Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (posttraumatic + stress_disorder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  • chronic posttraumatic stress disorder

  • Selected Abstracts

    Greater Prevalence and Incidence of Dementia in Older Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    [See editorial comments by Dr. Soo Borson, pp 1797-1798]
    OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dementia in older veterans. DESIGN: Administrative database study of individuals seen within one regional division of the Veterans Affairs healthcare network. SETTING: Veterans Integrated Service Network 16. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans aged 65 and older who had a diagnosis of PTSD or who were recipients of a Purple Heart (PH) and a comparison group of the same age with no PTSD diagnosis or PH were divided into four groups: those with PTSD and no PH (PTSD+/PH,, n=3,660), those with PH and no PTSD (PTSD,/PH+, n=1,503), those with PTSD and a PH (PTSD+/PH+, n=153), and those without PTSD or a PH (PTSD,/PH,, n=5,165). MEASUREMENTS: Incidence and prevalence of dementia after controlling for confounding factors in multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The PTSD+/PH, group had a significantly higher incidence and prevalence of dementia than the groups without PTSD with or without a PH. The prevalence and incidence of a dementia diagnosis remained two times as high in the PTSD+/PH, group as in the PTSD,/PH+ or PTSD,/PH, group after adjusting for the confounding factors. There were no statistically significant differences between the other groups. CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence of dementia is greater in veterans with PTSD. It is unclear whether this is due to a common risk factor underlying PTSD and dementia or to PTSD being a risk factor for dementia. Regardless, this study suggests that veterans with PTSD should be screened more closely for dementia. Because PTSD is so common in veterans, this association has important implications for veteran care. [source]

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Dementia: A Lifelong Cost of War?

    Soo Borson MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Preliminary evidence of efficacy for EMDR resource development and installation in the stabilization phase of treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder

    Deborah L. Korn
    This article reviews the complexity of adaptation and symptomatology in adult survivors of childhood neglect and abuse who meet criteria for the proposed diagnosis of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD), also known as Disorders of Extreme Stress, Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS). A specific EMDR protocol, Resource Development and Installation (RDI), is proposed as an effective intervention in the initial stabilization phase of treatment with Complex PTSD/DESNOS. Descriptive psychometric and behavioral outcome measures from two single case studies are presented which appear to support the use of RDI. Suggestions are offered for future treatment outcome research with this challenging population. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 58: 1465,1487, 2002. [source]

    Perceptions of psychological first aid among providers responding to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike,

    Brian Allen
    Psychological First Aid (PFA), developed by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and the Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, has been widely disseminated both nationally and internationally, and adopted and used by a number of disaster response organizations and agencies after major catastrophic events across the United States. This study represents a first examination of the perceptions of providers who utilized PFA in response to a disaster. Study participants included 50 individuals who utilized PFA in their response to Hurricane Gustav or Ike. Findings indicated that participation in PFA training was perceived to increase confidence in working with adults and children. PFA was not seen as harmful to survivors, and was perceived as an appropriate intervention for responding in the aftermath of hurricanes. [source]

    PTSD symptoms, substance use, and vipassana meditation among incarcerated individuals

    T. L. Simpson
    The present study evaluated whether Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptom severity was associated with participation and treatment outcomes comparing a Vipassana meditation course to treatment as usual in an incarcerated sample. This study utilizes secondary data. The original study demonstrated that Vipassana meditation is associated with reductions in substance use. The present study found that PTSD symptom severity did not differ significantly between those who did and did not volunteer to take the course. Participation in the Vipassana course was associated with significantly greater reductions in substance use than treatment as usual, regardless of PTSD symptom severity levels. These results suggest that Vipassana meditation is worthy of further study for those with comorbid PTSD and substance use problems. [source]

    Use of mental health treatment among veterans filing claims for posttraumatic stress disorder

    Nina A. Sayer
    This study examines predictors of current mental health service use in a sample of 154 veterans filing claims for Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits based on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Our conceptual framework was the behavioral model that classifies predictors of service utilization into predisposing (background), enabling (e.g., insurance) and need (e.g., symptoms) factors. Slightly more than half of the PTSD claimants were receiving mental health treatment at the time of claim initiation. Mean symptom levels were clinically significant in both users and nonusers of mental health treatment. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, mental health treatment use was associated with younger age, marriage, and dependence on public insurance. Implications for future research are discussed. [source]

    The relationship among personality variables, exposure to traumatic events, and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms,

    Dean Lauterbach
    Abstract In examining predictors of posttraumatic stress, researchers have focused on trauma intensity and devoted less attention to other variables. This study examined how personality and demographic variables are related to the likelihood of experiencing a trauma, and to the severity of posttraumatic symptoms in a sample of 402 college students reporting a wide range of trauma. Elevations in antisocial and borderline traits were significant predictors of retraumatization, accounting for 12% of the variance. Personality variables and trauma intensity were significant predictors of PTSD severity, accounting for 43% of the variance. Neuroticism interacted with trauma intensity in predicting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) severity. Among persons low in Neuroticism, there was a modest trauma intensity,PTSD relationship, whereas among persons high in neuroticism there was a strong relationship. [source]

    Coping with technological disaster: An application of the conservation of resources model to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Catalina M. Arata
    Abstract One hundred twenty-five commercial fishers in Cordova, Alaska, completed a mailed survey regarding current mental health functioning 6 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Economic and social impacts of the oil spill and coping and psychological functioning (modified Coping Strategies Scales, Symptom Checklist 90-R) were measured. Multiple regression was used to test the utility of the Conservation of Resources stress model for explaining observed psychological symptoms. Current symptoms of depression, anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were associated with conditions resource loss and avoidant coping strategies. The Conservation of Resources model provided a framework for explaining psychological impacts of the oil spill. Future research is needed to identify factors related to recovery. [source]

    Community Violence and Urban Families: Experiences, Effects, and Directions for Intervention

    Karyn Horowitz MD
    The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of community-level stressors (particularly violence), coping strategies, and resources to prevent exposure to violence or to mitigate its effects in an inner-city community. Parents and children participated in focus groups, and children also completed standardized instruments. In the focus groups, parents and children identified several areas of concern related to "helpers," schools, community safety, and emotional distress. They identified protective resources including intensive monitoring and social supports. Fifty percent of the children met criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and another 21% met criteria for partial PTSD. The mental health issues in children living with ongoing community violence necessitate that researchers use a qualitative approach to inform future interventions. [source]

    Cumulative Adversity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence From a Diverse Community Sample of Young Adults

    Donald A. Lloyd PhD
    The authors hypothesized that a history of adversities, whether they were objectively traumatic or not, predicts risk for 1st onset of PTSD. Survival analysis in a community sample of 1,803 young adults revealed that risk is associated with retrospectively reported adverse experiences that occurred in years prior to the focal traumatic event. Analyses control for clustering of events proximal to onset. Implications for etiology and preventive intervention are noted. [source]

    Attachment Style Classification and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Former Prisoners of War

    Michael Dieperink M.D., Ph.D.
    Adult attachment style and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology were investigated in 107 former prisoner of war veterans. Those with secure attachment styles scored significantly lower on measures of PTSD than did those with insecure styles, and attachment style was a stronger predictor of PTSD symptom intensity than was trauma severity. The suggested association between attachment style and PTSD's development and persistence are discussed in relation to research and clinical practice. [source]

    Symptom Severity, Alcohol Craving, and Age of Trauma Onset in Childhood and Adolescent Trauma Survivors with Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Julie A. Schumacher PhD
    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) are frequently comorbid disorders. Given evidence that childhood traumas may be associated with broader, more severe psychological sequelae than later traumas, the present study examined whether the association between alcohol and trauma symptomatology is more pronounced among individuals with earlier trauma onsets in a sample of 42 childhood and adolescent trauma survivors diagnosed with comorbid AD-PTSD. As predicted, individuals reporting childhood traumas reported greater severity of trauma and alcohol symptoms and greater alcohol craving. These results suggest that individuals with childhood trauma histories may be particularly vulnerable to relapse following AD treatment. [source]

    Integrating Tobacco Cessation Treatment into Mental Health Care for Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Miles McFall PhD
    The integration of tobacco cessation treatment into mental health care for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), known as Integrated Care (IC), was evaluated in an uncontrolled feasibility and effectiveness study. Veterans (N = 107) in PTSD treatment at two outpatient clinics received IC delivered by mental health practitioners. Outcomes were seven-day point prevalence abstinence measured at two, four, six, and nine months post-enrollment and repeated seven-day point prevalence abstinence (RPPA) obtained across three consecutive assessment intervals (four, six, and nine months). Abstinence rates at the four assessment intervals were 28%, 23%, 25%, and 18%, respectively, and RPPA was 15%. The number of IC sessions and a previous quit history greater than six months predicted RPPA. Stopping smoking was not associated with worsening PTSD or depression. [source]

    Individual differences in psychophysiological reactivity in adults with childhood abuse

    Christian G. Schmahl
    Little is known about the neurobiological correlates of stress-related disorders. In particular almost nothing is known about biological correlates of specific personality disorders that have been linked to stress. We measured heart rate and blood pressure reactivity in response to personalized traumatic scripts together with subjective psychological ratings in four women with a history of childhood abuse with no disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Histrionic Personality Disorder. Psychophysiology as well as subjective ratings differed markedly between the four women, with elevated reactions found in PTSD and histrionic personality, and extreme decline in physiological reactivity associated with a dissociative response in the borderline patient. It is concluded that reactivity to traumatic reminders can be correlated with the existence of different stress-related diagnoses. Personality characteristics seem to have an influence on psychophysiological reactivity in patients with stress-related psychiatric disorders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Understanding the Psychological Impact of Terrorism on Youth: Moving Beyond Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Annette M. La GrecaArticle first published online: 23 JUL 200
    Comer and Kendall's (2007) comprehensive review of the impact of terrorism on youth organizes this important and burgeoning area of research. The present commentary focuses on youth outcomes associated with proximal contact with terrorist attacks, and highlights several important issues that merit attention. Specifically, the commentary emphasizes the importance of examining youths' postattack outcomes broadly (in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptoms), assessing traumatic grief and bereavement when mass casualties occur, and evaluating issues of comorbidity and functional impairment. Future research on the impact of terrorism on youth would benefit from adopting a developmental psychopathology perspective in understanding variables that may influence and be influenced by youths' reactions to terrorist events. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed. [source]

    Understanding and Treating Complicated Grief: What Can We Learn from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?

    Anke Ehlers
    The article outlines possible parallels between the phenomenology and treatment of complicated grief (CG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In particular, it explores how treatment procedures used in Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (Ehlers & Clark, 2000) may be adapted for the treatment of CG. Stimulus Discrimination may be helpful in breaking the link between everyday triggers and "felt presence" memories of the deceased. Memory Updating procedures may help the patient accept that the deceased is no longer alive and no longer suffering. Reclaiming your Life procedures may help the patient access autobiographical memories that are not linked to the deceased and counteract beliefs about the value of life without the deceased. The article further addresses the necessity of specifying the idiosyncratic beliefs that prevent coming to terms with the death, of understanding the relationship between beliefs and coping strategies, and of distinguishing memories from rumination. [source]

    The Use of a Synthetic Cannabinoid in the Management of Treatment-Resistant Nightmares in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    George A. Fraser
    This is the report of an open label clinical trial to evaluate the effects of nabilone, an endocannabinoid receptor agonist, on treatment-resistant nightmares in patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: Charts of 47 patients diagnosed with PTSD and having continuing nightmares in spite of conventional antidepressants and hypnotics were reviewed after adjunctive treatment with nabilone was initiated. These patients had been referred to a psychiatric specialist outpatient clinic between 2004 and 2006. The majority of patients (72%) receiving nabilone experienced either cessation of nightmares or a significant reduction in nightmare intensity. Subjective improvement in sleep time, the quality of sleep, and the reduction of daytime flashbacks and nightsweats were also noted by some patients. The results of this study indicate the potential benefits of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in patients with PTSD experiencing poor control of nightmares with standard pharmacotherapy. This is the first report of the use of nabilone (Cesamet; Valeant Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Canada) for the management of treatment-resistant nightmares in PTSD. [source]

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and the structure of common mental disorders

    Brian J. Cox Ph.D.
    Abstract Krueger [1999: Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:921,926] identified a three-factor structure of psychopathology that explained the covariation or grouping of common mental disorders found in the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) [Kessler et al., 1994: Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:8,19]. These three fundamental groupings included an externalizing disorders factor and two internalizing disorders factors (anxious-misery and fear). We extended this research through the examination of additional data from a large subsample of the NCS (n=5,877) that contained diagnostic information on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Factor analytic findings revealed that PTSD showed no affinity with the fear factor defined by panic and phobic disorders, and instead loaded on the anxious-misery factor defined primarily by mood disorders. An identical pattern of results emerged for both lifetime PTSD and 12-month PTSD prevalence figures. Implications of these findings for the classification of PTSD and research on its etiology are briefly discussed. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Posttraumatic stress disorder as a risk factor for obesity among male military veterans

    W. V. R. Vieweg
    Objective:, Obesity is a significant public health problem in the United States, particularly among military veterans with multiple risk factors. Heretofore, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not clearly been identified as a risk factor for this condition. Method:, We accessed both a national and local database of PTSD veterans. Results:, Body mass index (BMI) was greater (P < 0.0001) among male military veterans (n = 1819) with PTSD (29.28 6.09 kg/m2) than those veterans (n = 44 959) without PTSD (27.61 5.99 kg/m2) in a sample of randomly selected veterans from the national database. In the local database of male military veterans with PTSD, mean BMI was in the obese range (30.00 5.65) and did not vary by decade of life (P = 0.242). Conclusion:, Posttraumatic stress disorder may be a risk factor for overweight and obesity among male military veterans. [source]

    Impact of PTSD comorbidity on one-year outcomes in a depression trial

    Bonnie L. Green
    Low-income African American, Latino, and White women were screened and recruited for a depression treatment trial in social service and family planning settings. Those meeting full criteria for major depression (MDD; N = 267) were randomized to cognitive,behavior therapy (CBT), antidepressant medication, or community mental health referral. All randomly assigned participants were evaluated by baseline telephone and clinical interview, and followed by telephone for one year. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comorbidity was assessed at baseline and one-year follow-up in a clinical interview. At baseline, 33% of the depressed women had current comorbid PTSD. These participants had more exposure to assaultive violence, had higher levels of depression and anxiety, and were more functionally impaired than women with depression alone. Depression in both groups improved over the course of one year, but the PTSD subgroup remained more impaired throughout the one-year follow-up period. Thus, evidence-based treatments (antidepressant medication or structured psychotherapy) decrease depression regardless of PTSD comorbidity, but women with PTSD were more distressed and impaired throughout. Including direct treatment of PTSD associated with interpersonal violence may be more effective in alleviating depression in those with both diagnoses. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 62: 815,835, 2006. [source]

    Detection of Malingered PTSD: An Overview of Clinical, Psychometric, and Physiological Assessment: Where Do We Stand?

    Ryan C. W. Hall M.D.
    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition that can be easily malingered for secondary gain. For this reason, it is important for physicians to understand the phenomenology of true PTSD and indicators that suggest an individual is malingering. This paper reviews the prevalence of PTSD for both the general population and for specific events, such as rape and terrorism, to familiarize evaluators with the frequency of its occurrence. The diagnostic criteria for PTSD, as well as potential ambiguities in the criteria, such as what constitutes an exposure to a traumatic event, are reviewed. Identified risk factors are reviewed as a potential way to help differentiate true cases of PTSD from malingered cases. The question of symptom overreporting as a feature of the disease versus a sign of malingering is discussed. We then examine how the clinician can use the clinical interview (e.g., SIRS, CAPS), psychometric testing, and the patient's physiological responses to detect malingering. Particular attention is paid to research on the MMPI and the subscales of infrequency (F), infrequency-psychopathology (Fp), and infrequency-posttraumatic stress disorder (Fptsd). Research and questions regarding the accuracy of self-report questionnaires, specifically the Mississippi Scale (MSS) and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), are examined. Validity, usability, and cutoff values for other psychometric tests, checklists, and physiological tests are discussed. The review includes a case, which shows how an individual used symptom checklist information to malinger PTSD and the inconsistencies in his story that the evaluator detected. We conclude with a discussion regarding future diagnostic criteria and suggestions for research, including a systematic multifaceted approach to identify malingering. [source]

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and the perceived consequences of seeking therapy among U.S. Army special forces operators exposed to combat

    Jessica M. Espinoza Psy.D.
    The goal of this study was to ascertain the level of PTSD symptoms experienced by Special Forces Operators (SFOs) who have been exposed to combat and compare these rates to the PTSD rates of the general U.S. population and general military population. A secondary goal was to discover whether SFOs were aware that therapy was available to them through the U.S. Army and, if so, whether they would seek this therapy for PTSD. The last goal was to discover whether SFOs who chose not to seek therapy while still serving did so because they feared negative consequences. Data were collected from 68 SFOs who had been exposed to combat. Results indicated that SFOs are experiencing symptoms of PTSD at a rate that is higher than that of the general U.S. population and somewhat lower than that of the general military population. Also, results indicated that a large percentage of the sample would not seek treatment for PTSD due to perceived negative consequences. [source]

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and community violence: An update for nurse practitioners

    MSN Staff Nurse, Sarah J. Blizzard RN
    Abstract Purpose: An update on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and community violence for nurse practitioners (NPs) and other healthcare providers is required. Data Sources: A review of current literature on PTSD related to community violence is presented as well as an overview of PTSD disorders. Conclusions: Violence takes place in our communities and in our larger social world every day. In the face of increasing disasters and violent events, there is growing concern over the overall impact of violence on mental health. PTSD, a type of anxiety disorder, may develop as a result of exposure to these events. Implications for Practice: NPs have an important role to play in recognizing and treating PTSD symptoms in persons following exposure to a severe psychological trauma. [source]

    Physiologic reactivity to startling tones in female vietnam nurse veterans with PTSD

    Margaret A. Carson
    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with larger heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and eyeblink responses to sudden, loud tones. The present study tested this association in female nurse veterans with PTSD related to witnessing patients' death, severe injury and/or suffering during their Vietnam service. Nurses with current, past but not current, or who never had PTSD listened to 15 consecutive 95-dB, 500-ms, 1000-Hz tones with sudden onsets, while HR, SC, and eyeblink responses were measured. Nurses with current PTSD produced significantly larger averaged HR, but not SC or eyeblink responses across tone trials. A larger HR response to loud tones is one of the most robust physiologic findings in PTSD and may reflect increased defensive responding. [source]

    Prevalence and psychological correlates of complicated grief among bereaved adults 2.5,3.5 years after September 11th attacks

    Yuval Neria
    A Web-based survey of adults who experienced loss during the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of complicated grief (CG) 2.5,3.5 years after the attacks. Forty-three percent of a study group of 704 bereaved adults across the United States screened positive for CG. In multivariate analyses, CG was associated with female gender, loss of a child, death of deceased at the World Trade Center, and live exposure to coverage of the attacks on television. Posttraumatic stress disorder, major depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and increase in post-9/11 smoking were common among participants with CG. A majority of the participants with CG reported receiving grief counseling and psychiatric medication after 9/11. Clinical and policy implications are discussed. [source]

    Co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder with positive psychotic symptoms in a nationally representative sample

    Jitender Sareen
    The association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and positive psychotic symptoms was examined in the National Comorbidity Survey (N = 5877). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to make DSM-III-R (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) diagnoses. Posttraumatic stress disorder was found to be associated with an increased likelihood of endorsing one or more psychotic symptoms after adjusting for sociodemographics, psychiatric and medical comorbidity (odds ratios (OR) = 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43,2.45; p < .001). The co-occurrence of PTSD with psychotic symptoms was marked by greater levels of severity (higher total number of PTSD symptoms, greater levels of comorbidity, and high distress) compared with PTSD alone. This is the first population-based study to investigate PTSD in relation to endorsement of positive psychotic symptoms, and a strong association was obtained. [source]

    Posttraumatic stress disorder in a general psychiatric inpatient population

    Alexander C. McFarlane
    Abstract This study examined the incidence of traumatic experiences and prevalence of lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of 141 general hospital psychiatric inpatients. Sixty-one percent of the patients reported at least one traumatic event during their lifetime and 28% met the formal DSM-III-R criteria for a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. A high degree of comorbidity between PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was found, but PTSD was the incident disorder in at least 50% of cases. The experience of trauma and its associated complex patterns of symptomatology suggest that PTSD complicates the process of recovery from another disorder. [source]

    Posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: Autonomic habituation to auditory stimuli

    Barbara Olasov Rothbaum
    Abstract Impaired capacity for physiological habituation may contribute to the persistence of PTSD. Habituation ofautonomic responses to auditory tones was examined in 43 women in three groups: 14 adult female rape survivors with chronic PTSD, 11 without PTSD, and a comparison group of 18 who had not been raped. There were no significant differences among the groups in baseline cardiac or electrodermal activity. The PTSD group showed significantly slower electrodermal habituation, as measured by trials to extinction and percentage of nonhabituators, than did the comparison groups. The present study found slower habituation of electrodermal responses for PTSD rape victims to neutral stimuli than for non-PTSD victims and nonvictims. [source]

    Effects of posttraumatic stress and acculturation on marital functioning in Bosnian refugee couples

    Jelena Spasojevi
    Abstract Forty Bosnian refugee couples living in the United States completed a translated version of the PTSD Symptom Scale,Self Report, the Behavioral Acculturation Scale, the Marital Satisfaction Inventory,Revised, and a demographic questionnaire. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology was the best predictor of marital functioning and was related negatively to acculturation. After controlling for PTSD, acculturation did not predict marital functioning. Wives' marital satisfaction was best predicted by husbands' PTSD, husbands' acculturation, and their own PTSD. Husbands' marital satisfaction was not predicted significantly by any of these variables. These findings suggest several implications for mental health professionals dealing with refugees and other traumatized populations. [source]

    A Multivariate Contextual Analysis of Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatments: Implications for an Evidence-Based Definition of Torture

    Metin Ba, lu MD
    Current thinking on what constitutes torture in a detention/interrogation setting focuses solely on particular procedures, without regard for contextual factors that mediate traumatic stress. The present study examined stressor interactions that determined severity and psychological impact of captivity stressors in 432 torture survivors in former Yugoslavia countries and Turkey. A principal components analysis of 46 captivity stressors measured by an Exposure to Torture Scale identified meaningful stressor clusters, which suggested that multiple detention procedures were used in combination to maximize their impact. Perceived torture severity related to ,cruel, inhuman, and degrading' treatments (CIDT) but not to physical torture. Posttraumatic stress disorder related to war-related captivity, deprivation of basic needs, sexual torture, and exposure to extreme temperatures, isolation, and forced stress positions but not to physical torture. CIDT increased posttraumatic stress disorder risk by 71%. Fear- and helplessness-inducing effects of captivity and CIDT appear to be the major determinants of perceived severity of torture and psychological damage in detainees. Considerations on what constitutes torture need to take into account the contextual processes in a captivity setting that mediate these effects. [source]