Practical Applicability (practical + applicability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Modelling of contaminant transport through landfill liners using EFGM

R. Praveen Kumar
Abstract Modelling of contaminant transport through landfill liners and natural soil deposits is an important area of research activity in geoenvironmental engineering. Conventional mesh-based numerical methods depend on mesh/grid size and element connectivity and possess some difficulties when dealing with advection-dominant transport problems. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to provide a simple but sufficiently accurate methodology for numerical simulation of the two-dimensional contaminant transport through the saturated homogeneous porous media and landfill liners using element-free Galerkin method (EFGM). In the EFGM, an approximate solution is constructed entirely in terms of a set of nodes and no characterization of the interrelationship of the nodes is needed. The EFGM employs moving least-square approximants to approximate the function and uses the Lagrange multiplier method for imposing essential boundary conditions. The results of the EFGM are validated using experimental results. Analytical and finite element solutions are also used to compare the results of the EFGM. In order to test the practical applicability and performance of the EFGM, three case studies of contaminant transport through the landfill liners are presented. A good agreement is obtained between the results of the EFGM and the field investigation data. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Plant diagnostics by transient classification: The ALADDIN approach

Davide Roverso
Any action taken on a plant, for example in response to an abnormal situation or in reaction to unsafe conditions, relies on the ability to identify the state and dynamics of operation of the plant. Although there might be hundreds or even thousands of measurements in a plant, there are generally few events occurring. The data from these measurements must be mapped into appropriate descriptions of the occurring event(s), which in most cases is a difficult task. The real-time history of scores of variables can be displayed and monitored in most computerized plant monitoring and control systems. However, whereas a simple visual inspection of displayed trends is generally sufficient to allow the operator to confirm the plant status during normal, steady-state operations, when the plant is subject to deviations due to anomalies or faults, the displayed trends of interacting variables can be very difficult to interpret, either because the changes are too subtle, or because the changes are too fast. In this article we describe the ALADDIN methodology for dynamic event recognition and fault diagnosis, which combines techniques such as recurrent neural network ensembles, wavelet on-line pre-processing (WOLP), and autonomous recursive task decomposition (ARTD), in an attempt to improve the practical applicability and scalability of this type of system to real processes and machinery. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Removal characteristics of some priority organic pollutants from water in a fixed bed fly ash column

Mitali Sarkar
Abstract The efficiency of a coal fly ash (generated from a thermal power plant) adsorption column for the removal of some priority organic pollutants, viz phenol, o -hydroxyphenol, m -hydroxyphenol and 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solution has been studied. The column performance was evaluated from the concept of the formation of a primary adsorption zone and the breakthrough curve. The extent of solute removal obtained from breakthrough curve during column operation was compared with that obtained from the isotherm parameters for batch operation. The loaded solutes in the column were successfully eluted with acetone, achieving 98% recovery. In order to determine the practical applicability of the column operation the process was repeated a number of times and the variation of column capacity with number of operation cycles was evaluated. Even after six successive cycles, the column was found to retain almost 80% capacity. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of 2-Thiouracil and 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole in Animal Tissue Using Multivariate Calibration Methods: Concerns and Rapid Methods for Detection

Abolghasem Beheshti
ABSTRACT:, Two multivariate calibration methods, partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR), were applied to the spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MB) and 2-thiouracil (TU). A genetic algorithm (GA) using partial least squares was successfully utilized as a variable selection method. The concentration model was based on the absorption spectra in the range of 200 to 350 nm for 25 different mixtures of MB and TU. The calibration curve was linear across the concentration range of 1 to 10 ,g mL,1 and 1.5 to 15 ,g mL,1 for MB and TU, respectively. The values of the root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.3984, 0.1066, and 0.0713 for MB and 0.2010, 0.1667, and 0.1115 for TU, which were obtained using PCR, PLS, and GA-PLS, respectively. Finally, the practical applicability of the GA-PLS method was effectively evaluated by the concurrent detection of both analytes in animal tissues. It should also be mentioned that the proposed method is a simple and rapid way that requires no preliminary separation steps and can be used easily for the analysis of these compounds, especially in quality control laboratories. [source]


ABSTRACT Chocolates are favorite foodstuffs with high sugar contents. Therefore, in the present study, the production of a low-sugar milk chocolate with prebiotic properties is evaluated. Various ratios of inulin (IN), polydextrose (PD) and maltodextrin (MD) along with sucralose (0.04% w/w) were used instead of sugar. Fifteen formulations were examined to determine some physicochemical, mechanical and sensory properties in order to find their optimum ratios. In general, formulations with high ratios of PD and MD were moister and softer than control. The lowest moisture content and highest hardness were observed for the moderate ratios. In addition, MD induced the least desirable sensorial effects, whereas PD and IN pronouncedly improved the overall acceptability. The optimum applicable range for IN, PD and MD were 14,32% and 71,84%, 7,26% and 67,77%, and 0,20% of sugar substitutes, respectively. Our findings on simultaneous fat and sugar reductions also indicated the possibility of fat cut up to 5% in comparison to previous fat content. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS In this paper, we have reported the influences of inulin (IN) as a prebiotic as well as polydextrose (PD) and maltodextrin (MD) as bulking agents on physicochemical, energy content, texture and sensory properties of milk chocolate using simplex lattice mixture design. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in this field with very interesting results and practical applicability. Moreover, our findings showed that the use of aforementioned ingredients instead of sugar could lead to production of low-calorie milk chocolate without having the undesirable textural and physiological effects on the product and consumers. Moreover, the simplex lattice mixture design was found a very useful technique for finding optimum ratios of sugar replacers in formulation. [source]

Flexible Designs for Genomewide Association Studies

BIOMETRICS, Issue 3 2009
André Scherag
Summary Genomewide association studies attempting to unravel the genetic etiology of complex traits have recently gained attention. Frequently, these studies employ a sequential genotyping strategy: A large panel of markers is examined in a subsample of subjects, and the most promising markers are genotyped in the remaining subjects. In this article, we introduce a novel method for such designs enabling investigators to, for example, modify marker densities and sample proportions while strongly controlling the family-wise type I error rate. Loss of efficiency is avoided by redistributing conditional type I error rates of discarded markers. Our approach can be combined with cost optimal designs and entails a greater flexibility than all previously suggested designs. Among other features, it allows for marker selections based upon biological criteria instead of statistical criteria alone, or the option to modify the sample size at any time during the course of the project. For practical applicability, we develop a new algorithm, subsequently evaluate it by simulations, and illustrate it using a real data set. [source]