Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Prenatal

  • prenatal alcohol
  • prenatal alcohol exposure
  • prenatal androgen
  • prenatal care
  • prenatal case
  • prenatal clinic
  • prenatal cocaine exposure
  • prenatal corticosteroid
  • prenatal death
  • prenatal detection
  • prenatal detection rate
  • prenatal development
  • prenatal diagnosis
  • prenatal ethanol exposure
  • prenatal experience
  • prenatal exposure
  • prenatal factor
  • prenatal genetic counseling
  • prenatal growth
  • prenatal management
  • prenatal period
  • prenatal programming
  • prenatal sample
  • prenatal screening
  • prenatal smoking
  • prenatal sonography
  • prenatal stress
  • prenatal testing
  • prenatal treatment
  • prenatal ultrasonography
  • prenatal ultrasound
  • prenatal visit

  • Selected Abstracts


    Robert Di Nicolantonio
    SUMMARY 1To determine the relative roles of the prenatal and postnatal (preweaning) environment on the development of blood pressure and growth rate in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) of the Okamoto strain, we used combined embryo transfer and cross-fostering techniques between SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to produce offspring whose development was examined during the first 20 weeks of life. 2We measured litter sizes, bodyweights and tail-cuff blood pressures in offspring at 4, 8, 12 and 20 weeks of age. We also recorded heart, kidney and adrenal weights at 20 weeks of age, when the study concluded. 3We found that both the in utero and postnatal environments provided by the SHR mother could significantly affect WKY rat offspring growth rates, but blood pressure was unaffected in this strain. In SHR offspring, the SHR maternal in utero and suckling period both contributed to the rate of blood pressure development in the SHR, but not the final blood pressure of offspring at 20 weeks of age. This effect was greater for male than female offspring. Organ weights were largely unaffected by the perinatal environment in either strain. 4We conclude that although the SHR maternal in utero and immediate postnatal environment both contribute to the rate of blood pressure development in the SHR, they do not appear to contribute to the final blood pressure of offspring at maturity. The SHR maternal environment also alters growth rate that may, in turn, underlie these effects on SHR blood pressure development, particularly in males. [source]

    Development of swallowing and feeding: Prenatal through first year of life

    Amy L. Delaney
    Abstract The development of feeding and swallowing involves a highly complex set of interactions that begin in embryologic and fetal periods and continue through infancy and early childhood. This article will focus on swallowing and feeding development in infants who are developing normally with a review of some aspects of prenatal development that provide a basis for in utero sucking and swallowing. Non-nutritive sucking in healthy preterm infants, nipple feeding in preterm and term infants, and selected processes of continued development of oral skills for feeding throughout the first year of life will be discussed. Advances in research have provided new information in our understanding of the neurophysiology related to swallowing, premature infants' sucking and swallowing patterns, and changes in patterns from preterm to near term to term infants. Oral skill development as texture changes are made throughout the second half of the first year of life is an under studied phenomenon. Knowledge of normal developmental progression is essential for professionals to appreciate differences from normal in infants and children with feeding and swallowing disorders. Additional research of infants and children who demonstrate overall typical development in oral skills for feeding is encouraged and will provide helpful reference points in increasing understanding of children who exhibit differences from typical development. It is hoped that new technology will provide noninvasive means of delineating all phases of sucking and swallowing from prenatal through infancy. Further related topics in other articles of this issue provide a comprehensive review of factors influencing oral intake, growth, nutrition, and neurodevelopmental status of children. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2008;14:105,117. [source]

    Prenatal and family risks of children born to mothers with epilepsy: effects on cognitive development

    Karl Titze PhD
    The offspring of mothers with epilepsy are considered to be at developmental risk during pregnancy from: (1) generalized maternal seizures (hypoxia); (2) teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); and (3) adverse socio-familial conditions associated with having a chronically sick mother. Sixty-seven children of mothers with epilepsy and 49 children from non-affected mothers, matched for control variables, were followed from birth to adolescence (53 males, 63 females; mean age 14y 2mo, range 10-20y). Prediction of intellectual performance of these children during adolescence was calculated from the following variables: maternal generalized seizures, prenatal exposure to AEDs, and quality of family stimulation (HOME Inventory) assessed in children at 2 years of age. Children who were prenatally exposed to AEDs achieved lower IQs than control children at adolescence. This effect was moderately significant for children who had been exposed to monotherapy (6 IQ points lower), but was considerable in those exposed to polytherapy (12 IQ points lower). Generalized seizures during pregnancy, observed in half the mothers, did not exacerbate this effect. Relative to prenatal risk status, the quality of the family environment had varied effects on intellectual development. Children with prenatal risks appeared to be more vulnerable to environmental disadvantage than control children, but they also showed longer-lasting effects of environmental support. [source]

    Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for neuroblastoma,

    Elizabeth Bluhm
    Abstract Neuroblastoma is a rare embryonal tumor of childhood for which risk factors are not well known. Using a nested case,control design, we investigated prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors in detail by linking 245 pediatric neuroblastoma cases identified in the Swedish Cancer Register diagnosed in the year 1973,1995 with the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Five living controls per case were randomly selected from the birth registry, matched by gender and age. Increased risks were associated with maternal anemia during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) = 2.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 5.69), neonatal respiratory distress (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 1.41, 9.24) and low (below or equal to 7) 1-min Apgar score (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.52). Increased risks were limited to cases diagnosed before 1 year of age. Markers of prenatal, perinatal and neonatal distress may be associated with neuroblastoma in infancy, but not with diagnoses at 1 year or above. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Prenatal and early postnatal morphogenesis and growth of human laryngotracheal structures

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 2 2008
    Pierre Fayoux
    Abstract Advances in neonatal medicine have resulted in increased care of fetal and neonatal airways. These advances have required an exhaustive knowledge of fetal airway anatomy and development. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomical development of laryngotracheal structures during the fetal and immediate postnatal period and to correlate these observations with other fetal biometric parameters to estimate developmental particularities of the fetal airway. An anatomical prospective study was based on examination of larynx and trachea from 300 routine autopsies of fetuses and infants, free of malformation and never intubated. Anatomical measurements of cricoid cartilage, thyroid cartilage, glottis, arytenoid cartilage and trachea were performed using a precision calliper and precision divider. Statistical analysis was performed to represent the growth of anatomical structures and to evaluate the correlation with biometric data. Raw data and 10th and 90th percentile curves were fitted satisfactorily with a linear model for gestational age. A linear relationship between laryngotracheal measurement and body weight and height was observed except for glottis length, interarytenoid distance and anterior cricoid height. The diameter of the cricoid lumen was significantly less than that of the trachea and glottis lumen. A sexual dysmorphism was noted for thyroid cartilage measurements and interarytenoid distance, with measurements significantly smaller in females. This study reports the anatomical development of normal laryngotracheal structures during the fetal period. Despite the fact that this study was performed during postmortem examination, these observations can be useful to develop criteria, materials and surgical procedures adapted to fetal and neonatal airways as well as for the purposes of early diagnosis and management of laryngotracheal malformations. [source]

    Prenatal and intrapartum events and sudden infant death syndrome

    Hillary S. Klonoff-Cohen
    Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate specific pregnancy and labour and delivery events that may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A matched case,control study was conducted in five counties in southern California, using California death certificate records. The sample consisted of 239 Caucasian, African,American, Hispanic and Asian mothers of SIDS infants and 239 mothers of control infants matched on sex, race, birth hospital and date of birth. Mothers participated in a detailed telephone interview and provided access to obstetric and paediatric records. More case than control mothers reported a family history of anaemia (OR = 2.12, P < 0.001). Placental abruptions were strongly associated with SIDS (unadjusted OR = 7.94, [95% CI 1.34,47.12]). There was an increased risk of SIDS death associated with maternal anaemia during pregnancy (OR = 2.51, [95% CI 1.25,5.03]), while simultaneously adjusting for maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal years of education and age, parity, infant birthweight, gestational age, medical conditions at birth, infant sleep position and post-natal smoking. Interactions of anaemia and prenatal smoking as well as anaemia and post-natal smoking were not statistically significant. There were no other statistically significant differences between case and control mothers for pregnancy conditions, labour and delivery events (e.g. caesarean sections, anaesthesia, forceps) or newborn complications (e.g. nuchal cord, meconium aspiration). Anaemia and placental abruptions were significantly associated with an increased risk of SIDS; both are circumstances in which a fetus may become hypoxic, thereby compromising the subsequent growth, development and ultimate survival of the infant. [source]

    Determinants of atopic sensitization in Turkish school children: Effects of pre- and post-natal events and maternal atopy

    Semanur Kuyucu
    Emergence of new environmental risk factors, and/or loss of protective factors of a traditional lifestyle may explain the increase, or variations in prevalence of allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to delineate the prevalence and spectrum of, and to reveal the causal and/or protective factors for atopic sensitization among a heterogenous cohort of Turkish children, for the first time in our country. The study design adhered to International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase II protocol. A self-administered parental questionnaire about demographic characteristics and detailed risk factors, and skin-prick test with 13 allergens were employed in a clustered random sample of 8,11-yr-old Turkish school children. Atopy was defined as the presence of at least one positive skin reaction to any allergen tested. The association between a total of 78 risk factors and different aspects of atopy were analyzed in 1144 children with multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of atopy was 20.6%. Most common sensitizations were to grass pollens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Blatella germanica. Day care attendance, high paternal education level, male gender and maternal asthma were significant risk factors for atopy. Breastfeeding more than 6 months (compared with 0,6 months), maternal smoking during pregnancy and a birth weight under 2500 g were inversely related to (or protective factors for) atopic sensitization. Maternal atopic disease had significant effects on risk factors pattern. In children with a maternal atopy history a low birth weight, day care attendance and maternal smoking during the first year of life independently increased the risk of atopic sensitization. Gender, breastfeeding and paternal education did not show any association with atopy in this group of children. A history of measles and low gestational age were significant protective factors for mite sensitization. This study showed that children of atopic mothers showed a different profile of risk factors associated with atopic sensitization, when compared with other children. Prenatal and early childhood events had important associations with atopic sensitization. [source]

    Prenatal two- and three-dimensional sonographic diagnosis of dacryocystocele

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 6 2008
    Arda Lembet
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Ring chromosome 6 in three fetuses: Case reports, literature review, and implications for prenatal diagnosis

    Maik Urban
    Abstract Prenatal and postnatal findings in three fetuses with a ring chromosome 6 are presented, and the literature of this rare cytogenetic disorder is reviewed. The described fetuses illustrate the broad spectrum of the clinical manifestation of ring chromosome 6. In one fetus, the disorder was diagnosed incidentally by a routine amniocentesis due to advanced maternal age. The other two fetuses were hydrocephalic and had other congenital anomalies. Remarkably, the ring chromosome 6 tends to disappear in cultured amniotic fluid cells; karyotyping revealed complete or nearly complete monosomy 6. In contrast, the ring was preserved in high proportions of fetal leukocytes. Postnatal growth retardation is the only consistent finding of this chromosomal disorder. Maternal age is not significantly above average. An additional review of 20 literature cases revealed a striking tendency to hydrocephalus, either due to deficient brain growth or secondary to an aqueductal stenosis. Children with hydrocephalus and ring chromosme 6 tend to display facial dysmorphism and may have additional malformations, growth failure, eye anomalies, and seizures. In contrast, there are two reports on children with a ring chromosome 6 who had short stature, normal appearance, and a normal or almost-normal psychomotor development. In such patients at the mild end of the clinical spectrum, the phenotype is basically restricted to what Kosztolányi. [1987: Hum Genet 75:174,179] delineated as "ring syndrome," comprising "severe growth failure without major malformations, without a specific deletion syndrome, with only a few or no minor anomalies, and mild to moderate mental retardation." This "ring syndrome" is considered to occur independently of the autosome involved in the ring formation. The overall impression from our cases and from the literature review of cases with ring chromosome 6 is that the karyotype-genotype correlation is poor. This makes prognostic counseling of parents difficult and unsatisfactory. Serial targeted ultrasound examinations, especially of the brain, are decisive factors in elucidating the prognosis. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Developmental Changes of Seminiferous Tubule in Prenatal, Postnatal and Adult Testis of Bonnet Monkey (Macaca radiata)

    S. Prakash
    Summary This paper is a part of our study on the male reproductive system of bonnet monkey. The developmental changes in testis of bonnet monkey were studied qualitatively and quantitatively, at the light microscopy level. Testicular development appears to primarily involve tubular growth that starts immediately after birth. There is a gradual increase in the number of tubules in the prenatal to neonatal stage in testis, without an increase in the volume. Increase in the number of tubules in the neonatal testis was achieved by an increase in the length of the tubules and reduction in the interstitial proportion. Scattered spermatogonial cells in the tubules of neonatal testis indicate the rapid growth rate of the tubules. Increase in tubular length along with diameter seems to be a continuous process until puberty. This is the first report on the developmental changes in the testis during fetal, postnatal and adult stages in the bonnet monkey. [source]

    The use of nuchal translucency measurement and second trimester biochemical markers in screening for Down's Syndrome

    G.D. Michailidis
    Objective To assess the effectiveness of antenatal screening for trisomy 21 by first trimester sonography followed by second trimester biochemical screening. Design Retrospective five-year review. Setting Maternity unit of a university hospital. Population An unselected group of 7447 pregnant women who had a first trimester scan and nuchal translucency measurement in our unit after January 1995 and had an estimated date of delivery before 1 January 2000. 11.9% were , 37 years old. A subgroup (n=4864) also had second trimester biochemical testing by alpha-fetoprotein and free ,-human chorionic gonadotrophin. Main outcome measures Prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of trisomy 21. Results There were 23 fetuses affected with trisomy 21. The overall prenatal detection rate was 87% (20/23; 95% CI 66% to 97%) and we performed invasive procedures in 8.5% of our population. First trimester sonography identified 74% (95% CI 51.6% to 89.8%) of affected fetuses. Second trimester biochemical screening detected half of the fetuses with trisomy 21 which were missed by first trimester screening, increasing the sensitivity to 90.5% (19/21; 95% CI 69.6% to 98.8%) for an invasive procedure rate of 4.2% performed in screened positive women. However, the positive predictive value of the biochemical test was very low (0.5%). In screen negative women, karyotyping for advanced maternal age did not detect any affected fetuses. Conclusion First trimester nuchal translucency measurement is an effective screening test for the prenatal detection of fetuses with Down's Syndrome. Although the measurement of biochemical markers in the second trimester can detect additional affected fetuses this may be outweighed by the delay in diagnosis, the extra visits and cost so that the right time for biochemical screening is most likely to be in the first trimester. [source]

    Prenatal and postnatal parental smoking and acute otitis media in early childhood

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2010
    SE Håberg
    Abstract Aim:, To explore the associations between acute otitis media in early childhood and prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure. Methods:, Subjects were 32 077 children born between 2000 and 2005 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Study with questionnaire data on tobacco smoke exposure and acute otitis media up to 18 months of age. Multivariate regression models were used to obtain adjusted relative risks for acute otitis media. Results:, Acute otitis media was slightly more common in children exposed to parental smoking. The incidence from 0 to 6 months was 4.7% in unexposed children and 6.0% in children exposed both prenatally and postnatally. After adjusting for postnatal exposure and covariates, the relative risk for acute otitis media 0,6 months when exposed to maternal smoking in pregnancy was 1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.06,1.69. Maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with acute otitis media up to 12 months of age. Compared with non-exposed children, there was a slightly increased risk of recurrent acute otitis media for children exposed both prenatally and postnatally with a relative risk of 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.01,1.52. Conclusion:, Even in a cohort with relatively low exposure levels of parental smoking, maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of acute otitis media in early childhood. [source]

    Disruption of brain development in male rats exposed prenatally to 5-bromo-2,-deoxyuridine

    Makiko Kuwagata
    ABSTRACT, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-2,-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at 0,12.5 or 50 mg/kg/day on days 9 through 15 of gestation to evaluate the effects on development of the brain of offspring. Prenatal exposure to BrdU induced abnormal development of the brain; dilatation of the lateral ventricles in male offspring in the postnatal period. The ratio of the length of the longitudinal fissure to that of the cerebral cortex decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the embryonic period and thereafter. In 14-week-old male offspring exposed prenatally to BrdU at 50 mg/kg, the cortex layer of the cerebrum was thinner than that of the controls. Masculine sexual behavior was markedly impaired and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) was decreased in the 50 mg/kg group as compared with the controls. These results demonstrate that prenatal exposure to BrdU affected the development of the brain hi the prenatal and postnatal stages and reduced the volume of SDN-POA after puberty, resulting in a disruption of reproductive ability in male rats. [source]

    Prenatal growth, postnatal growth and trait anxiety in late adulthood , the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    J. Lahti
    Lahti J, Räikkönen K, Pesonen A-K, Heinonen K, Kajantie E, Forsén T, Osmond C, Barker DJP, Eriksson JG. Prenatal growth, postnatal growth and trait anxiety in late adulthood , the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Objective:, Trait anxiety may predispose to anxiety disorders and cardiovascular events. We tested whether prenatal growth or postnatal growth from birth to 11 years of age and in adulthood predict trait anxiety in late adulthood. Method:, Women (n = 951) and men (n = 753) reported trait anxiety using the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale at an average age of 63.4 years and growth was estimated from records. Results:, Higher trait anxiety was predicted by smaller body size at birth, in infancy and in adulthood. Moreover, faster growth particularly from seven to 11 years of age and slower growth between 11 and 63 years predicted higher trait anxiety. Conclusion:, We found a pattern of pre- and postnatal growth that predisposed to higher trait anxiety in late adulthood. This pattern resembles that found to increase the risk of cardiovascular events and, thus, points to a shared common origin in a suboptimal prenatal and childhood developmental milieu. [source]

    Development of swallowing and feeding: Prenatal through first year of life

    Amy L. Delaney
    Abstract The development of feeding and swallowing involves a highly complex set of interactions that begin in embryologic and fetal periods and continue through infancy and early childhood. This article will focus on swallowing and feeding development in infants who are developing normally with a review of some aspects of prenatal development that provide a basis for in utero sucking and swallowing. Non-nutritive sucking in healthy preterm infants, nipple feeding in preterm and term infants, and selected processes of continued development of oral skills for feeding throughout the first year of life will be discussed. Advances in research have provided new information in our understanding of the neurophysiology related to swallowing, premature infants' sucking and swallowing patterns, and changes in patterns from preterm to near term to term infants. Oral skill development as texture changes are made throughout the second half of the first year of life is an under studied phenomenon. Knowledge of normal developmental progression is essential for professionals to appreciate differences from normal in infants and children with feeding and swallowing disorders. Additional research of infants and children who demonstrate overall typical development in oral skills for feeding is encouraged and will provide helpful reference points in increasing understanding of children who exhibit differences from typical development. It is hoped that new technology will provide noninvasive means of delineating all phases of sucking and swallowing from prenatal through infancy. Further related topics in other articles of this issue provide a comprehensive review of factors influencing oral intake, growth, nutrition, and neurodevelopmental status of children. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2008;14:105,117. [source]

    Advanced microscopic imaging methods to investigate cortical development and the etiology of mental retardation

    Tarik F. Haydar
    Abstract Studies on human patients and animal models of disease have shown that disruptions in prenatal and early postnatal brain development are a root cause of mental retardation. Since proper brain development is achieved by a strict spatiotemporal control of neurogenesis, cell migration, and patterning of synapses, abnormalities in one or more of these events during prenatal development can lead to cognitive dysfunction after birth. Many of underlying causes of mental retardation must therefore be studied in developing brains. To aid in this research, live imaging using laser scanning microscopy (LSM) has recently allowed neuroscientists to delve deeply into the complex three-dimensional environment of the living brain to record dynamic cellular events over time. This review will highlight recent examples of how LSM is being applied to elucidate both normal and abnormal cortical development. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:303,316. [source]

    The role of epilepsy in early language development in a child with a congenital lesion in the right hemisphere

    C Mayor-Dubois MA
    Early epilepsy is known to worsen the developmental prognosis of young children with a congenital focal brain lesion, but its direct role is often very difficult to delineate from the other variables. This requires prolonged periods of follow-up with simultaneous serial electrophysiological and developmental assessments which are rarely obtained. We studied a male infant with a right prenatal infarct in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery resulting in a left spastic hemiparesis, and an epileptic disorder (infantile spasms with transient right hemihypsarrhythmia and focal seizures) from the age of 7 months until the age of 4 years. Pregnancy and delivery were normal. A dissociated delay of early language acquisition affecting mainly comprehension without any autistic features was documented. This delay was much more severe than usually expected in children with early focal lesions, and its evolution, with catch-up to normal, was correlated with the active phase of the epilepsy. We postulate that the epilepsy specifically amplified a pattern of delayed language emergence, mainly affecting lexical comprehension, reported in children with early right hemisphere damage. [source]

    One hundred males with Asperger syndrome: a clinical study of background and associated factors

    Mats Cederlund MD
    The objective of this study was to investigate the background and associated factors in a representative group of young males with Asperger syndrome (AS) presenting at a specialized autism clinic. One hundred males aged 5 years 6 months to 24 years 6 months, with a mean age of 11 years 4 months (SD 3y 10mo), who had a clinical diagnosis of AS were included in the study. An in-depth review of their medical records and neuropsychological test data was performed. There was a high rate (51%) of non-verbal learning disability (defined as Verbal IQ more than 15 points higher than Performance IQ), but otherwise there was little or no support for the notion of right-hemisphere brain dysfunction being at the core of the syndrome. There was a very high rate of close relatives with autism spectrum problems, but also high rates of prenatal and perinatal problems, including prematurity and postmaturity. In comparison with general population data, those with AS very often had a combination of genetic and prenatal and perinatal risk factors. Non-verbal learning disability test results applied in about half the group. There was a subgroup of individuals with AS who had macrocephalus. However, there was no support for an association of AS with low body mass index. [source]

    Aetiology in severe and mild mental retardation: a population-based study of Norwegian children

    Petter Strømme MD PhD
    The aetiology of mental retardation (MR) was studied in a population-based series of Norwegian children derived from 30 037 children born between 1980 and 1985. The study included 178 children, 79 with severe MR (SMR) (IQ<50) and 99 with mild MR (MMR) (IQ 50 to 70). Aetiology was divided into two main groups: biopathological and unspecified. The biopathological group comprised 96% of SMR and 68% of MMR, and was subdivided into prenatal (70% and 51%), perinatal (4% and 5%), and postnatal damage (5% and 1%), and a group of undetermined timing of the damaging event (18% and 11%). Single-gene disorders accounted for 15 of the 63 children with genetic disorders, including X-linked recessive in six. During the course of the study, at least 27 (15%) children had their aetiological diagnosis revised. Gestational age <32 weeks, birthweight <1500g, and Apgar scores 0 to 2 at 1 and 5 minutes implied a significantly increased risk of MR, but contributed to only 4% of the children in the study. Decreased birthweight (1500 to 2499 g) and Apgar scores 3 to 6 at 1 and 5 minutes showed increased probability of MR. Despite extensive investigations, 4% of SMR and 32% of MMR were not identified with any biological markers and were considered as unspecified MR, several most probably representing the lower end of the normal IQ distribution in the population. [source]

    Prenatal stress causes dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3 region by glutamate in offspring rats

    Ning Jia
    Abstract A substantial number of human epidemiological data, as well as experimental studies, suggest that adverse maternal stress during gestation is involved in abnormal behavior, mental, and cognition disorder in offspring. To explore the effect of prenatal stress (PS) on hippocampal neurons, in this study, we observed the dendritic field of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3, examined the concentration of glutamate (Glu), and detected the expression of synaptotagmin-1 (Syt-1) and N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor 1 (NR1) in hippocampus of juvenile female offspring rats. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups: control group (CON) and PS group. Female offspring rats used were 30-day old. The total length of the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3 of offspring was significantly shorter in PS than that in CON (p < 0.01). The number of branch points of the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3 of offspring was significantly less in PS (p < 0.01). PS offspring had a higher concentration of hippocampal Glu compared with CON (p < 0.05). PS offspring displayed increased expression of Syt-1 and decreased NR1 in hippocampus compared with CON (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The expression of NR1 in different hippocampus subfields of offspring was significantly decreased in PS than that in CON (p < 0.05-0.01). This study shows that PS increases the Glu in hippocampus and causes apical dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of hippocampal CA3 in offspring rats. The decline of NR1 in hippocampus may be an adaptive response to the increased Glu. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2010 [source]

    The dynamics of development and evolution: Insights from behavioral embryology

    Robert Lickliter
    Abstract The perspective that features of species-typical behavior could be traced to experience that occurred prenatally was raised by Zing-Yang Kuo [1921 Journal of Philosophy 18: 645,664] early in the last century and Gilbert Gottlieb subsequently elaborated on and provided empirical support for this idea over the course of more than four decades of innovative psychobiological research. Although we are still a long way from fully understanding the specific pathways and processes by which prenatal experience can influence postnatal development, Gottlieb's research with precocial birds provided significant insights into the conditions and experiences of prenatal development involved in the achievement of species-typical perception and behavior. In particular, his elegant series of studies on the development of species identification in ducklings documented how the features and patterns of recurring prenatal sensory experience (including self-stimulation) guide and constrain the young individual's selective attention, perception, learning, and memory during both prenatal and postnatal periods. I review how this body of research supports the view that the structure and functions of the developing organism and its developmental ecology together form a relationship of mutual influence on the emergence, maintenance, and transformation of species-typical behavior. I also explore how Gottlieb's empirical demonstrations of the prenatal roots of so-called "instinctive" behavior provided a foundation for his conceptual efforts to define the links between developmental and evolutionary change. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 49: 749,757, 2007. [source]

    Genetic and perinatal factors as risk for childhood type 1 diabetes

    Karin Larsson
    Abstract The mechanisms by which gestational infections, blood incompatibility, birth weight, mother's age and other prenatal or neonatal events increase the risk for type 1 diabetes are not understood. Studies so far have been retrospective, and there is a lack of population-based prospective studies. The possibility of identifying children at type 1 diabetes risk among first-degree relatives has resulted in prospective studies aimed at identifying postnatal events associated with the appearance of autoantibody markers for type 1 diabetes and a possible later onset of diabetes. However, the majority (85%) of new onset type 1 diabetes children do not have a first-degree relative with the disease. Population-based studies are therefore designed to prospectively analyse pregnant mothers and their offspring. One such study is DiPiS (Diabetes Prediction in Skåne), which is examining a total of about 10 000 pregnancies expected every year in the Skåne (Scania) region of Sweden that has 1.1 million inhabitants. Blood samples from all mothers in this region are obtained during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. Cord blood is analysed for HLA high-risk alleles and for autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), the protein tyrosine phosphatase,related IA-2 antigen (IA-2A) and insulin (IAA) as a measure of prenatal autoimmune exposure. Identifying high-risk children by genetic, autoimmune and gestational risk factors followed by prospective analyses will make it possible to test the hypothesis that gestational events may trigger beta cell autoimmunity as a prerequisite for childhood type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Aquaporin 11 in the developing mouse submandibular gland

    Helga S. Larsen
    Larsen HS, Ruus A-K, Schreurs O, Kanli Galtung H. Aquaporin 11 in the developing mouse submandibular gland. Eur J Oral Sci 2010; 118: 9,13. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Eur J Oral Sci Several aquaporins (AQPs) have been detected in mature and embryonic mammalian salivary glands (AQP1 and AQP3,AQP8). However, AQP11 has, to our knowledge, never before been described in salivary glands, but is known to be important in, for example, kidney development in mice. We therefore thought it relevant to investigate if AQP11 was present during salivary organogenesis. The submandibular salivary gland (SMG) from CD1 mice was studied during prenatal development and early postnatal development, and also in young adult male and female mice. The expression trend of the AQP11 transcript was detected using the reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the temporal,spatial pattern was observed using in situ hybridization. The AQP11 transcript was first detected at embryonic day 13.5 and showed a more or less constitutive expression trend during the prenatal and early postnatal SMG development. Spatial studies demonstrated that the AQP11 transcript was present in the developing and mature duct structures at all stages studied. In the end pieces, the AQP11 transcript was reduced during glandular development. Our results point to an important role for AQP11 during salivary gland development. [source]

    Molecular genetics of pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    F. Ringpfeil
    Abstract: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a systemic heritable connective tissue disorder, is characterized by progressive calcification of elastic structures in the skin, the eyes and the cardiovascular system, with considerable intra- and interfamilial phenotypic variability. Recently, underlying genetic defects have been identified in the ABCC6 gene, which resides on the chromosomal locus 16p13.1 and encodes the MRP6 protein, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins. The affected individuals are homozygous or compound heterozygous for a spectrum of genetic lesions, including nonsense and missense mutations, or deletions and splice-site alterations, confirming the autosomal recessive nature of this condition. Analysis of the deduced primary sequence suggests that MRP6 is a transmembrane transporter, but its function has not been delineated yet. Surprisingly, however, MRP6 is expressed primarily, if not exclusively, in the liver and the kidneys, suggesting that PXE may be a primary metabolic disorder with secondary involvement of elastic fibers. Identification of mutations in the ABCC6 gene in PXE provides a means for prenatal and presymptomatic testing in families at risk for recurrence. DNA-based analyses will also identify heterozygous carriers who may be at risk for development of limited manifestations of the disease as a result of compounding genetic factors and/or environmental modifiers. [source]

    Prenatal stress modifies hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial learning in young rat offspring

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 5 2006
    Jianli Yang
    Abstract Clinical studies demonstrate that prenatal stress causes cognitive deficits and increases vulnerability to affective disorders in children and adolescents. The underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Here, we reported that prenatal stress (10 unpredictable, 1 s, 0.8 mA foot shocks per day during gestational days 13,19) impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) but facilitated long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal CA1 region in slices of the prenatal stressed offspring (5 weeks old). Cross-fostering neonate offspring by the prenatal stressed or control mothers did not change the effects of prenatal stress on the hippocampal LTP and LTD. Furthermore, prenatal stress enhanced the effects of acute stress on the hippocampal LTP and LTD and impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze in the young rat offspring. Therefore, prenatal stress alters synaptic plasticity and enhances the effects of acute stress on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, which may be the mechanism for the impaired spatial learning and memory in young rat offspring. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Molecular diagnosis of inherited disorders: lessons from hemoglobinopathies,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 5 2005
    George P. Patrinos
    Abstract Hemoglobinopathies constitute a major health problem worldwide, with a high carrier frequency, particularly in certain regions where malaria has been endemic. These disorders are characterized by a vast clinical and hematological phenotypic heterogeneity. Over 1,200 different genetic alterations that affect the DNA sequence of the human ,-like (HBZ, HBA2, HBA1, and HBQ1) and ,-like (HBE1, HBG2, HBG1, HBD, and HBB) globin genes are mainly responsible for the observed clinical heterogeneity. These mutations, together with detailed information about the resulting phenotype, are documented in the globin locus-specific HbVar database. Family studies and comprehensive hematological analyses provide useful insights for accurately diagnosing thalassemia at the DNA level. For this purpose, numerous techniques can provide accurate, rapid, and cost-effective identification of the underlying genetic defect in affected individuals. The aim of this article is to review the diverse methodological and technical platforms available for the molecular diagnosis of inherited disorders, using thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies as a model. This article also attempts to shed light on issues closely related to thalassemia diagnostics, such as prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnoses and genetic counseling, for better-quality disease management. Hum Mutat 26(5), 399,412, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Development of Parenting Efficacy Among New Mothers and Fathers

    INFANCY, Issue 1 2007
    Esther M. Leerkes
    Predictors of prenatal and postnatal parenting efficacy were examined in a sample of 115 primiparous mothers and 73 fathers in an effort to examine the association between preexisting parental characteristics and prenatal efficacy and the association between prenatal characteristics and postnatal efficacy when aspects of the current parenting context are taken into account. The most robust predictors of maternal postnatal efficacy included both prenatal efficacy, which significantly predicted postnatal efficacy independent of all other predictors including the current parenting context, and perceived infant temperamental reactivity as both a main effect and as buffered by social support. This was not the case for fathers, whose postnatal efficacy was primarily a function of their amount of involvement in parenting tasks and social support. The differential predictors of mother and father efficacy as well as their implications for future research are discussed. [source]

    Prenatal Maternal Anxiety and Depression Predict Negative Behavioral Reactivity in Infancy

    INFANCY, Issue 3 2004
    Elysia Poggi Davis
    The effects of maternal antenatal and postnatal anxiety and depression on infant negative behavioral reactivity were examined in a sample of 22 mother-infant pairs. Maternal anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized measures during the third trimester of pregnancy and postpartum. Infant negative behavioral responses to novelty were assessed using a previously validated measure at 4 months of age. Maternal anxiety and depression during the prenatal, but not the postnatal period, were related to infant negative behavioral reactivity to novelty. These data illustrate that prenatal maternal psychological state can exert persisting influences on human infant behavior. [source]

    Understanding the "ghosts in the nursery" of pregnant women experiencing domestic violence: Prenatal maternal representations and histories of childhood maltreatment,

    Johanna C. Malone
    Selma Fraiberg and colleagues (1975) conceptualized the "ghosts in the nursery" as experiences from a mother's past that influenced her ability to form a warm and attuned relationship with her child. Contemporary infant mental health interventions often ask the mother to reflect on her own history of attachment relationships to gain insight into as well as to strengthen her developing relationship with her child. This study investigated the association between a mother's history of childhood maltreatment (CM) and her subsequent prenatal maternal representation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Controlling for domestic violence (DV), distorted prenatal representations were associated with higher rates of self-reported childhood physical neglect. In addition, DV moderated the relationship between representations and CM, such that women who were exposed to DV during pregnancy and had distorted prenatal representations were least likely to report childhood physical and sexual abuse. Implications are discussed in relation to infant mental health interventions which rely on a parent's ability to psychologically access and reflect on childhood histories to more sensitively parent her own child. Selma Fraiberg y colegas (1975) definió el concepto de "fantasmas en el cuarto de los niños" como experiencias del pasado de las madres que ejercen influencia en la habilidad de ella para formarse una cálida y afinada relación con su infante. A menudo, las intervenciones contemporáneas de la salud mental infantil les piden a las madres que reflexionen sobre su propia historia de relaciones afectivas con el fin de lograr un mejor conocimiento y al mismo tiempo hacer más fuerte la relación que están desarrollando con sus hijos. Este estudio investigó la asociación entre la historia de una madre que tuvo una niñez llena de maltratos (CM) y su subsiguiente representación maternal prenatal durante el tercer trimestre del embarazo. Considerando por medio del experimento de control la variable de la violencia doméstica, (DV), las representaciones prenatales distorsionadas se asociaron con puntajes más altos de la auto-reportada negligencia física en la niñez. Es más, la violencia doméstica (DV) sirvió para moderar la relación entre las representaciones y el maltrato en la niñez (CM), a tal punto de que las mujeres que habían estado expuestas a la violencia doméstica (DV) durante el embarazo y tenían representaciones prenatales distorsionadas fueron las menos propensas a reportar el abuso físico y sexual en la niñez. Se discuten las implicaciones en relación con las intervenciones de la salud mental infantil que dependen de la habilidad de la madre de acceder a y reflexionar sobre sus historias de la niñez, sicológicamente, con el fin de criar a su propio infante con una mayor sensibilidad. Selma Fraiberg et collègues (1975) conceptualisa les "fantômes dans la crèche" en tant qu'expériences d'un passé de la mère qui ont influencé sa capacité à former une relation chaleureuse et sensible avec son enfant. Les interventions contemporaines de santé mentale du nourrisson demandent souvent à la mère de faire un effort de réflexion sur sa propre histoire de relations d'attachement afin d'arriver à mieux connaître sa relation qui se développe avec son enfant, et aussi de la renforcer. Cette étude s'est penchée sur l'association entre l'histoire de maltraitance durant l'enfance de la mère (abrégé CM en anglais) et sa représentation maternelle prénatale ultérieure durant le troisième trimestre de la grossesse. Avec un contrôle pour la violence conjugale (abrégée DV en anglais), les représentations prénatales déformées étaient liées à des taux plus élevés de négligence physique durant l'enfance auto-rapportées. De plus, la violence conjugale (DV) modérait la relation entre les représentations et la maltraitance durant l'enfance (CM), d'une telle manière que les femmes qui ont été exposées à la violence conjugale (DV) durant la grossesse et qui faisaient preuve de représentations prénatales déformées étaient les moins à même de signaler une maltraitance physique et des abus sexuels. Les implications sont discutées en relation aux interventions de santé mentale du nourrisson qui reposent que la capacité d'un parent à accéder psychologiquement aux histoires de son enfance et à y réfléchir de fa,on à élever son propre enfant de plus sensiblement. Selma Fraiberg und Kollegen (1975) konzeptualisiert die "Gespenster im Kinderzimmer", als Erfahrungen aus der Vergangenheit der Mutter, die ihre Fähigkeit, eine warme und angemessene Beziehung zu ihrem Kind aufzubauen. Zeitgemäße Interventionen der seelische Gesundheit von Kleinkindern fragen Mütter oft nach ihrer eigenen Geschichte von Bindungsbeziehungen, um einen Einblick zu bekommen, damit die sich entwickelnde Beziehung zu ihrem Kind gestärkt werden kann. Die vorliegende Studie untersuchte den Zusammenhang zwischen mütterlichen Misshandlungserfahrungen (CM) und deren späteren Schilderungen im dritten Trimenon ihrer eigenen Schwangerschaft. Maßgeblich für häusliche Gewalt (DV) war eine verzerrte Darstellung, die mit einer höheren Rate von selbst berichteter körperlicher Verwahrlosung assoziiert war. Darüber hinaus beeinflusste DV die Beziehung zwischen den Vorstellungen und den CM, so dass Frauen, die während der Schwangerschaft DV ausgesetzt waren, und verzerrten Darstellungen hatten mit großer Wahrscheinlichkeit von körperlichen und sexuellen Missbrauch berichteten. Die Auswirkungen werden in Bezug auf Interventionen der psychischen Gesundheit von Kindern diskutiert, die die elterliche Fähigkeit, psychologische Zusammenhänge zu verstehen und darüber hinaus zu Reflexion über die eigenen Kindheitsgeschichten anregen, damit die Eltern sensibler auf ihr eigenes Kind reagieren können. [source]

    The development of maternal self-esteem

    C. Farrow
    Although an important theoretical concept, little is known about the development of maternal self-esteem. This study explores the significance of maternal cognitions, psychopathological symptoms, and child temperament in the prediction of prenatal and postnatal maternal self-esteem. During pregnancy 162 women completed measures assessing their unhealthy core beliefs, psychopathological symptoms, and self-esteem. At 1 year postpartum 87 of these women completed measures assessing their self-esteem and their child's temperament. Overall maladaptive maternal core beliefs and psychopathological symptoms during pregnancy explained 19% of the variance in prenatal maternal self-esteem. Forty-two percent of the variance in maternal self-esteem at 1 year could be explained by a combination of prenatal maternal self-esteem, mental health symptoms, maternal core beliefs, and more unsociable infant temperament. Underlying maternal cognitive structures may be important in determining the development of maternal self-esteem. [source]