Power Spectrum (power + spectrum)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Power Spectrum

  • eeg power spectrum
  • matter power spectrum

  • Selected Abstracts

    Power spectra from ,spotted' accretion discs

    T. Pechá
    Abstract We are carrying out a project to calculate power spectra of variability, assuming a model of a ,spotted' accretion disc near a black hole. We consider relativistic effects that change photon energy and produce light-bending and time-delays acting on the X-ray signal received by an observer. We assume that the life-time and the intrinsic emissivity of individual.aring events are described in terms of a simple stochastic process. This allows us to give approximate analytical formulae and compare them with numerical computations. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Localized transmeningeal muscimol prevents neocortical seizures in rats and nonhuman primates: Therapeutic implications

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2009
    Nandor Ludvig
    Summary Purpose:, To determine whether muscimol delivered epidurally or into the subarachnoid space can prevent and/or terminate acetylcholine (Ach),induced focal neocortical seizures at concentrations not affecting behavior and background electroencephalography (EEG) activity. Methods:, Rats (n = 12) and squirrel monkeys (n = 3) were chronically implanted with an epidural or subarachnoid drug delivery device, respectively, over the right frontal/parietal cortex, with adjacent EEG electrodes. Recordings were performed in behaving rats and chaired monkeys. Via the implants, either a control solution (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, ACSF) or muscimol (0.25,12.5 mm) was delivered locally as a "pretreatment," followed by the similar delivery of a seizure-inducing concentration of Ach. In five additional rats, the quantities of food-pellets consumed during epidural ACSF and muscimol (2.5 mm) exposures were measured. In a last group of four rats, muscimol (0.8,2.5 mm) was delivered epidurally during the ongoing, Ach-induced EEG seizure. Results:, In contrast to ACSF pretreatments, epidural muscimol pretreatment in rats completely prevented the seizures at and above 2.5 mm. In the monkeys, subarachnoid muscimol pretreatments at 2.5 mm completely prevented the focal-seizure,inducing effect of Ach, whereas similar deliveries of ACSF did not affect the seizures. Furthermore, 2.5 mm epidural muscimol left the eating behavior of rats intact and caused only slight changes in the EEG power spectra. Finally, muscimol delivery during Ach-induced EEG seizures terminated the seizure activity within 1,3 min. Conclusions:, The results of this study suggest that muscimol is a viable candidate for the transmeningeal pharmacotherapy of intractable focal epilepsy. [source]

    Functional topography of the human nonREM sleep electroencephalogram

    Luca A. Finelli
    Abstract The sleep EEG of healthy young men was recorded during baseline and recovery sleep after 40 h of waking. To analyse the EEG topography, power spectra were computed from 27 derivations. Mean power maps of the nonREM sleep EEG were calculated for 1-Hz bins between 1.0 and 24.75 Hz. Cluster analysis revealed a topographic segregation into distinct frequency bands which were similar for baseline and recovery sleep, and corresponded closely to the traditional frequency bands. Hallmarks of the power maps were the frontal predominance in the delta and alpha band, the occipital predominance in the theta band, and the sharply delineated vertex maximum in the sigma band. The effect of sleep deprivation on EEG topography was determined by calculating the recovery/baseline ratio of the power spectra. Prolonged waking induced an increase in power in the low-frequency range (1,10.75 Hz) which was largest over the frontal region, and a decrease in power in the sigma band (13,15.75 Hz) which was most pronounced over the vertex. The topographic pattern of the recovery/baseline power ratio was similar to the power ratio between the first and second half of the baseline night. These results indicate that changes in sleep propensity are reflected by specific regional differences in EEG power. The predominant increase of low-frequency power in frontal areas may be due to a high ,recovery need' of the frontal heteromodal association areas of the cortex. [source]

    Task-related electromyographic spectral changes in the human masseter and temporalis muscles

    Mauro Farella
    The masticatory muscles differ in their fiber type composition. It can therefore be expected that their electromyographic (EMG) power spectra will differ during the performance of different bite force tasks. In the present study, surface EMG activity was picked up from the masseter and from the anterior and posterior temporalis muscles of nine adult subjects. At a bite force level as low as 25 N, the mean power frequency (MPF) values of the posterior temporalis were significantly lower than those of the masseter and anterior temporalis. The MPF values of the masseter muscles decreased with an increase of bite force magnitude, whereas the MPF values of the anterior and posterior temporalis did not change significantly. The MPF values were significantly influenced by the direction of bite force. The observed changes of MPF are possibly related to the recruitment of different fiber types, and support the concept that the masticatory muscles behave heterogeneously. [source]

    Localized spectral analysis on the sphere

    Mark A. Wieczorek
    SUMMARY It is often advantageous to investigate the relationship between two geophysical data sets in the spectral domain by calculating admittance and coherence functions. While there exist powerful Cartesian windowing techniques to estimate spatially localized (cross-)spectral properties, the inherent sphericity of planetary bodies sometimes necessitates an approach based in spherical coordinates. Direct localized spectral estimates on the sphere can be obtained by tapering, or multiplying the data by a suitable windowing function, and expanding the resultant field in spherical harmonics. The localization of a window in space and its spectral bandlimitation jointly determine the quality of the spatiospectral estimation. Two kinds of axisymmetric windows are here constructed that are ideally suited to this purpose: bandlimited functions that maximize their spatial energy within a cap of angular radius ,0, and spacelimited functions that maximize their spectral power within a spherical harmonic bandwidth L. Both concentration criteria yield an eigenvalue problem that is solved by an orthogonal family of data tapers, and the properties of these windows depend almost entirely upon the space,bandwidth product N0= (L+ 1) ,0/,. The first N0, 1 windows are near perfectly concentrated, and the best-concentrated window approaches a lower bound imposed by a spherical uncertainty principle. In order to make robust localized estimates of the admittance and coherence spectra between two fields on the sphere, we propose a method analogous to Cartesian multitaper spectral analysis that uses our optimally concentrated data tapers. We show that the expectation of localized (cross-)power spectra calculated using our data tapers is nearly unbiased for stochastic processes when the input spectrum is white and when averages are made over all possible realizations of the random variables. In physical situations, only one realization of such a process will be available, but in this case, a weighted average of the spectra obtained using multiple data tapers well approximates the expected spectrum. While developed primarily to solve problems in planetary science, our method has applications in all areas of science that investigate spatiospectral relationships between data fields defined on a sphere. [source]

    An oscillatory interference model of grid cell firing

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 9 2007
    Neil Burgess
    Abstract We expand upon our proposal that the oscillatory interference mechanism proposed for the phase precession effect in place cells underlies the grid-like firing pattern of dorsomedial entorhinal grid cells (O'Keefe and Burgess (2005) Hippocampus 15:853,866). The original one-dimensional interference model is generalized to an appropriate two-dimensional mechanism. Specifically, dendritic subunits of layer II medial entorhinal stellate cells provide multiple linear interference patterns along different directions, with their product determining the firing of the cell. Connection of appropriate speed- and direction- dependent inputs onto dendritic subunits could result from an unsupervised learning rule which maximizes postsynaptic firing (e.g. competitive learning). These inputs cause the intrinsic oscillation of subunit membrane potential to increase above theta frequency by an amount proportional to the animal's speed of running in the "preferred" direction. The phase difference between this oscillation and a somatic input at theta-frequency essentially integrates velocity so that the interference of the two oscillations reflects distance traveled in the preferred direction. The overall grid pattern is maintained in environmental location by phase reset of the grid cell by place cells receiving sensory input from the environment, and environmental boundaries in particular. We also outline possible variations on the basic model, including the generation of grid-like firing via the interaction of multiple cells rather than via multiple dendritic subunits. Predictions of the interference model are given for the frequency composition of EEG power spectra and temporal autocorrelograms of grid cell firing as functions of the speed and direction of running and the novelty of the environment. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Assessment of rainfall-runoff models based upon wavelet analysis

    Stuart N. Lane
    Abstract A basic hypothesis is proposed: given that wavelet-based analysis has been used to interpret runoff time-series, it may be extended to evaluation of rainfall-runoff model results. Conventional objective functions make certain assumptions about the data series to which they are applied (e.g. uncorrelated error, homoscedasticity). The difficulty that objective functions have in distinguishing between different realizations of the same model, or different models of the same system, is that they may have contributed in part to the occurrence of model equifinality. Of particular concern is the fact that the error present in a rainfall-runoff model may be time dependent, requiring some form of time localization in both identification of error and derivation of global objective functions. We explore the use of a complex Gaussian (order 2) wavelet to describe: (1) a measured hydrograph; (2) the same hydrograph with different simulated errors introduced; and (3) model predictions of the same hydrograph based upon a modified form of TOPMODEL. The analysis of results was based upon: (a) differences in wavelet power (the wavelet power error) between the measured hydrograph and both the simulated error and modelled hydrographs; and (b) the wavelet phase. Power difference and wavelet phase were used to develop two objective functions, RMSE(power) and RMS(phase), which were shown to distinguish between simulated errors and model predictions with similar values of the commonly adopted Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index. These objective functions suffer because they do not retain time, frequency or time-frequency localization. Consideration of wavelet power spectra and time- and frequency-integrated power spectra shows that the impacts of different types of simulated error can be seen through retention of some localization, especially in relation to when and the scale over which error was manifest. Theoretical objections to the use of wavelet analysis for this type of application are noted, especially in relation to the dependence of findings upon the wavelet chosen. However, it is argued that the benefits of localization and the qualitatively low sensitivity of wavelet power and phase to wavelet choice are sufficient to warrant further exploration of wavelet-based approaches to rainfall-runoff model evaluation. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Modelling the chloride signal at Plynlimon, Wales, using a modified dynamic TOPMODEL incorporating conservative chemical mixing (with uncertainty)

    T. Page
    Abstract The application of a modified version of dynamic TOPMODEL for two subcatchments at Plynlimon, Wales is described. Conservative chemical mixing within mobile and immobile stores has been added to the hydrological model in an attempt to simulate observed stream chloride concentrations. The model was not fully able to simulate the observed behaviour, in particular the short- to medium-term dynamics. One of the primary problems highlighted by the study was the representation of dry deposition and cloud-droplet-deposited chloride, which formed a significant part of the long-term chloride mass budget. Equifinality of parameter sets inhibited the ability to determine the effective catchment mixing volumes and coefficients or the most likely partition between occult mass inputs and chloride mass inputs determined by catchment immobile-store antecedent conditions. Some success was achieved, in as much as some aspects of the dynamic behaviour of the signal were satisfactorily simulated, although spectral analysis showed that the model could not fully reproduce the 1/f power spectra of observed stream chloride concentrations with its implications of a wide distribution of residence times for water in the catchment. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An optimal spectrum-balancing algorithm for digital subscriber lines based on particle swarm optimization

    Meiqin Tang
    Abstract This paper presents a new algorithm for optimal spectrum balancing in modern digital subscriber line (DSL) systems using particle swarm optimization (PSO). In DSL, crosstalk is one of the major performance bottlenecks, therefore various dynamic spectrum management algorithms have been proposed to reduce excess crosstalks among users by dynamically optimizing transmission power spectra. In fact, the objective function in the spectrum optimization problem is always nonconcave. PSO is a new evolution algorithm based on the movement and intelligence of swarms looking for the most fertile feeding location, which can solve discontinuous, nonconvex and nonlinear problems efficiently. The proposed algorithm optimizes the weighted rate sum. These weights allow the system operator to place differing qualities of service or importance levels on each user, which makes it possible for the system to avoid the selfish-optimum. We can show that the proposed algorithm converges to the global optimal solutions. Simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm can guarantee fast convergence within a few iterations and solve the nonconvex optimization problems efficiently. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effect of Electrical and Structural Remodeling on Spatiotemporal Organization in Acute and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation

    Spatiotemporal Organization in Atrial Fibrillation.Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) may originate from discrete sites of periodic activity. We studied the effect of structural and electrical remodeling on spatiotemporal organization in acute and persistent AF. Methods and Results: Atrial effective refractory periods (AERPs) were recorded from five different sites at baseline and after pacing in acute AF (n = 8 dogs) and persistent AF (n = 8). Four persistent AF dogs subsequently were cardioverted to sinus rhythm to allow AERP recovery. Periodicity was quantified by calculating power spectra on left atrial electrograms obtained from a 64-electrode basket catheter. Left atrial size was measured by intracardiac echocardiography and structural changes were assessed by electron microscopy. Mean AERPs decreased after pacing in acute (128 ± 16 msec to 108 ± 29 msec, P < 0.001) and persistent AF (135 ± 16 msec to 104 ± 24 msec, P < 0.0001). AERP recovery was established after 7 days of sinus rhythm. Structural changes were mild in acute AF, severe in persistent AF, and remained severe after AERP recovery. A single dominant frequency was identified in 94% of acute AF bipoles, 57% in persistent AF, and 76% after AERP recovery. Average correlation coefficient was 0.82 among acute AF bipoles, 0.63 in persistent AF, and 0.73 after AERP recovery. Conclusion: Transition from acute to persistent AF is associated with loss of spatiotemporal organization. A single dominant frequency recruits the majority of the left atrium in acute AF. Persistent AF, however, is associated with structural remodeling and dominant frequency dispersion. Recovery of refractoriness only partially restores spatiotemporal organization, indicating a major role for structural remodeling in the maintenance of persistent AF. [source]

    Paired comparisons for the evaluation of crispness of cereal flakes by untrained assessors: correlation with descriptive analysis and acoustic measurements

    Philippe Courcoux
    Abstract This study investigates the effectiveness of the paired comparison method in the evaluation of a complex sensory attribute by untrained assessors. The crispness perception of cereal flakes by a panel of 100 consumers is measured using a complete block design, and the fitting of the Bradley,Terry,Luce model leads to a ranking of the samples on a crispness intensity scale. A log,linear formulation of the Bradley model provides insight into goodness-of-fit tests and allows the effects of covariates to be incorporated in the prediction of the sensory scores. Results show a high correlation between crispness assessment by consumers and rating of texture attributes by trained assessors. Acoustic emission is shown to have a significant effect on crispness perception, and the power spectra of signals recorded during compression provide a prediction of the crispness of cereal flakes. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Task-related electromyographic spectral changes in the human jaw muscles

    The masticatory muscles differ in their fibre type composition. It can therefore be expected that their electromyographic (EMG) power spectra will differ during the performance of different bite force tasks. In the present study surface EMG activity was picked up from the masseter, and anterior and posterior temporalis muscles of nine adult subjects. Direction and magnitude of bite force were recorded using a three-component force transducer. Bite forces were exerted in five different directions: vertical, forward, backward, to the right and to the left of the subject. Non-vertical forces were kept at an angle of 15° from the vertical. Force levels of 25, 50, 100 and 200 N were exerted in each of the investigated directions. Data collected were analysed by means of a regression model for repeated measurements. It appeared that the mean power frequency (MPF) values of the posterior temporalis were significantly lower (P < 0·01) than those of the masseter and anterior temporalis. The MPF values of the masseter muscles decreased with an increase of bite force magnitude (P < 0·001) whereas the MPF values of the anterior and posterior temporalis did not change significantly (P > 0·05). The MPF values were significantly influenced by the direction of bite force (P < 0·01). The observed changes of MPF are possibly related to the recruitment of different fibre types and support the concept that the masticatory muscles behave heterogeneously. [source]

    Effects of Alcohol on Sleep and the Sleep Electroencephalogram in Healthy Young Women

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2006
    Eliza Van Reen
    Background: Although the association between sleep and alcohol has been of interest to scientists for decades, the effects of alcohol on sleep and sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) have not been extensively studied in women. Our specific aim was to determine whether sleep stage variables and/or spectral characteristics of the sleep EEG are altered by alcohol administration in women. Methods: Changes of sleep and the sleep EEG were investigated after administration of a moderate dose of alcohol (0.49 g/kg) in the hour before bedtime compared with placebo in young healthy women. After approximately 2 weeks at home on a fixed 8.5- or 9-hour stabilization sleep schedule, sleep was continuously recorded by polysomnography for 3 consecutive nights [adaptation, placebo, alcohol (mean breath alcohol concentration 0.043 g/% before bedtime)] in the laboratory in 7 women (ages 22,25, mean=23.5, SD=1 year). Sleep stages were scored according to conventional criteria. Electroencephalogram power spectra of the bipolar derivations Fz/Cz (anterior) and Pz/Oz (posterior) were calculated using a fast Fourier transform routine. Results: Only few changes in sleep and the sleep EEG were observed. Across the entire night rapid eye movement (REM) sleep decreased, while minutes of stage 4 sleep were increased in the first 2-hour interval on alcohol nights compared with placebo nights. Spectral analysis of the EEG showed increased power in the , range (9,11 Hz) during all-night non-REM (NREM) sleep in anterior derivations after alcohol compared with placebo. Differences in spectral EEG power were also present in 2-hour intervals of NREM sleep; in particular, EEG power was increased on the alcohol night for frequency bins within the , range in anterior derivations and within the , range (3,4 Hz) in posterior derivations during the initial part of the night. Conclusions: A moderate dose of alcohol just before bedtime resulted in a short-lived increase in sleep intensity. A limitation of the study, however, was that only a single dose of alcohol was used to examine the effects of alcohol on sleep. [source]

    Sleep electroencephalogram in children with a parental history of alcohol abuse/dependence

    Summary We examined the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in 9- and 10-year-old children with (PH+) and without (PH,) a parental history of alcohol abuse/dependence to determine whether sleep disturbances associated with alcohol precede the onset of alcohol use. Participants slept on a fixed sleep schedule that ensured at least a 10-h time in bed for 1 week before an adaptation and baseline night. Data were collected in a four-bed sleep research laboratory. Thirty healthy boys and girls aged 9 or 10 years were classified as either PH+ or PH, based on DSM-IV criteria applied to structured parental interviews. All-night polysomnography was performed, sleep data were scored visually in 30-s epochs, and EEG power spectra were calculated for each epoch. All-night EEG spectra were calculated for rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, and cycle-by-cycle spectra were calculated for NREM sleep. The two groups did not differ on any sleep stage variable. All-night analyses revealed normalized power in the delta band and spindle range were lower in PH+ children. Within NREM sleep cycles PH+ children exhibited less normalized power in the delta band and spindle range compared with PH, children. This effect occurred in the first four cycles and was most pronounced in the first sleep cycle of the night. We found no signs of sleep disruption in sleep stages for PH+ children. Sleep EEG spectral differences, however, suggest that certain circuits responsible for ,protecting' sleep may be impaired in PH+ children, which may lead to disrupted sleep later in life. [source]

    Rapid tryptophan depletion reverses phenelzine-induced suppression of REM sleep

    Hans-Peter Landolt
    SUMMARY Treatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine completely suppressed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in five depressed patients. Hypothesizing that increased serotonergic neurotransmission eliminated REM sleep, we administered a tryptophan-free amino acid drink (TFD) known to reduce plasma tryptophan and brain levels of serotonin. The TFD reversed the REM sleep suppression, while the control drink (TFD plus tryptophan) had virtually no effect on sleep. Neither TFD nor control drink affected mood, total sleep time, sleep efficiency or the all-night electroencephalogram power spectra in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. We report the first non-disruptive, double-blind method for studying human subjects overnight with and without REM sleep. It opens up a novel strategy for investigating the functions of REM sleep, and the roles of serotonin and REM sleep in the regulation of NREM sleep and mood. [source]

    Identification of New Zealand bats (Chalinolobus tuberculatus and Mystacina tuberculata) in flight from analysis of echolocation calls by artificial neural networks

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    Stuart Parsons
    Abstract Time-expanded and heterodyned echolocation calls of the New Zealand long-tailed Chalinolobus tuberculatus and lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata were recorded and digitally analysed. Temporal and spectral parameters were measured from time-expanded calls and power spectra generated for both time-expanded and heterodyned calls. Artificial neural networks were trained to classify the calls of both species using temporal and spectral parameters and power spectra as input data. Networks were then tested using data not previously seen. Calls could be unambiguously identified using parameters and power spectra from time-expanded calls. A neural network, trained and tested using power spectra of calls from both species recorded using a heterodyne detector set to 40 kHz (the frequency with the most energy of the fundamental of C. tuberculatus call), could identify 99% and 84% of calls of C. tuberculatus and M. tuberculata, respectively. A second network, trained and tested using power spectra of calls from both species recorded using a heterodyne detector set to 27 kHz (the frequency with the most energy of the fundamental of M. tuberculata call), could identify 34% and 100% of calls of C. tuberculatus and M. tuberculata, respectively. This study represents the first use of neural networks for the identification of bats from their echolocation calls. It is also the first study to use power spectra of time-expanded and heterodyned calls for identification of chiropteran species. The ability of neural networks to identify bats from their echolocation calls is discussed, as is the ecology of both species in relation to the design of their echolocation calls. [source]

    Generating dark matter halo merger trees

    Hannah Parkinson
    ABSTRACT We present a new Monte Carlo algorithm to generate merger trees describing the formation history of dark matter haloes. The algorithm is a modification of the algorithm of Cole et al. used in the galform semi-analytic galaxy formation model. As such, it is based on the Extended Press,Schechter theory and so should be applicable to hierarchical models with a wide range of power spectra and cosmological models. It is tuned to be in accurate agreement with the conditional mass functions found in the analysis of merger trees extracted from the , cold dark matter Millennium N -body simulation. We present a comparison of its predictions not only with these conditional mass functions, but also with additional statistics of the Millennium Simulation halo merger histories. In all cases, we find it to be in good agreement with the Millennium Simulation and thus it should prove to be a very useful tool for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation and for modelling hierarchical structure formation in general. We have made our merger tree generation code and code to navigate the trees available at http://star-www.dur.ac.uk/~cole/merger_trees. [source]

    Galaxy redshift surveys selected by neutral hydrogen using the Five-hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope

    Alan R. Duffy
    ABSTRACT We discuss the possibility of performing a substantial spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey selected via the 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen using the Five-hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) to be built in China. We consider issues related to the estimation of the source counts and optimizations of the survey, and discuss the constraints on cosmological models that such a survey could provide. We find that a survey taking around two years could detect ,107 galaxies with an average redshift of ,0.15 making the survey complementary to those already carried out at optical wavelengths. These conservative estimates have used the z= 0 H i mass function and have ignored the possibility of evolution. The results could be used to constrain ,=,mh to 5 per cent and the spectral index, ns, to 7 per cent independent of cosmic microwave background data. If we also use simulated power spectra from the Planck satellite, we can constrain w to be within 5 per cent of ,1. [source]

    Cosmological hydrogen recombination: populations of the high-level substates

    J. Chluba
    ABSTRACT We present results for the spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) arising due to bound,bound transitions during the epoch of cosmological hydrogen recombination at frequencies down to ,,100 MHz. We extend our previous treatment of the recombination problem now including the main collisional processes and following the evolution of all the hydrogen angular momentum substates for up to 100 shells. We show that, due to the low baryon density of the Universe, even within the highest considered shell full statistical equilibrium (SE) is not reached and that at low frequencies the recombination spectrum is significantly different when assuming full SE for n > 2. We also directly compare our results for the ionization history to the output of the recfast code, showing that especially at low redshifts rather big differences arise. In the vicinity of the Thomson visibility function the electron fraction differs by roughly ,0.6 per cent which affects the temperature and polarization power spectra by , 1 per cent. Furthermore, we shortly discuss the influence of free,free absorption and line broadening due to electron scattering on the bound,bound recombination spectrum and the generation of CMB angular fluctuations due to scattering of photons within the high shells. [source]

    Variability in red supergiant stars: pulsations, long secondary periods and convection noise

    L. L. Kiss
    ABSTRACT We study the brightness variations of galactic red supergiant stars using long-term visual light curves collected by the American Association of Variable Star Observers over the last century. The full sample contains 48 red semiregular or irregular variable stars, with a mean time-span of observations of 61 yr. We determine periods and period variability from analyses of power density spectra and time,frequency distributions. We find two significant periods in 18 stars. Most of these periods fall into two distinct groups, ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand days. Theoretical models imply fundamental, first and possibly second overtone mode pulsations for the shorter periods. Periods greater than 1000 d form a parallel period,luminosity relation that is similar to the long secondary periods of the asymptotic giant branch stars. A number of individual power spectra shows a single mode resolved into multiple peaks under a Lorentzian envelope, which we interpret as evidence for stochastic oscillations, presumably caused by the interplay of convection and pulsations. We find a strong 1/f noise component in the power spectra that is remarkably similar in almost all stars of the sample. This behaviour fits the picture of irregular photometric variability caused by large convection cells, analogous to the granulation background seen in the Sun. [source]

    Supermassive black hole merger rates: uncertainties from halo merger theory

    Adrienne L. Erickcek
    ABSTRACT The merger of two supermassive black holes is expected to produce a gravitational-wave signal detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna(LISA). The rate of supermassive-black-hole mergers is intimately connected to the halo merger rate, and the extended Press-Schechter (EPS) formalism is often employed when calculating the rate at which these events will be observed by LISA. This merger theory is flawed and provides two rates for the merging of the same pair of haloes. We show that the two predictions for the LISA supermassive-black-hole-merger event rate from EPS merger theory are nearly equal because mergers between haloes of similar masses dominate the event rate. An alternative merger rate may be obtained by inverting the Smoluchowski coagulation equation to find the merger rate that preserves the Press,Schechter halo abundance, but these rates are only available for power-law power spectra. We compare the LISA event rates derived from the EPS merger formalism to those derived from the merger rates obtained from the coagulation equation and find that the EPS LISA event rates are 30 per cent higher for a power spectrum spectral index that approximates the full , cold dark matter result of the EPS theory. [source]

    A very extended reionization epoch?

    A. Melchiorri
    ABSTRACT The recent observations of cross temperature,polarization power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) made by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite are in better agreement with a high value of the Thomson scattering optical depth ,, 0.17. This value is close to ,= 0.3, which is taken as the upper limit in the parameter extraction analysis made by the WMAP team. However, models with ,, 0.3 provide a good fit to current CMB data and are not significantly excluded when combined with large-scale structure data. By making use of a self-consistent reionization model, we verify the astrophysical feasibility of models with ,, 0.3. It turns out that current data on various observations related to the thermal and ionization history of the intergalactic medium are not able to rule out ,, 0.3. The possibility of a very extended reionization epoch can significantly undermine the WMAP constraints on crucial cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant, the spectral index of primordial fluctuations and the amplitude of dark matter clustering. [source]

    GRS 1915+105: the distance, radiative processes and energy-dependent variability

    Andrzej A. Zdziarski
    ABSTRACT We present an exhaustive analysis of five broad-band observations of GRS 1915+105 in two variability states, , and ,, observed simultaneously by the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) and High-Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) detectors aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, and the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory. We find all the spectra well fitted by Comptonization of disc blackbody photons, with very strong evidence for the presence of a non-thermal electron component in the Comptonizing plasma. Both the energy and the power spectra in the , state are typical of the very high/intermediate state of black hole binaries. The spectrum of the , state is characterized by a strong blackbody component Comptonized by thermal electrons and a weak non-thermal tail. We then calculate rms spectra (fractional variability as functions of energy) for the PCA data. We accurately model the rms spectra by coherent superposition of variability in the components implied by the spectral fits, namely a less variable blackbody and more variable Comptonization. The latter dominates at high energies, resulting in a flattening of the rms at high energies in most of the data. This is also the case for the spectra of the quasi-periodic oscillations present in the , state. Then, some of our data require a radial dependence of the rms of the disc blackbody. We also study the distance to the source, and find d, 11 kpc as the most likely value, contrary to a recent claim of a much lower value. [source]

    The three-dimensional power spectrum of dark and luminous matter from the VIRMOS-DESCART cosmic shear survey

    Ue-Li Pen
    ABSTRACT We present the first optimal power spectrum estimation and three-dimensional deprojections for the dark and luminous matter and their cross-correlations. The results are obtained using a new optimal fast estimator, deprojected using minimum variance and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) techniques. We show the resulting 3D power spectra for dark matter and galaxies, and their covariance for the VIRMOS-DESCART weak lensing shear and galaxy data. The survey is most sensitive to non-linear scales kNL, 1 h Mpc,1. On these scales, our 3D power spectrum of dark matter is in good agreement with the RCS 3D power spectrum found by Tegmark & Zaldarriaga. Our galaxy power is similar to that found by the 2MASS survey, and larger than that of SDSS, APM and RCS, consistent with the expected difference in galaxy population. We find an average bias b= 1.24 ± 0.18 for the I -selected galaxies, and a cross-correlation coefficient r= 0.75 ± 0.23. Together with the power spectra, these results optimally encode the entire two point information about dark matter and galaxies, including galaxy,galaxy lensing. We address some of the implications regarding galaxy haloes and mass-to-light ratios. The best-fitting ,halo' parameter h,r/b= 0.57 ± 0.16, suggesting that dynamical masses estimated using galaxies systematically underestimate total mass. Ongoing surveys, such as the Canada,France,Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, will significantly improve on the dynamic range, and future photometric redshift catalogues will allow tomography along the same principles. [source]

    Changes in convective properties over the solar cycle: effect on p-mode damping rates

    G. Houdek
    Measurements of both solar irradiance and p-mode oscillation frequencies indicate that the structure of the Sun changes with the solar cycle. Balmforth, Gough & Merryfield investigated the effect of symmetrical thermal disturbances on the solar structure and the resulting pulsation frequency changes. They concluded that thermal perturbations alone cannot account for the variations in both irradiance and p-mode frequencies, and that the presence of a magnetic field affecting acoustical propagation is the most likely explanation of the frequency change, in the manner suggested earlier by Gough & Thompson and by Goldreich et al. Numerical simulations of Boussinesq convection in a magnetic field have shown that at high Rayleigh number the magnetic field can modify the preferred horizontal length scale of the convective flow. Here, we investigate the effect of changing the horizontal length scale of convective eddies on the linewidths of the acoustic resonant mode peaks observed in helioseismic power spectra. The turbulent fluxes in these model computations are obtained from a time-dependent, non-local generalization of the mixing-length formalism. The modelled variations are compared with p-mode linewidth changes revealed by the analysis of helioseismic data collected by the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON); these low-degree (low- l) observations cover the complete falling phase of solar activity cycle 22. The results are also discussed in the light of observations of solar-cycle variations of the horizontal size of granules and with results from 2D simulations by Steffen of convective granules. [source]

    Cosmic momentum field and mass fluctuation power spectrum

    Changbom Park
    We introduce the cosmic momentum field as a new measure of the large-scale peculiar velocity and matter fluctuation fields. The momentum field is defined as the peculiar velocity field traced and weighted by galaxies, and is equal to the velocity field in the linear regime. We show that the radial component of the momentum field can be considered as a scalar field with the power spectrum which is practically one-third of that of the total momentum field. We present a formula for the power spectrum directly calculable from the observed radial peculiar velocity data. The momentum power spectrum is measured for the MAT sample in the Mark III catalogue of peculiar velocities of galaxies. Using the momentum power spectrum we find the amplitude of the matter power spectrum is and at the wavenumbers 0.049 and 0.074 h Mpc,1, respectively, where , is the density parameter. The 68 per cent confidence limits include the cosmic variance. The measured momentum and density power spectra together indicate that the parameter or where bO is the bias factor for optical galaxies. [source]

    Scaling laws in gravitational clustering for counts-in-cells and mass functions

    P. Valageas
    We present an analysis of some of the properties of the density field realized in numerical simulations for power-law initial power spectra in the case of a critical density universe. We study the non-linear regime, which is the most difficult to handle analytically, and we compare our numerical results with the predictions of a specific hierarchical clustering scaling model that have been made recently, focusing specifically on its much wider range of applicability, which is one of its main advantages over the standard Press,Schechter approximation. We first check that the two-point correlation functions, measured from both counts-in-cells and neighbour counts, agree with the known analytically exact scaling requirement (i.e., depend only on ,2), and we also find the stable-clustering hypothesis to hold. Next, we show that the statistics of the counts-in-cells obey the scaling law predicted by the above scaling model. Then we turn to mass functions of overdense and underdense regions, which we obtain numerically from ,spherical overdensity' and ,friends-of-friends' algorithms. We first consider the mass function of ,just-collapsed' objects defined by a density threshold ,=177, and we note, as was found by previous studies, that the usual Press,Schechter prescription agrees reasonably well with the simulations (although there are some discrepancies). On the other hand, the numerical results are also consistent with the predictions of the scaling model. Next, we consider more general mass functions (needed to describe for instance galaxies or Lyman- , absorbers) defined by different density thresholds, which can even be negative. The scaling model is especially suited to account for such cases, which are out of reach of the Press,Schechter approach, and it still shows reasonably good agreement with the numerical results. Finally, we show that mass functions defined by a condition on the radius of the objects also satisfy the theoretical scaling predictions. Thus we find that the scaling model provides a reasonable description of the density field in the highly non-linear regime, for the cosmologies we have considered, for both the counts-in-cells statistics and the mass functions. The advantages of this approach are that it clarifies the links between several statistical tools and it allows one to study many different classes of objects, for any density threshold, provided one is in the fully non-linear regime. [source]

    Polarized diffuse emission at 2.3 GHz in a high Galactic latitude area

    E. Carretti
    ABSTRACT Polarized diffuse emission observations at 2.3 GHz in a high Galactic latitude area are presented. The 2°× 2° field, centred at (,= 5h, ,=,49°), is located in the region observed by the BOOMERanG experiment. Our observations were carried out with the Parkes radio telescope, and represent the highest frequency detection to date in a low-emission area. Because of the weaker Faraday rotation effect, the high frequency allows an estimate of the Galactic synchrotron contamination of the cosmic microwave background polarization (CMBP) which is more reliable than that achieved at 1.4 GHz. We find that the angular power spectra of the E - and B -modes have slopes of ,E=,1.46 ± 0.14 and ,B=,1.87 ± 0.22, indicating a flattening with respect to 1.4 GHz. Extrapolated up to 32 GHz, the E -mode spectrum is about three orders of magnitude lower than that of the CMBP, allowing a clean detection even at this frequency. The best improvement concerns the B -mode, for which our single-dish observations provide the first estimate of the contamination on angular scales close to the CMBP peak (about 2°). We find that the CMBP B -mode should be stronger than the synchrotron contamination at 90 GHz for models with tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio T/S > 0.01. This low level could move down to 60,70 GHz the optimal window for CMBP measurements. [source]

    Constraints on jet X-ray emission in low/hard-state X-ray binaries

    Thomas J. Maccarone
    ABSTRACT We show that the similarities between the X-ray properties of low-luminosity accreting black holes and accreting neutron stars, combined with the differences in their radio properties, argue that the X-rays from these systems are unlikely to be formed in the relativistic jets. Specifically, the spectra of extreme island-state neutron stars and low/hard-state black holes are known to be quite similar, while the power spectra from these systems are known to show only minor differences beyond what would be expected from scaling the characteristic variability frequencies by the mass of the compact object. The spectral and temporal similarities thus imply a common emission mechanism that has only minor deviations from having all key parameters scaling linearly with the mass of the compact object, while we show that this is inconsistent with the observations that the radio powers of neutron stars are typically about 30 times lower than those of black holes at the same X-ray luminosity. We also show that an abrupt luminosity change would be expected when a system makes a spectral state transition from a radiatively inefficient jet-dominated accretion flow to a thin disc-dominated flow, but that such a change is not seen. [source]

    The contribution of accommodation and the ocular surface to the microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye

    Mingxia Zhu
    Abstract We have used videokeratoscopy and wavefront sensing to investigate the contribution of the ocular surface and the effect of stimulus vergence on the microfluctuations of the wavefront aberrations of the eye. The fluctuations of the wavefront aberrations were quantified by their variations around the mean and by using power spectrum analysis. Integrated power was determined in two regions: 0.1,0.7 Hz (low frequencies) and 0.8,1.8 Hz (high frequencies). Changes in the ocular surface topography were measured using high-speed videokeratoscopy and variations in the ocular wavefront aberrations were measured with a wavefront sensor. The microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the ocular surface were found to be considerably smaller than the microfluctuations of the wavefront aberrations of the total eye. The fluctuations in defocus while viewing a closer target at 2 or 4 D were found to be significantly greater than fluctuations in defocus when viewing a far target. This increase in defocus fluctuations (p , 0.001) occurred in both the low- and high-frequency regions of the power spectra. [source]