in their severity, but all were nonfatal. Attacks took place on a road and narrow paths that bordered the forest or in cultivated fields and orchards where opportunities for human,chimpanzee contact are high. Attacks occurred between the months of March and October, coinciding with wild fruit scarcity, increased levels of crop-raiding, and periods of human cultivation with likely increased human usage of paths. Although the families of attack victims felt angry and fearful toward chimpanzees after attacks, some drew on their traditional beliefs to explain why chimpanzees were respected, protected, and could not hurt them, even when attacks occurred. We provide suggestions for reducing future nonhuman primate attacks on humans in an effort to mitigate human,primate conflict situations. Am. J. Primatol. 72:887,896, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers

    Michelle Klailova
    Abstract Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer,silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10,m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10,m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7,m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10,m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day. Am. J. Primatol. 72:897,906, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Chimpanzee responses to researchers in a disturbed forest,farm mosaic at Bulindi, western Uganda

    Matthew R. McLennan
    Abstract We describe the behavior of a previously unstudied community of wild chimpanzees during opportunistic encounters with researchers in an unprotected forest,farm mosaic at Bulindi, Uganda. Data were collected during 115 encounters between May 2006 and January 2008. Individual responses were recorded during the first minute of visual contact. The most common responses were "ignore" for arboreal chimpanzees and "monitor" for terrestrial individuals. Chimpanzees rarely responded with "flight". Adult males were seen disproportionately often relative to adult females, and accounted for 90% of individual responses recorded for terrestrial animals. Entire encounters were also categorized based on the predominant response of the chimpanzee party to researcher proximity. The most frequent encounter type was "ignore" (36%), followed by "monitor" (21%), "intimidation" (18%) and "stealthy retreat" (18%). "Intimidation" encounters occurred when chimpanzees were contacted in dense forest where visibility was low, provoking intense alarm and agitation. Adult males occasionally acted together to repel researchers through aggressive mobbing and pursuit. Chimpanzee behavior during encounters reflects the familiar yet frequently agonistic relationship between apes and local people at Bulindi. The chimpanzees are not hunted but experience high levels of harassment from villagers. Human-directed aggression by chimpanzees may represent a strategy to accommodate regular disruptions to foraging effort arising from competitive encounters with people both in and outside forest. Average encounter duration and proportion of encounters categorized as "ignore" increased over time, whereas "intimidation" encounters decreased, indicating some habituation occurred during the study. Ecotourism aimed at promoting tolerance of wildlife through local revenue generation is one possible strategy for conserving great apes on public or private land. However, the data imply that habituating chimpanzees for viewing-based ecotourism in heavily human-dominated landscapes, such as Bulindi, is ill-advised since a loss of fear of humans could lead to increased negative interactions with local people. Am. J. Primatol. Am. J. Primatol. 72:907,918, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Perceptions of nonhuman primates in human,wildlife conflict scenarios

    Catherine M. Hill
    Abstract Nonhuman primates (referred to as primates in this study) are sometimes revered as gods, abhorred as evil spirits, killed for food because they damage crops, or butchered for sport. Primates' perceived similarity to humans places them in an anomalous position. While some human groups accept the idea that primates "straddle" the human,nonhuman boundary, for others this resemblance is a violation of the human,animal divide. In this study we use two case studies to explore how people's perceptions of primates are often influenced by these animals' apparent similarity to humans, creating expectations, founded within a "human morality" about how primates should interact with people. When animals transgress these social rules, they are measured against the same moral framework as humans. This has implications for how people view and respond to certain kinds of primate behaviors, their willingness to tolerate co-existence with primates and their likely support for primate conservation initiatives. Am. J. Primatol. 72:919,924, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Sharing space: can ethnoprimatology contribute to the survival of nonhuman primates in human-dominated globalized landscapes?

    P.C. Lee
    Abstract The emerging discipline of ethnoprimatology has at its core the construct that humans and nonhuman primates share a planet, an evolutionary history and a "primate perspective" on the world; more simply stated ethnoprimatolgy suggests that humans have perspectives on nonhuman primates which can contribute positively to the primates' enduring survival in our increasingly human-dominated landscapes. Here, I explore whether humans can or do contribute positively to the conservation of nonhuman primates, or whether humanity's impact on, as well as our perceptions of, primates are generally negative. I examine primate,human interactions at the intersection of agriculture with natural habitats as exemplified in several long-term studies, and explore the conservation consequences of these interactions. These interactions are then placed into an ecological-economic perspective assessing the prospects for the survival of primates in a context where humans share their subsistence space and resources with primates. Am. J. Primatol. 72:925,931, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Field primatology of today: current ethical issues

    K.C. MacKinnon
    Abstract As members of professional organizations such as American Society of Primatologists (ASP) and the International Primatological Society (IPS), primatologists must adhere to a set of nonhuman primate-focused principles outlined in resolutions and policy statements on, for example, the ethical treatment of nonhuman primates. Those of us that work in the field must also address issues such as the protection of primate health in the wild and the conservation of wild primate populations. Moreover, we increasingly find ourselves in complex situations where we must balance human and nonhuman primate needs and interests. The selection of commentary pieces in this edition of the American Journal of Primatology originated from presentations given in the symposium, Field Primatology of Today: Navigating the Ethical Landscape, held at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) in September 2009. The goals of that symposium and these resulting commentary pieces are threefold: (1) to revive a discussion of key contemporary ethical issues faced by field primatologists, (2) to highlight the need for centrally placed ethical considerations in various facets of our professional lives, particularly research and teaching, and (3) to consider what a comprehensive ethical code that addresses all of these issues might look like. Am. J. Primatol. 72:749,753, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ethical issues faced by field primatologists: asking the relevant questions

    Linda Marie Fedigan
    Abstract Field primatologists face unusual ethical issues. We study animals rather than people and receive research approval from animal care rather than ethics committees. However, animal care evaluation forms are developed from concerns about laboratory animal research and are based on the "Three R's" for humane treatment of captive experimental subjects (replacement, reduction and refinement), which are only debatably relevant to field research. Scientists who study wild, free-ranging primates in host countries experience many ethical dilemmas seldom dealt with in animal care forms. This paper reviews the ethical issues many field primatologists say they face and how these might be better addressed by animal care forms. The ethical issues arising for field researchers are divided into three categories: "Presence, Protocols and People" and for each the most frequent issues are described. The most commonly mentioned ethical concern arising from our presence in the field is the possibility of disease transmission. Although most primate field studies employ only observational protocols, the practice of habituating our study animals to close human presence is an ethical concern for many since it can lessen the animals' fear of all humans, thereby facilitating undesirable behaviors (e.g., crop-raiding) and rendering them vulnerable to harm. Field primatologists who work in host countries must observe national laws and local traditions. As conservationists, primatologists must often negotiate between the resource needs and cultural practices of local people and the interests of the nonhuman primates. Many say they face more ethical dilemmas arising from human interactions than from research on the animals per se. This review concludes with suggestions for relevant questions to ask on animal care forms, and actions that field primatologists can take to better inform animal care committees about the common ethical issues we experience as well as how to develop guidelines for addressing them. Am. J. Primatol. 72:754,771, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Long-term field studies: positive impacts and unintended consequences

    Karen B. Strier
    Abstract Long-term field studies of wild primates can have far-reaching impacts that transcend their contributions to science. These impacts can benefit not only the study animals, study areas, and local human communities, but they can also have unintended, potentially negative consequences. Examples of some of the positive impacts from the Northern Muriqui Project of Caratinga, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, include contributions to conservation efforts on behalf of this critically endangered species, capacity building through the training of Brazilian students, and employment opportunities for local people through our collaboration with a locally administered NGO that is facilitating ecotourism, education, and reforestation programs. Some concerns about unintended consequences of the research include the effects of our trails and trail traffic on surrounding vegetation and other aspects of the environmental "footprints" that both long-term researchers and short-term visitors may leave. In addition, although precautions against potential health risks from routine exposure to human observers are now standard protocol, little is known about the other ways in which our long-term research presence can affect the primates' experiences or alter their perceptions of their social and ecological environments. Risk analysis, which weighs both the positive and negative impacts can provide useful perspectives for addressing the ethical considerations that can arise during long-term field studies. Am. J. Primatol. 72:772,778, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ethics commentary: subjects of knowledge and control in field primatology

    N.M. Malone
    Abstract Our primate kin are routinely displaced from their habitats, hunted for meat, captured for trade, housed in zoos, made to perform for our entertainment, and used as subjects in biomedical testing. They are also the subjects of research inquiries by field primatologists. In this article, we place primate field studies on a continuum of human and alloprimate relationships as a heuristic device to explore the unifying ethical implications of such inter-relationships, as well as address specific ethical challenges arising from common research protocols "in the field" (e.g. risks associated with habituation, disease transmission, invasive collection of biological samples, etc.). Additionally, we question the widespread deployment of conservation- and/or local economic development-based justifications for field-based primatological pursuits. Informed by decades of combined fieldwork experience in Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, we demonstrate the process by which the adherence to a particular ethical calculus can lead to unregulated and ethically problematic research agendas. In conclusion, we offer several suggestions to consider in the establishment of a formalized code of ethics for field primatology. Am. J. Primatol. 72:779,784, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Putting the community back in community ecology and education: the role of field schools and private reserves in the ethical training of primatologists

    P.A. Garber
    Abstract In 1993 and 1999, with the assistance of a Nicaraguan family, we founded La Suerte Biological Research Station in northeastern Costa Rica and Ometepe Biological Research Station in southern Nicaragua as a privately owned conservation-oriented business. Our goal was to develop a program of sustainable community ecology focused on education, research, and the conservation of primates and tropical forests. In order to accomplish this we developed field courses in which undergraduate and graduate students conduct scientific research, experience local cultures, and learn about conservation. Over 120 of these students have received doctoral degrees or are currently in graduate programs. Four doctoral dissertations, several MA theses, and some 20 scientific articles have been published based on research conducted at our field stations. In order to achieve our long-term goals of preserving the environment, we also needed to engage directly with local communities to address their needs and concerns. To this end, we developed a series of community-based initiatives related to health care, bilingual education, and conservation education using traditional and on-line teaching tools. In this article, we describe our efforts in Costa Rica and Nicaragua teaching conservation-oriented field courses and working with the local human communities. Building upon these experiences, we outline a set of ethical considerations and responsibilities for private reserves, conservation-oriented businesses, NGOs, and conservancies that help integrate members of the local community as stakeholders in conservation. Am. J. Primatol. 72:785,793, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Male mating tactics in spider monkeys: sneaking to compete

    K. Nicole Gibson
    Abstract I investigated the mating system and male mating tactics for a population of wild spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth chamek), to identify the behaviors males used to achieve and maintain access to sexually receptive females, and to examine if some males used more tactics than other males and/or had differential access to females. Results show that the mating system mostly involved scramble competition polygyny and that males used a range of mating tactics and behaviors, previously unreported for spider monkeys. The most unusual feature of spider monkey mating behavior was the secretive nature of copulations,nearly all copulations were clandestine, but a few were in the presence of other group members. Fifteen sexually mature males were observed to copulate 43 times. These data provide the first opportunity to evaluate how female availability influences male,male competition. First, the operational sex ratio was highly skewed toward males because usually only one female was receptive in each community per month. Second, females only mated with a few males in their community in any one mating period, but some females mated over the course of multiple consecutive mating periods, eventually mating with most or all of the males in their community. Across all communities, 9 (21%) of the 43 copulations involved a single male,female partner, 20 (47%) involved four males mating with the same female, and males mated with from one to four different females. Fourteen of the 16 total adult males and 1 subadult male (10 total) copulated. One or two males in each community were successful in monopolizing access to receptive females, and these males did not usually have the highest rates of copulation. In this system, clandestine copulations are one behavioral solution to the complex problem of gaining mating exclusivity and, probably, exercising mate choice. Am. J. Primatol. 72:794,804, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Preliminary evidence of accumulation of stress during translocation in mantled howlers

    M.A. Socorro Aguilar-Cucurachi
    Abstract Translocation,an extensively used conservation tool,is a potentially stressful event, as animals are exposed to multiple stressors and cannot predict or control the changes in their environment. Therefore, it may be expected that during a translocation program stress accumulates and social behavior changes. Here, we present data from a translocation of four adult mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), which was conducted in southern Veracruz (Mexico). We found that stress (measured in fecal corticosterone) increased during translocation, but that the rate of both affiliative and agonistic interactions remained unchanged. Females showed higher levels of corticosterone than males throughout translocation, although no sex differences were observed in social interactions. Our findings provide a preliminary evidence for accumulation of physiological stress during translocation in primates, and may have implications for decisions concerning releasing practices. Am. J. Primatol. 72:805,810, 2010.© 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]