Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Primates

  • anthropoid primate
  • arboreal primate
  • de primate
  • diurnal primate
  • haplorhine primate
  • large-bodied primate
  • neotropical primate
  • new world primate
  • non-human primate
  • nonhuman primate
  • old world primate
  • order primate
  • other primate
  • platyrrhine primate
  • prosimian primate
  • strepsirrhine primate
  • world primate

  • Terms modified by Primates

  • primate behavior
  • primate brain
  • primate conservation
  • primate diet
  • primate diversity
  • primate evolution
  • primate model
  • primate models
  • primate order
  • primate origins
  • primate phylogeny
  • primate population
  • primate recipient
  • primate research center
  • primate species
  • primate studies
  • primate taxa

  • Selected Abstracts


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    J. J. HOOKER
    Abstract:, A new genus and species of omomyid primate, Melaneremia bryanti, is described from the Early Eocene Blackheath Beds of Abbey Wood, London, UK. It shares unique derived characters with the European subfamily Microchoerinae and is its most primitive member. It is nevertheless more derived than the primitive omomyid Teilhardina belgica from the beginning of the European Eocene. Cladistic analysis shows that the Microchoerinae are sister group to a clade comprising subfamilies Omomyinae and Anaptomorphinae, but excluding Teilhardina belgica and T. asiatica, which are stem omomyids. The Mammalian Dispersal Event (MDE), which marks the beginning of the Eocene (55·8 Ma), saw the dispersal of primates, perissodactyls and artiodactyls into the Northern Hemisphere. At this time similar species of Teilhardina lived in Europe, Asia and North America. The Abbey Wood microchoerine lived about 1 million years later. It co-occurs with non-primate species identical or very similar to those that lived in North America. The latter were ground-dwellers, whereas the microchoerine and others that show distinct differences from North American relatives were tree-dwellers. Land-bridges connected North America and Europe via Greenland at the beginning of the Eocene, but 2 million years later these had been severed by submarine rifting. North American species at Abbey Wood indicate that a land connection still remained at c. 55 Ma. However, the forest belt that must have been continuous during the MDE to allow tree-dwellers to disperse between the continents is likely by this time to have been disrupted, perhaps by volcanic eruption. [source]

    Potent and Selective Inhibition of Human Cathepsin K Leads to Inhibition of Bone Resorption In Vivo in a Nonhuman Primate

    George B. Stroup
    Abstract Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease that plays an essential role in osteoclast-mediated degradation of the organic matrix of bone. Knockout of the enzyme in mice, as well as lack of functional enzyme in the human condition pycnodysostosis, results in osteopetrosis. These results suggests that inhibition of the human enzyme may provide protection from bone loss in states of elevated bone turnover, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. To test this theory, we have produced a small molecule inhibitor of human cathepsin K, SB-357114, that potently and selectively inhibits this enzyme (Ki = 0.16 nM). This compound potently inhibited cathepsin activity in situ, in human osteoclasts (inhibitor concentration [IC]50 = 70 nM) as well as bone resorption mediated by human osteoclasts in vitro (IC50 = 29 nM). Using SB-357114, we evaluated the effect of inhibition of cathepsin K on bone resorption in vivo using a nonhuman primate model of postmenopausal bone loss in which the active form of cathepsin K is identical to the human orthologue. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) was used to render cynomolgus monkeys estrogen deficient, which led to an increase in bone turnover. Treatment with SB-357114 (12 mg/kg subcutaneously) resulted in a significant reduction in serum markers of bone resorption relative to untreated controls. The effect was observed 1.5 h after the first dose and was maintained for 24 h. After 5 days of dosing, the reductions in N-terminal telopeptides (NTx) and C-terminal telopeptides (CTx) of type I collagen were 61% and 67%, respectively. A decrease in serum osteocalcin of 22% was also observed. These data show that inhibition of cathepsin K results in a significant reduction of bone resorption in vivo and provide further evidence that this may be a viable approach to the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. [source]

    Spread of a Terrestrial Tradition in an Arboreal Primate

    Fernanda P. Tabacow
    ABSTRACT We present data on the spread of terrestrial activities in one group of wild northern muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles hypoxanthus). Both males and females consumed fruit, drank, rested, traveled, and socialized terrestrially, but proportionately more males spent significantly more of their time on the ground than females, and females were more likely to engage in terrestrial activities when accompanied by males than when by themselves. Terrestrial activities occurred in both open and closed habitats where arboreal substrates were available and utilized by other individuals engaged in similar activities. Ecological and demographic factors may have stimulated the muriquis' vertical niche expansion, but increases in the frequency and diversity of terrestrial activities, the high proportion of group members that engage in terrestriality, and its diffusion along male-biased social bonds are consistent with the development of a local terrestrial tradition similar to other types of traditions described in other primates. [Key words: terrestriality, ecology, predation, tradition] [source]

    Primate remains from African crowned eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus) nests in Ivory Coast's Tai Forest: Implications for primate predation and early hominid taphonomy in South Africa

    W. Scott McGraw
    Abstract Understanding the initial processes of deposition can help with interpretations of fossil assemblages. Here we discuss the taphonomy of primate remains collected under 16 nests of African crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) in the Tai Forest, Ivory Coast. From 1,200 bones collected, including 669 primate bones, we calculated minimum number of individuals (MNI), survivability profiles, and damage profiles using methods identical to those employed by Sanders et al. (2003 J. Hum. Evol. 44:87,105) in their analysis of bones from eagle nests in Uganda. Crowned eagles leave a consistent taphonomic signature on their prey remains; hence, results from our analysis of the Tai assemblage are similar to those from the Ugandan sample. Hindlimb and cranial bones are relatively abundant in the sample, while ribs, vertebrae, carpals, and tarsals do not survive well. Primate crania typically display puncture marks around the eye, long bones remain largely intact, and scapulae exhibit raked breakage. These data have implications for understanding the dynamic between extant primates and one of their principle predators, as well as the taphonomy of hominid-bearing caves in South Africa. We concur with Berger and Clarke (1995 J. Hum. Evol. 29:275,299) that a large raptor could have been responsible for the death of the Taung child, Australopithecus africanus. Am J Phys Anthropol 131:151,165, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Need to Rationalize and Prioritize Threatening Processes Used to Determine Threat Status in the IUCN Red List

    carnivora; competencia; estatus de conservación; procesos amenazantes Abstract:,Thorough evaluation has made the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List the most widely used and accepted authority on the conservation status of biodiversity. Although the system used to determine risk of extinction is rigorously and objectively applied, the list of threatening processes affecting a species is far more subjectively determined and has not had adequate review. I reviewed the threats listed in the IUCN Red List for randomly selected groups within the three most threatened orders of mammals: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, and Primates. These groups are taxonomically related and often ecologically similar, so I expected they would suffer relatively similar threats. Hominoid primates and all other terrestrial fauna faced similar threats, except for bovine artiodactyls and large, predatory carnivores, which faced significantly different threats. Although the status of bovines and hominoids and the number of threats affecting them were correlated, this was not the case for large carnivores. Most notable, however, was the great variation in the threats affecting individual members of each group. For example, the endangered European bison (Bison bonasus) has no threatening processes listed for it, and the lion (Panthera leo) is the only large predator listed as threatened with extinction by civil war. Some threatening processes appear spurious for the conservation of the species, whereas other seemingly important factors are not recorded as threats. The subjective nature of listing threatening processes, via expert opinion, results in substantial biases that may be allayed by independent peer review, use of technical manuals, consensus among multiple assessors, incorporation of probability modeling via decision-tree analysis, and adequate coordination among evaluators. The primary focus should be on species-level threats rather than population-level threats because the IUCN Red List is a global assessment and smaller-scale threats are more appropriate for national status assessments. Until conservationists agree on the threats affecting species and their relative importance, conservation action and success will be hampered by scattering scarce resources too widely and often by implementing conflicting strategies. Resumen:,La evaluación exhaustiva ha hecho que la Lista Roja de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN) sea la autoridad más aceptada y ampliamente utilizada respecto al estatus de conservación de la biodiversidad. Aunque el sistema utilizado para determinar el riesgo de extinción es aplicado rigurosa y objetivamente, la lista de procesos amenazantes que afectan a las especies es determinado muy subjetivamente y no es revisado adecuadamente. Revisé las amenazas consideradas en la Lista Roja UICN para grupos seleccionados aleatoriamente en los tres órdenes de mamíferos más amenazados: Artyodactila, Carnivora y Primates. Estos grupos están relacionados taxonómicamente y a menudo son ecológicamente similares, así que esperaba que tuvieran amenazas relativamente similares. Los primates homínidos y toda la demás fauna terrestre enfrentan amenazas similares, excepto por los bovinos artiodáctilos y los carnívoros depredadores mayores, que enfrentan amenazas significativamente diferentes. Aunque el estatus de los bovinos y homínidos y el número de amenazas que los afectan estuvieron correlacionados, este no fue el caso para los carnívoros mayores. Sin embargo, lo más notable fue la gran variación en las amenazas que afectan a miembros individuales de cada grupo. Por ejemplo, no hay procesos amenazantes enlistados para el bisonte europeo (Bison bonasus), y el león (Panthera leo) es el único depredador mayor enlistado como amenazado de extinción por la guerra civil. Algunos procesos amenazantes parecen espurios para la conservación de las especies, mientras que otros factores aparentemente importantes no están registrados como amenazas. La naturaleza subjetiva de los procesos de enlistado, por medio de la opinión de expertos, resulta en sesgos sustanciales que pueden disiparse por la revisión independiente por pares, el uso de manuales técnicos, el consenso de múltiples asesores, la incorporación del modelado probabilístico mediante análisis de árboles de decisión y la adecuada coordinación entre evaluadores. El enfoque principal debería ser sobre amenazas a nivel de especies en lugar de amenazas a nivel de poblaciones porque la Lista Roja UICN es una evaluación global y las amenazas a menor escala son más apropiadas para evaluaciones nacionales de estatus. Hasta que los conservacionistas estén de acuerdo sobre las amenazas que afectan a las especies y su importancia relativa, las acciones de conservación y su éxito estarán obstaculizados por la dispersión demasiado amplia de recursos limitados y a menudo por la implementación de estrategias contrapuestas. [source]

    Ecological niche modelling as a technique for assessing threats and setting conservation priorities for Asian slow lorises (Primates: Nycticebus)

    J. S. Thorn
    ABSTRACT Aim, Data on geographical ranges are essential when defining the conservation status of a species, and in evaluating levels of human disturbance. Where locality data are deficient, presence-only ecological niche modelling (ENM) can provide insights into a species' potential distribution, and can aid in conservation planning. Presence-only ENM is especially important for rare, cryptic and nocturnal species, where absence is difficult to define. Here we applied ENM to carry out an anthropogenic risk assessment and set conservation priorities for three threatened species of Asian slow loris (Primates: Nycticebus). Location, Borneo, Java and Sumatra, Southeast Asia. Methods, Distribution models were built using maximum entropy (MaxEnt) ENM. We input 20 environmental variables comprising temperature, precipitation and altitude, along with species locality data. We clipped predicted distributions to forest cover and altitudinal data to generate remnant distributions. These were then applied to protected area (PA) and human land-use data, using specific criteria to define low-, medium- or high-risk areas. These data were analysed to pinpoint priority study sites, suitable reintroduction zones and protected area extensions. Results, A jackknife validation method indicated highly significant models for all three species with small sample sizes (n = 10 to 23 occurrences). The distribution models represented high habitat suitability within each species' geographical range. High-risk areas were most prevalent for the Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus) on Java, with the highest proportion of low-risk areas for the Bornean slow loris (N. menagensis) on Borneo. Eighteen PA extensions and 23 priority survey sites were identified across the study region. Main conclusions, Discriminating areas of high habitat suitability lays the foundations for planning field studies and conservation initiatives. This study highlights potential reintroduction zones that will minimize anthropogenic threats to animals that are released. These data reiterate the conclusion of previous research, showing MaxEnt is a viable technique for modelling species distributions with small sample sizes. [source]

    Effects of Pair-Bond and Social Context on Male,Female Interactions in Captive Titi Monkeys (Callicebus moloch, Primates: Cebidae)

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 12 2000
    Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
    In monogamous species, an abiding relationship between a specific adult male and a specific adult female is a defining feature of the social system. The interactions between these individuals are influenced by many factors, including not only the history of their relationship (for example, development of a mutual bond), but also the immediate effects of the prevailing social context (for example, presence and sex of extra-pair conspecifics). In this study we examined the effects of an existing bond and of social context on interactions between adult heterosexual pairs of the monogamous titi monkeys (Callicebus moloch). Twelve adult males and 12 adult females were tested with their cagemates and with an unfamiliar partner of the opposite sex in five social contexts: (1) mated male,female pair; (2) unfamiliar pair; (3) single female; (4) single male; and (5) empty stimulus cage. Results show that mated pairs were more affiliative than unfamiliar pairs and differentiated social contexts more sharply. Males were more responsive to context than females. Distance between mates was less and physical contact was more frequent in the presence of male,female pairs or a single male, than in the presence of a single female or an empty cage. These findings suggest that the presence and sex of strangers have a stronger influence on male,female interactions when the pair has an existing relationship. [source]

    Evolution of the nose and nasal skeleton in primates

    Timothy D. Smith
    Abstract One traditional diagnostic feature of the Order Primates is a decreased emphasis on olfaction.1, 2 Some authors attribute this feature only to tarsiers and anthropoids, either through convergence or as a common feature of haplorhines.2,4 Other authors de-emphasize olfaction relative to vision,5,7 which does not necessarily denote olfactory reduction per se. There are lengthy roots to this discussion. The importance of the sense of smell to at least some primates, humans in particular, has long been viewed as secondary to the importance of visual, auditory, and tactile senses. Smell, or olfaction, is viewed as the primitive special sense, the stimuli perceived in an unconscious manner, submerged relative to higher neural functions,1 and a sense that has been increasingly reduced during the course of primate evolution.1,8 Anatomical structures related to olfaction differ profoundly in proportions and complexity between higher taxonomic groups of primates (Haplorhini, Strepsirrhini). These anatomical differences are beyond dispute (Box 1). However, the relationship between the anatomical differences and primate sensory abilities, and hence the validity of using them to group primates into "microsmatic" or "macrosmatic" categories,9, 10 is less clear when we examine the physiological and genetic data on primate olfaction. [source]

    Conservation in Fragments, Behavioral Plasticity, and the Use of Tools in Neotropical Primates

    Martin M. Kowalewski
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Geographical and taxonomic influences on cranial variation in red colobus monkeys (Primates, Colobinae): introducing a new approach to ,morph' monkeys

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Andrea Cardini
    ABSTRACT Aim, To provide accurate but parsimonious quantitative descriptions of clines in cranial form of red colobus, to partition morphological variance into geographical, taxonomic and structured taxonomic components, and to visually summarize clines in multivariate shape data using a method which produces results directly comparable to both univariate studies of geographical variation and standard geometric morphometric visualization of shape differences along vectors. Location, Equatorial Africa. Methods, Sixty-four three-dimensional cranial landmarks were measured on 276 adult red colobus monkeys sampled over their entire distribution. Geometric morphometric methods were applied, and size and shape variables regressed onto geographical coordinates using linear and curvilinear models. Model selection was done using the second-order Akaike information criterion. Components of variation related to geography, taxon or their combined effect were partitioned using partial regresssion. Multivariate trends in clinal shape were summarized using principal components of predictions from regressions, plotting vector scores on maps as for univariate size, and visualizing differences along main axes of clinal shape variation using surface rendering. Results, Significant clinal variation was found in size and shape. Clines were similar in females and males. Trend surface analysis tended to be more accurate and parsimonious than alternative models in predicting morphology based on geography. Cranial form was relatively paedomorphic in East Africa and peramorphic in central Africa. Most taxonomic variation was geographically structured. However, taxonomic differences alone accounted for a larger proportion of total explained variance in shape (up to 40%) than in size (, 20%). Main conclusions, A strong cline explained most of the observed size variation and a significant part of the shape differences of red colobus crania. The pattern of geographical variation was largely similar to that previously reported in vervets, despite different habitat preferences (arboreal versus terrestrial) and a long period since divergence (c. 14,15 Myr). This suggests that some aspects of morphological divergence in both groups may have been influenced by similar environmental, geographical and historical factors. Cranial size is likely to be evolutionarily more labile and thus better reflects the influence of recent environmental changes. Cranial shape could be more resilient to change and thus better reflects phylogenetically informative differences. [source]

    Body size, biomic specialization and range size of African large mammals

    Manuel Hernández Fernández
    Abstract Aim, The goal of this paper is to examine the relationships between body size, biomic specialization and range size in the African large mammals, which are defined as all the African species corresponding to the orders Primates, Carnivora, Proboscidea, Perissodactyla, Hyracoidea, Tubulidentata, Artiodactyla and Pholidota. Location, The study used the large mammal assemblage from Africa. Methods, The degree of biomic specialization of African large mammals is investigated using the biomic specialization index (BSI) for each mammal species, based on the number of biomes it inhabits. Range size for each species is measured as the latitudinal extent of the geographical distribution of the species. We have analysed our data using both conventional cross-species analyses and phylogenetically independent contrasts. Results, There is a polygonal relationship between species biomic specialization and body size. While small and large species are biomic specialists, medium-sized species are distributed along the whole range of biomic specialization. The latitudinal extent,body size relationship is approximately triangular. Small-bodied species may have either large or small ranges, whereas large-bodied ones have only large ranges. A positive correlation between latitudinal extent and biomic specialization is evident, although their relationship is better described as triangular. Main conclusions, We found a polygonal relationship between species biomic specialization and body size, which agrees with previous arguments that small-bodied species have more limited dispersal and, therefore, they may come to occupy a lesser proportion of their potential inhabitable biomes. On the other hand, large-bodied species are constrained to inhabit biomes with a high productivity. A polygonal relationship between species latitudinal extent and body size in African large mammals agrees with previous studies of the relationship between range size and body size in other continents. The independent study of the macroecological pattern in biomic specialization highlights different factors that influence the body size,range size relationship. Although body size is usually implicated as a correlate of both specialization and geographical range size in large mammals, much of the variation in these variables cannot be attributed to size differences but to biome specific factors such as productivity, area, history, etc. [source]

    The distribution,abundance (density) relationship: its form and causes in a tropical mammal order, Primates

    A. H. Harcourt
    Abstract Aim, Across a wide variety of organisms, taxa with high local densities (abundance) have large geographical ranges (distributions). We use primatology's detailed knowledge of its taxon to investigate the form and causes of the relationship in, unusually for macroecological analysis, a tropical taxon. Location, Africa, Central and South America, Asia, Madagascar. Methods, To investigate the form of the density,range relationship, we regressed local density on geographical range size, and also on female body mass, because in the Primates, density correlates strongly with mass. To investigate the biological causes of the relationship, we related (1) abundance (density × range size) and (2) residuals from the density,range regression lines to various measures of (i) resource use, (ii) reproductive rate and (iii) potential specialization. All data are from the literature. Analyses were done at the level of species (n = 140), genera (n = 60) and families/subfamilies (n = 17). We present various levels of results, including for all data, after omission of outlier data, after correction for phylogenetic dependence, and after Bonferroni correction of probabilities for multiple comparisons. Results, Regarding the form of the relationship, Madagascar primates are clear outliers (high densities in small ranges). Among the remaining three realms, the relation of density to range is weak or non-existent at the level of species and genera. However, it is strong, tight and linear at the level of families/subfamilies (r2 = 0.6, F1,10 = 19, P < 0.01). Although among primates, density is very significantly related to mass, at no taxonomic level is range size related to body mass. Consequently, removing the effects of mass makes little to no difference to density,range results. Regarding the biology of the relationship, only traits indicative of specialization are associated with abundance (meaning numbers): rare taxa are more specialized than are abundant taxa. The association is largely via range size, not density. Across families, no traits correlate significantly with the density,range relationship, nor with deviations from it, despite the strength of the relationship at this taxonomic level. Main conclusions, We suggest that in macroecology, analysis at taxonomic levels deeper than that of the relatively ephemeral species can be appropriate. We argue that the several purely methodological explanations for the positive density,range size relationship in primates can be rejected. Of the various biological hypotheses, those having to do with specialization,generalization seem the only applicable ones. The fact that the relationship is entirely via range size, not via density, means that while we might have a biology of range size, we do not yet have one of the density,geographical range relationship. It is probably time to search for multivariate explanations, rather than univariate ones. However, we can for the first time, for at least primates, suggest that any association of abundance or range size with specialization is via the number of different subtaxa, not the average degree of specialization of each subtaxon. The implication for conservation is obvious. [source]

    Attack or consumption of Epomophorus (Chiroptera) by Paraxerus (Rodentia) and Papio (Primates) in Tanzania

    William T. Stanley
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Comparative analysis of masseter fiber architecture in tree-gouging (Callithrix jacchus) and nongouging (Saguinus oedipus) callitrichids

    Andrea B. Taylor
    Abstract Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) (Callitrichidae, Primates) share a broadly similar diet of fruits, insects, and tree exudates. Common marmosets, however, differ from tamarins by actively gouging trees with their anterior teeth to elicit tree exudate flow. During tree gouging, marmosets produce relatively large jaw gapes, but do not necessarily produce relatively large bite forces at the anterior teeth. We compared the fiber architecture of the masseter muscle in tree-gouging Callithrix jacchus (n = 10) to nongouging Saguinus oedipus (n = 8) to determine whether the marmoset masseter facilitates producing these large gapes during tree gouging. We predict that the marmoset masseter has relatively longer fibers and, hence, greater potential muscle excursion (i.e., a greater range of motion through increased muscle stretch). Conversely, because of the expected trade-off between excursion and force production in muscle architecture, we predict that the cotton-top tamarin masseter has more pinnate fibers and increased physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) as compared to common marmosets. Likewise, the S. oedipus masseter is predicted to have a greater proportion of tendon relative to muscle fiber as compared to the common marmoset masseter. Common marmosets have absolutely and relatively longer masseter fibers than cotton-top tamarins. Given that fiber length is directly proportional to muscle excursion and by extension contraction velocity, this result suggests that marmosets have masseters designed for relatively greater stretching and, hence, larger gapes. Conversely, the cotton-top tamarin masseter has a greater angle of pinnation (but not significantly so), larger PCSA, and higher proportion of tendon. The significantly larger PCSA in the tamarin masseter suggests that their masseter has relatively greater force production capabilities as compared to marmosets. Collectively, these results suggest that the fiber architecture of the common marmoset masseter is part of a suite of features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitates the production of relatively large gapes during tree gouging. J. Morphol. 261:276,285, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Recent Discoveries on the Control of Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Neurones in Nonhuman Primates

    E. Terasawa
    Since Ernst Knobil proposed the concept of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse-generator in the monkey hypothalamus three decades ago, we have made significant progress in this research area with cellular and molecular approaches. First, an increase in pulsatile GnRH release triggers the onset of puberty. However, the question of what triggers the pubertal increase in GnRH is still unclear. GnRH neurones are already mature before puberty but GnRH release is suppressed by a tonic GABA inhibition. Our recent work indicates that blocking endogenous GABA inhibition with the GABAA receptor blocker, bicuculline, dramatically increases kisspeptin release, which plays an important role in the pubertal increase in GnRH release. Thus, an interplay between the GABA, kisspeptin, and GnRH neuronal systems appears to trigger puberty. Second, cultured GnRH neurones derived from the olfactory placode of monkey embryos exhibit synchronised intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i, oscillations and release GnRH in pulses at approximately 60-min intervals after 14 days in vitro (div). During the first 14 div, GnRH neurones undergo maturational changes from no [Ca2+]i oscillations and little GnRH release to the fully functional state. Recent work also shows GnRH mRNA expression increases during in vitro maturation. This mRNA increase coincides with significant demethylation of a CpG island in the GnRH 5,-promoter region. This suggests that epigenetic differentiation occurs during GnRH neuronal maturation. Third, oestradiol causes rapid, direct, excitatory action in GnRH neurones and this action of oestradiol appears to be mediated through a membrane receptor, such as G-protein coupled receptor 30. [source]

    The Effects of Ethanol Consumption on Vasculogenesis Potential in Nonhuman Primates

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2008
    J. Koudy Williams
    Background:, Vasculogenesis is essential to the preservation and repair of damaged or diseased vessels. Alcohol is the most commonly abused drug among young adults, but its effects on vessel growth and repair are unknown. The basis of vascular repair is endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) recruitment to assist in the formation of new vascular network (vasculogenesis). Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the effects of ethanol consumption on the production, mobilization and vasculogenesis potential EPCs in nonhuman primates. Methods:, Four to five year-old (young adult) male rhesus monkeys consumed monkey chow and water (Control, n = 7), or chow and water + ethanol (Alcohol, 2.45 g/d, n = 7) for 12 months. Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples were collected for fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis of cell surface antigens (CD45, CD31, CD44, CD133, VEGF-R2 , or KDR); and for capillary formation on Matrigel-coated plates. Results:, There were greater numbers of nonhematopoeitic stromal cells (CD45,) and putative mesenchymal progenitor cells (CD45,/CD44+) in the PB and BM of Alcohol versus Control monkeys (p < 0.05). Additionally, there were greater numbers of EPCs (CD45,/CD133+/KDR+) in the BM and PB of Alcohol versus Control monkeys (p < 0.05). However, the EPCs of Alcohol monkeys were less likely to form capillaries on matrigel-coated plates than Control monkeys (p < 0.05). Conclusions:, Ethanol consumption in monkeys markedly increased the production and mobilization of EPCs, but decreased their ability to form capillaries. The pathophysiologic consequences of such effects are unclear, but may represent an ethanol-induced chronic stress on the BM, resulting in EPC. [source]

    Primates in traditional folk medicine: a world overview

    MAMMAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2010
    Rômulo R. N. ALVES
    ABSTRACT 1Almost 50% of primate species are in danger of becoming extinct, according to the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. This is partly because of their consumption by humans. The reasons for hunting vary by region. One pretext is the medicinal or magical value of products derived from these animals. 2In this paper, we provide an overview of the global use of primates in traditional folk medicines as well as identifying the species used as remedies associated with folk beliefs. Some important questions relating to the conservation of primates are addressed. 3Our results revealed that at least 101 species of primates, which belong to 38 genera and 10 families, were used in traditional folk practices and in magic,religious rituals throughout the world. 4Of the 101 species of primates recorded in our review, 12 species were classified as Critically Endangered, 23 as Endangered, 22 as Vulnerable, seven as Near Threatened, 36 as Least Concern and one as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List. All species were also included in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Appendices I or II, although the reasons for their inclusion were not necessarily related to their medicinal use. 5The widespread utilization of primates in traditional medicine is evidence of the importance of understanding such uses in the context of primate conservation as well as the need for considering socio-cultural factors when establishing management plans concerning the sustainable use of these mammals. [source]

    Rhesus monkey model for Leishmania major transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi sandfly bites

    R. J. Probst
    Summary Leishmaniasis research needs a near-human model for investigations of natural infection processes, immunological responses and evaluation of treatments. Therefore, we developed a reproducible system using Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor (Trypanosomatidae: Kinetoplastida), the cause of Old World zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), transmitted to rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta (Zimmerman) (Primates: Cercopithecidae) by sandfly bites of experimentally infected Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae). Eight monkeys of presumed Indian origin (Leishmania naïve) were exposed to bites of female sandflies that had been infected with L. major by membrane-feeding on human blood seeded with amastigotes isolated from hamster footpad lesions. Infection rates of membrane-fed sandflies averaged >,85% seven days after the infective feed, with uniformly high numbers of promastigotes in the stomodaeal valve region of the sandfly gut. Nodules and ulcerating dermal lesions developed on 7/8 monkeys 2,4 weeks post-bite and persisted for 3,7 months. Monkeys also developed satellite lesions beyond the area of sandfly bites on the head, but not on the chest. Three re-challenged monkeys developed lesions that healed faster than lesions from their primary challenges. After infection, monkeys developed delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to a panel of Leishmania skin test antigens (LSTA) and, when tested by ELISA and IFA, showed significant post-infection antibody titres which typically rose for ,170 days and then gradually receded during the next 100 days following the first challenge. After the second challenge, antibody titres spiked higher within ,50 days and receded more rapidly. In contrast, four rhesus macaques of Chinese origin developed no lesions following infected sandfly bites, although they raised antibodies and LSTA reactions, indicating subclinical infection. [source]

    Microsatellite markers for woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) and their amplification in other New World primates (Primates: Platyrrhini)

    Anthony Di Fiore
    Abstract Seven polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified for woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) from an ,enriched' genomic library. For a wild population of 66 animals, these markers averaged over 10 alleles per locus and provided a combined probability for excluding a random individual from parentage of over 98%. These loci were screened in up to 13 other genera of New World monkeys, and many were variable in multiple taxa. Few other platyrrhine-specific microsatellite markers have been identified; thus, these loci should prove valuable for studying the population genetic structure and mating system not just of Lagothrix but also of other neotropical primates. [source]

    Kinship and Behavior in Primates

    Kinship and Behavior in Primates. Bernard Chapais and Carol M. Berman, eds. Oxford University Press, 2004. 507 pp. [source]

    Book review: Sexual Coercion in Primates and Humans: An Evolutionary Perspective on Male Aggression Against Females

    Joseph A. Camilleri
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Talar morphology, phylogenetic affinities, and locomotor adaptation of a large-bodied amphipithecid primate from the late middle eocene of Myanmar

    Laurent Marivaux
    Abstract A well-preserved fossil talus [National Museum of Myanmar Primates (NMMP) 82] of a large-bodied primate is described from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of central Myanmar. The specimen was collected at Thandaung Kyitchaung, a well-known amphipithecid primate,bearing locality near the village of Mogaung. NMMP 82 adds to a meager but growing sample of postcranial remains documenting the large-bodied primates of the Pondaung Formation. This new talus exhibits a suite of features that resemble conditions found in living and fossil haplorhine primates, notably anthropoids. As such, the phylogenetic signal deriving from the morphology of NMMP 82 conflicts with that provided by NMMP 20, a partial skeleton (including a fragmentary calcaneus) of a second large-bodied Pondaung primate showing undoubted adapiform affinities. Analysis subtalar joint compatibility in a hypothetical NMMP 82/NMMP 20 combination (talus/calcaneus) reveals a substantial degree of functional mismatch between these two tarsal bones. The functional incongruence in subtalar joint morphology between NMMP 20 and NMMP 82 is consistent with the seemingly divergent phylogenetic affinities of these specimens, indicating that two higher level taxa of relatively large-bodied primates are documented in the Pondaung Formation. On the basis of its size and morphology, we refer the NMMP 82 talus to the large-bodied amphipithecid Pondaungia. The occurrence of anthropoid-like tali in the Pondaung Formation obviates the need to invoke homoplasy to explain the shared, derived dental characters that are common to amphipithecids and undoubted anthropoids. Functionally, the NMMP 82 talus appears to have pertained to a primate that is engaged in active quadrupedalism in an arboreal environment along broad and subhorizontal branches. The primate taxon represented by NMMP 82 was capable of climbing and leaping, although it was not particularly specialized for either of these activities. Am J Phys Anthropol 143:208,222, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A new species of Pseudoloris (Omomyidae, Primates) from the middle Eocene of Sant Jaume de Frontanyà (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Raef Minwer-Barakat
    Abstract In this article we describe a new species of Pseudoloris (Omomyidae, Primates) from the Robiacian (middle Eocene) locality of Sant Jaume de Frontanyà (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain). Pseudoloris pyrenaicus is characterized by its medium size, thickened paracristid, absence of a distinct paraconid, and well-developed buccal cingulid in the lower molars, large hypoconulid in the M3, paraconule and hypocone reduced in the M1 and M2 and absent in the M3. The material from Sant Jaume de Frontanyà constitutes the most abundant sample of the genus Pseudoloris found until now in the Iberian Peninsula. Almost all the dental elements have been recovered, including those teeth hardly known for other species of the genus, such as lower and upper incisors. The new species shows intermediate features between Pseudoloris isabenae from Capella and Pseudoloris parvulus, present in different Spanish and French sites. Therefore, we consider that Pseudoloris pyrenaicus is an intermediate form between these two species. Am J Phys Anthropol 143:92,99, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Apparent density of the primate calcaneo-cuboid joint and its association with locomotor mode, foot posture, and the "midtarsal break"

    Matthew G. Nowak
    Abstract Primates use a range of locomotor modes during which they incorporate various foot postures. Humans are unique compared with other primates in that humans lack a mobile fore- and midfoot. Rigidity in the human foot is often attributed to increased propulsive and stability requirements during bipedalism. Conversely, fore- and midfoot mobility in nonhuman primates facilitates locomotion in arboreal settings. Here, we evaluated apparent density (AD) in the subchondral bone of human, ape, and monkey calcanei exhibiting different types of foot loading. We used computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry and maximum intensity projection (MIP) maps to visualize AD in subchondral bone at the cuboid articular surface of calcanei. MIPs represent 3D volumes (of subchondral bone) condensed into 2D images by extracting AD maxima from columns of voxels comprising the volumes. False-color maps are assigned to MIPs by binning pixels in the 2D images according to brightness values. We compared quantities and distributions of AD pixels in the highest bin to test predictions relating AD patterns to habitual locomotor modes and foot posture categories of humans and several nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primates exhibit dorsally positioned high AD concentrations, where maximum compressive loading between the calcaneus and cuboid likely occurs during "midtarsal break" of support. Humans exhibit less widespread areas of high AD, which could reflect reduced fore- and midfoot mobility. Analysis of the internal morphology of the tarsus, such as subchondral bone AD, potentially offers new insights for evaluating primate foot function during locomotion. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Gait dynamics of Cebus apella during quadrupedalism on different substrates

    Kristian J. Carlson
    Abstract Primates are distinguished from many mammals by emphasizing arboreal lifestyles. Primate arboreal adaptations include specializations for enhancing balance and manipulative skills. Compliant gait and diagonal sequence (DS) footfalls are hypothesized mechanisms for improving balance during arboreal quadrupedalism (AQ), while simultaneously permitting vertical peak force reductions sustained by limbs, particularly forelimbs (FLs). Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are arboreally-adapted quadrupeds that use both lateral sequence (LS) and DS footfalls. As tool-users, capuchins experience selective pressures for FL manipulative capabilities, which seemingly conflict with encountering substantial locomotor stresses. We evaluate kinetic and 3-D kinematic data from 172 limb contacts of two adult males on terrestrial and arboreal substrates to address questions about C. apella gait compliancy, kinematics of LS and DS footfalls during quadrupedalism on different substrates, and whether capuchins reduce FL vertical peak forces relative to hind limb (HL) forces more than other primates that use tools or those that do not. Lower vertical peak forces during AQ are consistent with compliant gait, but mixed kinematic results obscure how the reduction occurs. Forearm adduction angle is one consistent kinematic difference between terrestrial and arboreal quadrupedalism, which may implicate frontal plane movements in gait compliancy. Major differences between DS and LS gaits were not observed in kinetic or kinematic comparisons. Capuchins exhibit low FL/HL vertical peak force ratios like several anthropoids, including tool-users (e.g., chimpanzees), and species not considered tool-users in free-ranging conditions (e.g., spider monkeys). Additional selective pressures besides simply tool use appear responsible for the relative reduction in primate forelimb forces. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A new species of Pliopithecus Gervais, 1849 (Primates: Pliopithecidae) from the Middle Miocene (MN8) of Abocador de Can Mata (els Hostalets de Pierola, Catalonia, Spain)

    David M. Alba
    Abstract Pliopithecus (Pliopithecus) canmatensis sp. nov. is described from several Late Aragonian localities from Abocador de Can Mata (ACM) in els Hostalets de Pierola (Vallès-Penedès Basin, Catalonia, Spain), spanning from ,11.7 to 11.6 Ma (C5r.3r subchron), and being correlated to the MN8 (reference locality La Grive L3). The ACM remains display a pliopithecine dental morphology with well-developed pliopithecine triangles on M/2 and M/3. This, together with other occlusal details, negates an attribution to the subgenus Epipliopithecus. Although slightly smaller, the ACM remains are most similar in size to comparable elements of P. piveteaui and P. antiquus. Several occlusal details (such as the greater development of the buccal cingulid in lower molars) and dental proportions (M/3 much longer than M/2), however, indicate greater similarities with P. antiquus from Sansan and La Grive. The ACM remains, however, differ from P. antiquus in dental proportions as well as occlusal morphology of the lower molars (including the less peripheral position of the protoconid and more medial position of the hypoconulid, the more mesial position of the buccal cuspids as compared to the lingual ones, the narrower but distinct mesial fovea, the higher trigonid, and the more extensive buccal cingulid, among others). These differences justify a taxonomic distinction at the species level of the ACM pliopithecid remains with respect to P. antiquus. Previous pliopithecid findings from the Vallès-Penedès Basin, previously attributed to P. antiquus, are neither attributable to the latter species nor to the newly erected one. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Brief communication: Forelimb compliance in arboreal and terrestrial opossums

    Daniel Schmitt
    Abstract Primates display high forelimb compliance (increased elbow joint yield) compared to most other mammals. Forelimb compliance, which is especially marked among arboreal primates, moderates vertical oscillations of the body and peak vertical forces and may represent a basal adaptation of primates for locomotion on thin, flexible branches. However, Larney and Larson (Am J Phys Anthropol 125 [2004] 42,50) reported that marsupials have forelimb compliance comparable to or greater than that of most primates, but did not distinguish between arboreal and terrestrial marsupials. If forelimb compliance is functionally linked to locomotion on thin branches, then elbow yield should be highest in marsupials relying on arboreal substrates more often. To test this hypothesis, we compared forelimb compliance between two didelphid marsupials, Caluromys philander (an arboreal opossum relying heavily on thin branches) and Monodelphis domestica (an opossum that spends most of its time on the ground). Animals were videorecorded while walking on a runway or a horizontal 7-mm pole. Caluromys showed higher elbow yield (greater changes in degrees of elbow flexion) on both substrates, similar to that reported for arboreal primates. Monodelphis was characterized by lower elbow yield that was intermediate between the values reported by Larney and Larson (Am J Phys Anthropol 125 [2004] 42,50) for more terrestrial primates and rodents. This finding adds evidence to a model suggesting a functional link between arboreality,particularly locomotion on thin, flexible branches,and forelimb compliance. These data add another convergent trait between arboreal primates, Caluromys, and other arboreal marsupials and support the argument that all primates evolved from a common ancestor that was a fine-branch arborealist. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Fallback foods of temperate-living primates: A case study on snub-nosed monkeys

    Cyril C. Grueter
    Abstract Only a few primate species thrive in temperate regions characterized by relatively low temperature, low rainfall, low species diversity, high elevation, and especially an extended season of food scarcity during which they suffer from dietary stress. We present data of a case study of dietary strategies and fallback foods in snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in the Samage Forest, Northwest Yunnan, PRC. The snub-nosed monkeys adjusted intake of plant food items corresponding with changes in the phenology of deciduous trees in the forest and specifically showed a strong preference for young leaves in spring. A non-plant food, lichens (Parmeliaceae), featured prominently in the diet throughout the year (annual representation in the diet was about 67%) and became the dominant food item in winter when palatable plant resources were scarce. Additional highly sought winter foods were frost-resistant fruits and winter buds of deciduous hardwoods. The snub-nosed monkeys' choice of lichens as a staple fallback food is likely because of their spatiotemporal consistency in occurrence, nutritional and energetic properties, and the ease with which they can be harvested. Using lichens is a way to mediate effects of seasonal dearth in palatable plant foods and ultimately a key survival strategy. The snub-nosed monkeys' fallback strategy affects various aspects of their biology, e.g., two- and three-dimensional range use and social organization. The higher abundance of lichens at higher altitudes explains the monkeys' tendency to occupy relatively high altitudes in winter despite the prevailing cold. As to social organization, the wide temporal and spatial availability of lichens strongly reduces the ecological costs of grouping, thus allowing for the formation of "super-groups." Usnea lichens, the snub-nosed monkeys' primary dietary component, are known to be highly susceptible to human-induced environmental changes such as air pollution, and a decline of this critical resource base could have devastating effects on the last remaining populations. Within the order Primates, lichenivory is a rare strategy and only found in a few species or populations inhabiting montane areas, i.e., Macaca sylvanus, Colobus angolensis, and Rhinopithecus roxellana. Other temperate-dwelling primates rely mainly on buds and bark as winter fallback foods. Am J Phys Anthropol 140:700,715, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Locomotor variation and bending regimes of capuchin limb bones

    Brigitte Demes
    Abstract Primates are very versatile in their modes of progression, yet laboratory studies typically capture only a small segment of this variation. In vivo bone strain studies in particular have been commonly constrained to linear locomotion on flat substrates, conveying the potentially biased impression of stereotypic long bone loading patterns. We here present substrate reaction forces (SRF) and limb postures for capuchin monkeys moving on a flat substrate ("terrestrial"), on an elevated pole ("arboreal"), and performing turns. The angle between the SRF vector and longitudinal axes of the forearm or leg is taken as a proxy for the bending moment experienced by these limb segments. In both frontal and sagittal planes, SRF vectors and distal limb segments are not aligned, but form discrepant angles; that is, forces act on lever arms and exert bending moments. The positions of the SRF vectors suggest bending around oblique axes of these limb segments. Overall, the leg is exposed to greater moments than the forearm. Simulated arboreal locomotion and turns introduce variation in the discrepancy angles, thus confirming that expanding the range of locomotor behaviors studied will reveal variation in long bone loading patterns that is likely characteristic of natural locomotor repertoires. "Arboreal" locomotion, even on a linear noncompliant branch, is characterized by greater variability of force directions and discrepancy angles than "terrestrial" locomotion (significant for the forearm only), partially confirming the notion that life in trees is associated with greater variation in long bone loading. Directional changes broaden the range of external bending moments even further. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    First partial face and upper dentition of the Middle Miocene hominoid Dryopithecus fontani from Abocador de Can Mata (Vallès-Penedès Basin, Catalonia, NE Spain): Taxonomic and phylogenetic implications

    Salvador Moyà-Solà
    Abstract A well-preserved 11.8-million-years-old lower face attributed to the seminal taxon Dryopithecus fontani (Primates, Hominidae) from the Catalan site ACM/C3-Ae of the Hostalets de Pierola area (Vallès-Penedès Basin, Catalonia, NE Spain) is described. The new data indicate that D. fontani is distinct at the genus level from Late Miocene European taxa previously attributed to Dryopithecus, which are here reassigned to Hispanopithecus. The new facial specimen also suggests that D. fontani and the Middle Miocene Pierolapithecus catalaunicus are not synonymous. Anatomical and morphometric analyses further indicate that the new specimen shows a combination of lower facial features,hitherto unknown in Miocene hominoids,that resembles the facial pattern of Gorilla, thus providing the first nondental evidence of gorilla-like lower facial morphology in the fossil record. Considering the current evidence, the gorilla-like facial pattern of D. fontani is inferred to be derived relative to previously known stem hominids, and might indicate that this taxon is either an early member of the Homininae or, alternatively, a stem hominid convergent with the lower facial pattern of Gorilla. The biogeographic implications of both alternatives are discussed. This new finding in the Hostalets de Pierola section reinforces the importance of this area for understanding the elusive question of the Middle Miocene origin and early radiation of great apes. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]