Population Structure (population + structure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Population Structure

  • fine-scale population structure
  • genetic population structure
  • spatial population structure
  • strong population structure

  • Terms modified by Population Structure

  • population structure analysis

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2010
    V. Vaughan Symonds
    Polyploidy is a major feature of angiosperm evolution and diversification. Most polyploid species have formed multiple times, yet we know little about the genetic consequences of recurrent formations. Among the clearest examples of recurrent polyploidy are Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus (Asteraceae), each of which has formed repeatedly in the last ,80 years from known diploid progenitors in western North America. Here, we apply progenitor-specific microsatellite markers to examine the genetic contributions to each tetraploid species and to assess gene flow among populations of independent formation. These data provide fine-scale resolution of independent origins for both polyploid species. Importantly, multiple origins have resulted in considerable genetic variation within both polyploid species; however, the patterns of variation detected in the polyploids contrast with those observed in extant populations of the diploid progenitors. The genotypes detected in the two polyploid species appear to represent a snapshot of historical population structure in the diploid progenitors, rather than modern diploid genotypes. Our data also indicate a lack of gene flow among polyploid plants of independent origin, even when they co-occur, suggesting potential reproductive barriers among separate lineages in both polyploid species. [source]

    Abundance, Population Structure and Production of Scrobicularia plana and Abra tenuis (Bivalvia: Scrobicularidae) in a Mediterranean Brackish Lagoon, Lake Ichkeul, Tunisia

    Caterina Casagranda
    Abstract Abundance, growth and production of the deposit-feeding bivalves were studied in the Ichkeul wetland, northern Tunisia, from July 1993 , April 1994. Scrobicularia plana(Da Costa, 1778) occurred at annual mean densities (biomasses) of 299 ± 65 to 400 ± 100 individuals/m2 (22.54 ± 3.00 to 34.27 ± 3.96 g ash-free dry mass (AFDM)/m2) depending on the study area. The annual mean density of Abra tenuis(Montagu, 1803) amounted to 640 ± 74 individuals/m2 during the whole study period, in contrast the biomass rose from 2.87 g AFDM/m2 in July to 10.29 g AFDM/m2 in April. Both species were largely dominated by age class I. Although not very successful, recruitment presented a two-period pattern: the main period at the beginning of spring, and a secondary one in late summer/autumn. S. plana rarely exceeded 40 mm and lived for only 2 years, while most individuals of A. tenuis lived for only 15,18 months growing to a length of 12 mm. The annual bivalve deposit-feeder production for the whole lagoon system (90 km2) was 8.24 g AFDM/m2 (5.26 g C/m2, 0.65 g N/m2). The annual P/ ratio was about 0.4 and therefore in the same order of magnitude as estimates from other brackish coastal waters. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Use of RAPD and ISSR Markers in Detection of Genetic Variation and Population Structure among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Isolates on Chickpea in Turkey

    H. Bayraktar
    Abstract Genetic variation among the isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, the causal agent of chickpea wilt worldwide, was analysed using pathogenicity tests and molecular markers , random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphism. Hundred and eight isolates were obtained from diseased chickpea plants in 13 different provinces of Turkey, out of which 74 isolates were assessed using 30 arbitrary decamer primers and 20 ISSR primers. Unweighted pair-grouped method by arithmetic average cluster analysis of RAPD, ISSR and RAPD + ISSR datasets provided a substantially similar discrimination among Turkish isolates and divided into three major groups. Group 1, 2 and 3 consisted of 41, 18 and 15 isolates, respectively. These methods revealed a considerable genetic variation among Turkish isolates, but no correlation with regard to the clustering of isolates from different geographic regions. Analysis of molecular variance confirmed that most genetic variability resulted from the differences among isolates within regions. Our results also indicated that the low-genetic differentiation (FST) and high gene flow (Nm) among populations had a significant effect on the emergence and evolutionary development of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. This is the first report on genetic diversity and population structure of F. oxysporum isolates on chickpea in Turkey. [source]

    Abundance, Tidal Movement, Population Structure and Burrowing Rate of Emerita analoga (Anomura, Hippidae) at a Dissipative and a Reflective Sandy Beach in South Central Chile

    MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    Eduardo Jaramillo
    Abstract. To evaluate the effects of beach morphodynamics upon the abundance, tidal movement, population structure and burrowing rate of the crab Emerita analoga (Stimpson) (Anomura, Hippidae) we sampled two beaches in south central Chile (ca. 42° S), Mar Brava and Ahui with dissipative and reflective characteristics, res­pectively. The swash zone at the dissipative beach was 5,,,6 times wider than that of the reflective beach. A at the dissipative beach, upwash speeds were higher and the number of effluent line crossings were lower by more than an order of magnitude. To examine the tidal movement of E. analoga, we collected crabs from 5 to 6 tidal levels of each beach every 2 h across 12 h of the tidal cycle. The intertidal distribution of crabs differed between beaches; i. e., at the dissipative beach they were primarily located at the swash zone, while at the reflective beach they were mostly located at the low tide level and shallow subtidal. The change in position of crabs was pronounced across the tidal cycle at the dissipative beach (Mar Brava), with most of the animals remaining in the active swash zone. Body size data were used to construct size frequency distributions for each population. Crabs from the dissipative beach reached larger sizes than those at the reflective beach. Sediments were coarser at the latter versus the former beach. Crabs burrowed at similar rates in the sand from both beaches, a result which supports the idea that E. analoga is a "sediment generalist" capable of burrowing successfully in a wide range of sediment types. This characteristic is likely a key to the broad success of this species on the full range of beach morphodynamic types along the coasts of South and North America. [source]

    Population Structure in Contemporary Sweden,A Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    T. Lappalainen
    Summary A population sample representing the current Swedish population was analysed for maternally and paternally inherited markers with the aim of characterizing genetic variation and population structure. The sample set of 820 females and 883 males were extracted and amplified from Guthrie cards of all the children born in Sweden during one week in 2003. 14 Y-chromosomal and 34 mitochondrial DNA SNPs were genotyped. The haplogroup frequencies of the counties closest to Finland, Norway, Denmark and the Saami region in the north exhibited similarities to the neighbouring populations, resulting from the formation of the Swedish nation during the past millennium. Moreover, the recent immigration waves of the 20th century are visible in haplogroup frequencies, and have led to increased diversity and divergence of the major cities. Signs of genetic drift can be detected in several counties in northern as well as in southern Sweden. With the exception of the most drifted subpopulations, the population structure in Sweden appears mostly clinal. In conclusion, our study yielded valuable information of the structure of the Swedish population, and demonstrated the usefulness of biobanks as a source of population genetic research. Our sampling strategy, nonselective on the current population rather than stratified according to ancestry, is informative for capturing the contemporary variation in the increasingly panmictic populations of the world. [source]

    Population structure and migratory directions of Scandinavian bluethroats Luscinia svecica, a molecular, morphological and stable isotope analysis

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2008
    Olof Hellgren
    Many species of birds show evidence of secondary contact zones and subspeciation in their Scandinavian distribution range, presumably resulting from different post-glacial recolonization routes. We investigated whether this is the case also in the Scandinavian bluethroat Luscinia svecica, a species that has been suggested to consist of two separate populations: one SW-migrating and long-winged (L. s. gaetkei) breeding in southern Norway, and one shorter-winged ESE-migrating (L. s. svecica) in northern Scandinavia. We sampled males at eleven breeding sites from southern Norway to northernmost Sweden. There were no morphological differences or latitudinal trends within the sample, neither were there any genetic differences or latitudinal trends as measured by variation in AFLP and microsatellite markers. Stable isotope ratios of throat feathers moulted on the wintering grounds showed no, or possibly marginal differences between birds from southern Norway and northern Sweden. We also re-measured old museum skins that in previous studies were classified as L. s.gaetkei, and found marginally longer wings in birds from the southern part of the Scandinavian breeding range. The difference, however, was much smaller than proposed in earlier studies. We conclude that there is no evidence of a genetic population structure among Scandinavian bluethroats that would suggest the presence of a zone of secondary contact. Finally we discuss whether the presumed subspecies gaetkei ever existed. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2003
    Giacomo Bernardi
    Abstract., Population disjunctions, as a first step toward complete allopatry, present an interesting situation to study incipient speciation. The geological formation of the Baja California Peninsula currently divides 19 species of fish into disjunct populations that are found on its Pacific Coast and in the northern part of the Gulf of California (also called the Sea of Cortez), but are absent from the Cape (Cabo San Lucas) region. We studied the genetic makeup of disjunct populations for 12 of these 19 fish species. Phylogeographic patterns for the 12 species can be separated into two major classes: a first group (eight species) showed reciprocal monophyly and high genetic divergence between disjunct populations. A second group (four species) displayed what appeared to be panmictic populations. Population structure between Pacific Coast populations, across the Punta Eugenia biogeographic boundary, was also evaluated. While dispersal potential (inferred by pelagic larval duration) was a poor predictor of population structure between Gulf of California and Pacific populations, we found that population genetic subdivision along the Pacific Coast at Punta Eugenia was always positively correlated with differentiation between Pacific and Gulf of California populations. Vicariant events, ongoing gene flow, and ecological characteristics played essential roles in shaping the population structures observed in this study. [source]

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 as a causative agent of cotyledon rot on European beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
    A. M. Hietala
    Summary Rhizoctonia solani was frequently isolated in the Italian Alps from nursery-grown European beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings displaying symptoms of cotyledon rot. Koch's postulates were verified and mode of infection of the associated isolates was investigated with light and scanning electron microscopy. Population structure of the pathogen was investigated by scoring the anastomosis reaction type in pairings between different isolates from the same seedbed. One pathogen genotype showed a large distribution area within the seedbed, this implying that the inoculum had been building up in the seedbed over a longer time period. Hyphal anastomosis tests and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA indicated that the pathogen belongs to AG 2-1 of R. solani. ITS sequence analysis indicates that the isolates from beech are closely related to R. solani isolates causing a disease on tulip. The striking similarities between the two diseases are discussed. Résumé Rhizoctonia solani a fréquemment été isolé de semis de hêtre (Fagus sylvatica) présentant des symptômes de pourriture des cotylédons dans une pépinière forestière des Alpes italiennes. Les postulats de Koch ont été vérifiés et le mode d'infection étudié par microscopie optique et électronique à balayage. La structure de la population de l'agent pathogène a étéétudiée en examinant les réactions d'anastomoses dans les confrontations par paires des isolats d'un même lit de semences. Un génotype particulier s'est avéré largement distribué dans le lit de semence, suggérant soit une accumulation de l'inoculum pendant une longue période soit que ce génotype est capable de reproduction homocaryotique, favorisant sa dispersion. Les tests d'anastomose et l'analyse de la séquence de la région ITS de l'ADN ribosomal indiquent que l'agent pathogène appartient au groupe AG 2-1 de R. solani. L'analyse de la séquence de l'ITS montre que les isolats de hêtre sont proches d'isolats de R. solani pathogènes sur tulipe. Les ressemblances frappantes entre les deux maladies et la gestion de la maladie sur hêtre sont discutées. Zusammenfassung In einer Forstbaumschule in den italienischen Alpen wurde Rhizoctonia solani häufig aus Buchenkeimlingen (Fagus sylvatica) mit Symptomen einer Kotyledonenfäule isoliert. Die Koch'schen Postulate wurden erfüllt und die Art der Infektion der beteiligten Isolate wurde licht- und rasterelektronen-mikroskopisch untersucht. Die Populationsstruktur des Pathogens wurde anhand der Reaktionstypen (Anastomosierungsverhalten) in Paarungsversuchen mit den unterschiedlichen Isolaten aus demselben Saatbeet untersucht. Ein Kompatibilitätstyp war innerhalb des Saatbeetes weit verbreitet, was darauf hindeutet, dass sich das Inokulum über einen längeren Zeitraum dort angereichert hatte und/oder der Genotyp homokaryotisch fruchtet, was seine Ausbreitung fördert. Die Anastomosierungstests und die ITS-Sequenzanalyse der ribosomalen DNA ergaben, dass der Erreger zu der AG 2-1 Gruppe R. solani gehört. Die ITS-Sequenzen deuten darauf hin, dass die Isolate von Buche mit den R. solani, Isolaten verwandt sind, die an Tulpen pathogen sind. Die auffallende Ähnlichkeit der beiden Krankheiten und das Management der Erkrankung an Buche wird diskutiert. [source]

    Population structure and its implications for conservation of the great silver beetle Hydrophilus piceus in Britain

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2007
    Summary 1. The great silver water beetle Hydrophilus piceus is one of the largest aquatic insects in Europe. In Britain it is rare and endangered, and confined to a small number of low-lying marshes. Very little is known about the beetle populations in any of these areas, or the connectivity between them. 2. To investigate the population structure of H. piceus in Britain, four polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified and characterized. The genome of this beetle seems to have few microsatellites but contains a high proportion of a larger repeated sequence. 3. All six of the main British populations (Somerset, Lewes, Pevensey, Romney, North Kent and Norfolk) showed substantial genetic diversity at the microsatellite loci. However, estimates of effective population size at one site (Pevensey) were remarkably low, at <10 adults for the period 2004,05. 4. Most of the genetic diversity was partitioned within rather than among the populations, although there was, nevertheless, significant genetic sub-structuring. Almost all population pairwise Fst estimates were significantly different from zero, and there was a clear isolation-by-distance effect. Assignment tests and cluster analyses demonstrated interpopulation relationships largely consistent with their geographical separations. 5. Hydrophilus disperses by flight, and records from moth traps indicated that there was no month in which the beetles never flew, but that flight activity was highest in the spring. 6. The genetic data highlight the need to maintain or regenerate habitat connectivity within flying distance for H. piceus, and to sustain large areas of suitable breeding marshes. [source]

    Pedigree analysis in the Austrian Noriker draught horse: genetic diversity and the impact of breeding for coat colour on population structure

    T. Druml
    Summary The pedigree of the current Austrian Noriker draught horse population comprising 2808 horses was traced back to the animals considered as founders of this breed. In total, the number of founders was 1991, the maximum pedigree length was 31 generations, with an average of 12.3 complete generations. Population structure in this autochthonous Austrian draught horse breed is defined by seven breeding regions (Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria and Vorarlberg) or through six coat colour groups (Bay, Black, Chestnut, Roan, Leopard, Tobiano). Average inbreeding coefficients within the breeding regions ranged from 4.5% to 5.5%; for the colour groups, the coefficients varied from 3.5% to 5.9%. Other measures of genetic variability like the effective number of founders, ancestors and founder genomes revealed a slightly different genetic background of the subpopulations. Average coancestries between and within breeding areas showed that the Salzburg population may be considered as the nucleus or original stock whereas all other subpopulations showed high relationship to horses from Salzburg. The target of draught horse breeding in the 21st century does not meet the breeding concept of maximizing genetic gains any more. Stabilizing selection takes place. In this study, we show that demographic factors as well as structure given by different coat colours helped to maintain genetic diversity in this endangered horse breed. [source]

    Population structure and establishment of the threatened long-lived perennial Scorzonera humilis in relation to environment

    Guy Colling
    Summary 1The intensification of agriculture has resulted in the decline of many plant species of nutrient-poor wet grasslands. At some sites local populations of long-lived characteristic species have persisted and might benefit from recent extensification schemes. However, little is known about the population biology of these plants, and the prospects for the populations are uncertain. 2We studied the population structure and establishment of the long-lived Scorzonera humilis in 23 populations in Luxembourg and neighbouring Belgium. Two types of populations could be distinguished according to their population structure: regenerating populations, with a high proportion of plants with only one or a few rosettes, and aged populations, with a low proportion of small, young plants but a high proportion of individuals with many rosettes. The total density of Scorzonera individuals was higher in regenerating than in aged populations. 3Within sites, S. humilis was restricted to more open and nutrient-poor patches. The composition of the vegetation in plots where S. humilis was present was significantly different from that of plots without the species, indicating that S. humilis is restricted to particular microhabitats. 4In multiple regression analyses, environmental variables explained a large part of the variation in the total density of genets, the density of genets of different size and the density of rosettes. The main variables of influence were site productivity and soil moisture. With increasing productivity and decreasing soil moisture the proportion of small genets decreased and that of large genets increased. Increased productivity had contrasting effects at the genet and ramet (rosette) levels. While genet density decreased, ramet density increased, indicating that if a site is fertilized, recruitment of new genets and survival of genets is reduced, but growth of surviving genets is increased. 5The results of a sowing experiment indicated that an aged population structure was due to a lack of recruitment. The number of seeds that germinated and the proportion of seedlings that survived until the next summer were positively correlated with soil moisture and negatively with productivity. Germination rate and establishment success were significantly higher in Molinion grassland than in the Calthion grasslands. 6The results suggest that for long-lived species the size and number of populations may not be good indicators of the status of a species. In S. humilis large populations (> 1000 genets) still exist, but all are of the aged type. In order to preserve existing populations of S. humilis, management should aim to reduce productivity and increase soil moisture. [source]

    Population structure, growth, mortality and estimated stock size of the introduced tench, Tinca tinca (L.), population in Lake Bey,ehir, Turkey

    . Bal
    Summary Population structure, growth, length,weight relationship, mortality and stock size of tench, Tinca tinca (L.), was studied in Lake Bey,ehir, Turkey in 2005. Totals of 3360 tench (1865 males; 1795 females) were captured with gill- and trammel-nets of various mesh sizes. Male to female ratio was 1.04 : 1. The study covered length year classes. Fork lengths and total weights ranged from 9 to 37 cm and 13 to 815 g. For all individuals, the von Bertalanffy growth equation and length,weight relationship were Lt = 54.2[1,exp(,0.1350(t + 1.0281)] and W = 0.0151 L2.9993, respectively. Growth performance index and mean condition factor of the tench population were 2.598 and 1.513, respectively. Mortality rates were Z = 1.97 year,1, M = 0.29 year,1 and F = 1.68 year,1 for total, natural, and fishing mortality, respectively. The exploitation rate was E = 0.85, and the percentage of surviving fish was 13.9%. Tench stock was assessed as about 6,7 million individuals and 1450,1500 tonnes in biomass. It was determined that maximum sustainable yield could be obtained with an 80% level of the current fishing effort. [source]

    Population structure in the South American tern Sterna hirundinacea in the South Atlantic: two populations with distinct breeding phenologies

    Patrícia J. Faria
    The South American tern Sterna hirundinacea is a migratory species for which dispersal, site fidelity and migratory routes are largely unknown. Here, we used five microsatellite loci and 799,bp partial mitochondrial DNA sequences (Cytochrome b and ND2) to investigate the genetic structure of South American terns from the South Atlantic Ocean (Brazilian and Patagonian colonies). Brazilian and Patagonian colonies have two distinct breeding phenologies (austral winter and austral summer, respectively) and are under the influence of different oceanographic features (e.g. Brazil and Falklands/Malvinas ocean currents, respectively), that may promote genetic isolation between populations. Results show that the Atlantic populations are not completely panmictic, nevertheless, contrary to our expectations, low levels of genetic structure were detected between Brazilian and Patagonian colonies. Such low differentiation (despite temporal isolation of the colonies) could be explained by demographic history of these populations coupled with ongoing levels of gene flow. Interestingly, estimations of gene flow through Maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches has indicated asymmetrical long term and contemporary gene flow from Brazilian to Patagonian colonies, approaching a source,sink metapopulation dynamic. Genetic analysis of other South American tern populations (especially those from the Pacific coast and Falklands,Malvinas Islands) and other seabird species showing similar geographical distribution (e.g. royal tern Thalasseus maximus), are fundamental in gaining a better understanding of the main processes involved in the diversification of seabirds in the southern hemisphere. [source]

    Population structure in the Atlantic salmon: insights from 40 years of research into genetic protein variation

    E. Verspoor
    Electrophoretic studies of proteins remain a primary source of insight into genetic diversity in many species including the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, one of the most culturally and economically important fish species of the North Atlantic region. Since 1966, >350 scientific papers on protein variation have been published encompassing 25 000+ salmon from over 400 locations in >200 river systems across the species' distribution. Variation has been detected at 30% of the 110 protein loci screened, though most studies examine <40. The method has been applied largely to the investigation of population structure and differentiation, but work has also led to the systematic revision of the genus Salmo and remains the primary source of insight into hybridization in the wild with brown trout Salmo trutta. Spatial patterns of differentiation show temporal stability, both within and among river systems, and strongly support structuring of the species into river and tributary specific populations and the designation of European and North American populations as distinct sub-species. They also show widespread regional differentiation within both continents, beyond the marked subcontinental differences between Baltic Sea and Atlantic Ocean populations in Europe. Most of the differentiation probably reflects gene flow and founder events associated with colonization following the retreat of the glaciers from much of the species' modern range. However, variation at MEP-2* shows strong correlations with environmental temperature, both within and among rivers, and associations with phenotypic performance. This suggests selection is acting on the locus and provides compelling evidence for the local adaptation of populations. Protein studies have led to more population centred management of the species and have been exploited in the discrimination of regional stocks in mixed stock analysis in high seas fisheries, particularly in the Baltic Sea, and as markers for the assessment of stocking success. They have also advanced insight into how the genetic character of populations can be changed in cultivation and the potential impact of salmon aquaculture and stocking on wild populations. The method has been largely superseded by DNA based analyses, but the results remain highly relevant to Atlantic salmon management and conservation and are an irreplaceable data set for studying genetic stability of populations over time. [source]

    Microsatellite identification of individual sockeye salmon in Barkley Sound, British Columbia

    T. D. Beacham
    Population structure of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada was examined by analysis of microsatellite variation at 14 loci in three populations sampled in each of 3 years. The mean FST over all 14 loci was 0·063. Differences among populations accounted for 12 times the variation observed among years within populations. The number of alleles present at a locus was related to the power of the locus to provide accurate identification of individuals to population. The more alleles that were present at a locus, the greater was the power of the locus for individual identification. Individuals were correctly classified to one of three lakes of origin at a rate of 89%, and to one of two river drainages at a rate of 96%. [source]

    Population structure, age and growth of macrourid fish from the upper slope of the Eastern-Central Mediterranean

    G. D'Onghia
    Hymenocephalus italicus, Nezumia sclerorhynchus and Coelorhynchus coelorhynchus were found in 80, 75 and 69% of trawl hauls carried out between 250 and 750 m on the upper slope of the Ionian Sea. The abundance of H. italicus and N. sclerorhynchus increased with depth while in C. coelorhynchus the highest densities were observed in the uppermost 500 m. In all three grenadiers the average size increased with depth. The populations had a multimodal sizefrequency distribution. In H. italicus adults were generally more represented in the population and the abundance of juveniles varied with seasons. In N. sclerorhynchus and mostly in C. coelorhynchus the bulk of the population was generally made up of small individuals the year round. In N. sclerorhynchus a seasonal pattern was shown in the depth distribution of juveniles. The sex ratio was in favour of females in larger specimens and in each bathymetric stratum. Seasonal growth was detected in the otoliths of the three species. Maximum ages were around 9 years in H. italicus and N. sclerorhynchus; 8 years in C. coelorhynchus. Although some differences have been detected in the population ecology of the three species, they are characterized by a prolonged recruitment during the year, slow growth, longevity and delayed maturity. [source]

    Population structure and history of southern African scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    U. Kryger
    Abstract Genetic differentiation among populations of the South African scrub hare Lepus saxatilis was examined using hypervariable mitochondrial DNA control region I (CR-I) sequences. Neighbour-joining analysis revealed a pattern that did not correspond to the current subspecies delineations. The CR-I sequence data delimit scrub hares into three major maternal lineages. The three phylogenetic assemblages exhibited different geographical distributions. AMOVA analyses and exact tests for population differentiation confirmed this phylogeographic partitioning. One lineage (SW) was confined to the south-western Cape, the second lineage (N) was exclusively found in the northern part of South Africa and in the neighbouring countries, and the third lineage (C) was predominant in the central parts of South Africa. This spatial distribution did not coincide with the ranges of the 10 described subspecies covered by our sampling regime. The lineages C and N overlapped in an area including eastern parts of South Africa and southern Namibia. The presence of both lineages in that area of overlap was interpreted as the result of secondary contact due to recent range expansions after the two lineages had undergone a population restriction approximately 18 000 years ago. Analyses of contemporary gene flow disclosed an exchange of migrants between N and C, which was biased towards a movement from C to N. The SW group represents a very distinct evolutionary lineage that has been isolated for more than 45 000 years. It does not exchange female migrants with the other two groups. Mismatch distribution analyses indicated sudden population size expansions in the history of all three populations. [source]

    Social and population structure of a gleaning bat, Plecotus auritus

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    A. C. Entwistle
    Abstract Brown long-eared bats Plecotus auritus occupying 30 summer roosts in north-east Scotland were studied over 15 years. During this time 1365 bats were ringed, and a further 720 recaptures were made. Individual bats showed a high degree of roost fidelity, returning to one main roost site; < 1% of recaptured bats had moved among roost sites, and all recorded movements (n= 5) were < 300 m. Adults of both sexes were loyal to the roost sites at which they were first captured, indicating long-term use of roosts. At least some juveniles (n= 32) of both sexes returned to the natal roost. Mark,recapture estimates indicated that colonies of this species were substantially larger (c. 30,50 individuals) than assumed in previous studies. Plecotus auritus differs from most other temperate zone, vespertilionid species in that there was no evidence of sexual segregation during summer, with males present in all colonies throughout the period of occupancy. Population structure in summer seems to be consistent with a metapopulation model, with discrete sub-populations showing minimal interchange. The group size, colony composition and population structure described in this species may be associated with the wing shape (particularly aspect ratio) and foraging behaviour of P. auritus. It is postulated that relative motility, linked to wing structure, may affect the distribution of individuals, and may have implications for the genetic structure of this species. Correlations between aspect ratio and both colony size and migratory behaviour, across British bat species, indicate that wing shape could be an important factor contributing to patterns of social behaviour and genetic structuring in bats. [source]

    Population structure of island-associated dolphins: Evidence from photo-identification of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the main Hawaiian Islands

    Robin W. Baird
    Abstract Management agencies often use geopolitical boundaries as proxies for biological boundaries. In Hawaiian waters a single stock is recognized of common bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, a species that is found both in open water and near-shore among the main Hawaiian Islands. To assess population structure, we photo-identified 336 distinctive individuals from the main Hawaiian Islands, from 2000 to 2006. Their generally shallow-water distribution, and numerous within-year and between-year resightings within island areas suggest that individuals are resident to the islands, rather than part of an offshore population moving through the area. Comparisons of identifications obtained from Kaua,i/Ni,ihau, O,ahu, the "4-island area," and the island of Hawai,i showed no evidence of movements among these island groups, although movements from Kaua,i to Ni,ihau and among the "4-islands" were documented. A Bayesian analysis examining the probability of missing movements among island groups, given our sample sizes for different areas, indicates that interisland movement rates are less than 1% per year with 95% probability. Our results suggest the existence of multiple demographically independent populations of island-associated common bottlenose dolphins around the main Hawaiian islands. [source]

    Population structure and geographical subdivision of the Leishmania major vector Phlebotomus papatasi as revealed by microsatellite variation

    Abstract Multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) has been employed to infer the population structure of Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae) sandflies and assign individuals to populations. Phlebotomus papatasi sandflies were collected from 35 sites in 15 countries. A total of 188 P. papatasi individuals were typed using five microsatellite loci, resulting in 113 different genotypes. Unique microsatellite signatures were observed for some of the populations analysed. Comparable results were obtained when the data were analysed with Bayesian model and distance-based methods. Bayesian statistic-based analyses split the dataset into two distinct genetic clusters, A and B, with further substructuring within each. Population A consisted of five subpopulations representing large numbers of alleles that were correlated with the geographical origins of the sandflies. Cluster B comprised individuals collected in the Middle East and the northern Mediterranean area. The subpopulations B1 and B2 did not, however, show any further correlation to geographical origin. The genetic differentiation between subpopulations was supported by F statistics showing statistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.005) values of 0.221 between B2 and B1 and 0.816 between A5 and A4. Identification of the genetic structure of P. papatasi populations is important for understanding the patterns of dispersal of this species and to developing strategies for sandfly control. [source]

    Population structure of the peridomestic mosquito Ochlerotatus notoscriptus in Australia

    D. H. Foley
    Abstract.,Ochlerotatus notoscriptus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the predominant peridomestic mosquito in Australia where it is the primary vector of dog heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy), and a potentially important vector of arboviruses (Barmah Forest, Ross River) with geographical variation of vector competence. Although widespread, Oc. notoscriptus has low dispersal ability, so it may have isolated subpopulations. The identification of gene flow barriers may assist in understanding arbovirus epidemiology and disease risk, and for developing control strategies for this species. We investigated the population structure of Oc. notoscriptus from 17 sites around Australia, using up to 31 putative allozyme loci, 11 of which were polymorphic. We investigated the effect of larval environment and adult morphology on genetic variation. At least five subpopulations were found, four in New South Wales (NSW) and one unique to Darwin. Perth samples appear to be a product of recent colonization from the Australian east coast. For NSW sites, a Mantel test revealed an isolation by distance effect and spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed an area of effective gene flow of 67 km, which is high given the limited dispersal ability of this species. No consistent difference was observed between ,urban' and ,sylvan' habitats, which suggests frequent movement between these sites. However, a finer-scaled habitat study at Darwin revealed small but significant allele frequency differences, including for Gpi. No fixed allozyme differences were detected for sex, size, integument colour or the colour of species-diagnostic pale scales on the scutum. The domestic habit of Oc. notoscriptus and assisted dispersal have helped to homogenize this species geographically but population structure is still detectable on several levels associated with geographical variation of vector competence. [source]

    Origins and colonization history of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in South America

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 18 2010
    Abstract The dynamics of dissemination of the environmental human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus are uncertain. The O3:K6 clone was restricted to Asia until its detection along the Peruvian coasts and in northern Chile in 1997 in phase with the arrival of El Niño waters. A subsequent emergence of O3:K6 strains was detected in austral Chile in 2004. The origin of these 1997 and 2004 population radiations has not yet been conclusively determined. Multiple loci VNTR analysis using seven polymorphic loci was carried out with a number of representative strains from Asia, Peru and Chile to determine their genetic characteristics and population structure. Asian and Chilean subpopulations were the most genetically distant groups with an intermediate subpopulation in Peru. Population structure inferred from a minimum-spanning tree and Bayesian analysis divided the populations into two genetically distinct groups, consistent with the epidemic dynamics of the O3:K6 clone in South America. One group comprised strains from the original Asiatic population and strains arriving in Peru and Chile in 1997. The second group included the remaining Peruvian Strains and Chilean strains obtained from Puerto Montt in 2004. The analysis of the arrival of the O3:K6 clone at the Pacific coasts of South America has provided novel insights linking the origin of the invasion in 1997 to Asian populations and describing the successful establishment of the O3:K6 populations, first in Peru and subsequently in the South of Chile owing to a possible radiation of Peruvian populations. [source]

    Recent evolution of host-associated divergence in the seabird tick Ixodes uriae

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 21 2009
    Abstract Ecological interactions are an important source of rapid evolutionary change and thus may generate a significant portion of novel biodiversity. Such changes may be particularly prevalent in parasites, where hosts can induce strong selection for adaptation. To understand the relative frequency at which host-associated divergences occur, it is essential to examine the evolutionary history of the divergence process, particularly when it is occurring over large geographical scales where both geographical and host-associated isolation may playa part. In this study, we use population genetics and phylogeography to study the evolutionary history of host-associated divergence in the seabird tick Ixodes uriae (Acari, Ixodidae). We compare results from microsatellite markers that reflect more ecological timescales with a conserved mitochondrial gene (COIII) that reflects more ancient divergence events. Population structure based on microsatellites showed clear evidence of host-associated divergence in all colonies examined. However, isolated populations of the same host type did not always group together in overall analyses and the genetic differentiation among sympatric host races was highly variable. In contrast, little host or geographical structure was found for the mitochondrial gene fragment. These results suggest that host race formation in I. uriae is a recent phenomenon, that it may have occurred several times and that local interactions are at different points in the divergence process. Rapid divergence in I. uriae implies a strong interaction with its local host species, an interaction that will alter the ecological dynamics of the system and modify the epidemiological landscape of circulating micropathogens. [source]

    Population structure and intraspecific aggression in the invasive ant species Anoplolepis gracilipes in Malaysian Borneo

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 7 2007
    Abstract Invasive species are one of the main sources of the ongoing global loss of biodiversity. Invasive ants are known as particularly damaging invaders and their introductions are often accompanied by population-level behavioural and genetic changes that may contribute to their success. Anoplolepis gracilipes is an invasive ant that has just recently received increased attention due to its negative impact on native ecosystems. We examined the behaviour and population structure of A. gracilipes in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 475 individuals from 24 colonies were genotyped with eight microsatellite markers. Intracolonial relatedness was high, ranging from 0.37 to 1 (mean ± SD: 0.82 ± 0.04), while intercolonial relatedness was low (0.0 ± 0.02, range ,0.5,0.76). We compared five distinct sampling regions in Sabah and Brunei. A three-level hierarchical F-analysis revealed high genetic differentiation among colonies within the same region, but low genetic differentiation within colonies or across regions. Overall levels of heterozygosity were unusually high (mean HO = 0.95, mean HE = 0.71) with two loci being entirely heterozygous, indicating an unusual reproductive system in this species. Bioassays revealed a negative correlation between relatedness and aggression, suggesting kinship as one factor facilitating supercolony formation in this species. Furthermore, we genotyped one individual per nest from Sabah (22 nests), Sarawak (one nest), Brunei (three nests) and the Philippines (two nests) using two mitochondrial DNA markers. We found six haplotypes, two of which included 82.1% of all sequences. Our study shows that the sampled area in Sabah consists of a mosaic of differently interrelated nests in different stages of colony establishment. While some of the sampled colonies may belong to large supercolonies, others are more likely to represent recently introduced or dispersed propagules that are just beginning to expand. [source]

    Population structure of loggerhead shrikes in the California Channel Islands

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 8 2004
    Abstract The loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus), a songbird that hunts like a small raptor, maintains breeding populations on seven of the eight California Channel Islands. One of the two subspecies, L. l. anthonyi, was described as having breeding populations on six of the islands while a second subspecies, L. l. mearnsi, was described as being endemic to San Clemente Island. Previous genetic studies have demonstrated that the San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike is well differentiated genetically from both L. l. anthonyi and mainland populations, despite the fact that birds from outside the population are regular visitors to the island. Those studies, however, did not include a comparison between San Clemente Island shrikes and the breeding population on Santa Catalina Island, the closest island to San Clemente. Here we use mitochondrial control region sequences and nuclear microsatellites to investigate the population structure of loggerhead shrikes in the Channel Islands. We confirm the genetic distinctiveness of the San Clemente Island loggerhead shrike and, using Bayesian clustering analysis, demonstrate the presence and infer the source of the nonbreeding visitors. Our results indicate that Channel Island loggerhead shrikes comprise three distinct genetic clusters that inhabit: (i) San Clemente Island, (ii) Santa Catalina Island and (iii) the Northern Channel Islands and nearby mainland; they do not support a recent suggestion that all Channel Island loggerhead shrikes should be managed as a single entity. [source]

    Population structure and phylogeography of Solanum pimpinellifolium inferred from a nuclear gene

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 7 2004
    Ana Lucía Caicedo
    Abstract Phylogeographical studies are emerging as a powerful tool for understanding the population structure and evolution of wild relatives of crop species. Because of their value as genetic resources, there is great interest in exploring the distribution of variation in wild relatives of cultivated plants. In this study, we use sequence variation from the nuclear gene, fruit vacuolar invertase (Vac), to investigate the population history of Solanum pimpinellifolium. Solanum pimpinellifolium is a close relative of the cultivated tomato and has repeatedly served as a source of valuable traits for crop improvement. We sequenced the second intron of the Vac gene in 129 individuals, representing 16 populations from the northern half of Peru. Patterns of haplotype sharing among populations indicate that there is isolation by distance. However, there is no congruence between the geographical distribution of haplotypes and their genealogical relationships. Levels of outcrossing decrease towards the southernmost populations, as previously observed in an allozyme study. The geographical pattern of Vac variation supports a centre of origin in northern Peru for S. pimpinellifolium and a gradual colonization along the Pacific coast. This implies that inbreeding populations are derived from outcrossing ones and that variation present at the Vac locus predates the spread of S. pimpinellifolium. The expansion of cities and human agricultural activity in the habitat of S. pimpinellifolium currently pose a threat to the species. [source]

    Population structure of Litopenaeus schmitti (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from the Brazilian coast identified using six polymorphic microsatellite loci

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 12 2003
    R. Maggioni
    Abstract The population structure of the only Litopenaeus species occurring in Brazilian waters, the white shrimp L. schmitti, was surveyed by screening six microsatellite loci. High diversity (HE = 0.863; average number of alleles per locus = 37.8) was found across eight geographical locations (2°S to 27°S). Estimates of overall FST(0.0060) were low but significantly different from zero (P < 0.05). FST pairwise estimates and amova revealed a significant discontinuity around a major biogeographical boundary, near Cabo Frio, at 23°S. This separation may have been caused either by historical or on-going hydrogeographical and/or selective factors. [source]

    Population structure in two sympatric species of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Eretmodini: evidence for introgression

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2001
    Lukas Rüber
    Abstract Patterns of genetic differentiation were analysed and compared in two sympatric species of the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Eretmodini by means of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the control region and six microsatellite DNA loci. The sample area covers a total of 138 km of mostly uninterrupted rocky shoreline in the Democratic Republic of Congo and includes the entire distribution range of Tanganicodus cf. irsacae that stretches over a distance of 35 km. Both markers detected significant genetic differentiation within and between the two species. T. cf. irsacae contained lower overall genetic variation than Eretmoduscyanostictus, possibly due to its more restricted range of distribution and its smaller effective population sizes. Complete fixation of Tanganicodus mtDNA haplotypes was observed in Eretmodus at two localities, while at two other localities some Tanganicodus individuals possessed Eretmodus mtDNA haplotypes. Taking into account the relatively large average sequence divergence of 6.2% between the two species, as well as the geographical distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in the lake, the observed pattern is more likely to be a consequence of asymmetric introgression than of shared ancestral polymorphism. As there is significant population differentiation between sympatric Tanganicodus and Eretmodus populations, the events of introgressions may have happened after secondary contact, but our data provide no evidence for ongoing gene flow and suggest that both species are reproductively isolated at present time. [source]

    Population structure of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): a range-wide perspective from microsatellite DNA variation

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    T. L. King
    Abstract Atlantic salmon (n = 1682) from 27 anadromous river populations and two nonanadromous strains ranging from south-central Maine, USA to northern Spain were genotyped at 12 microsatellite DNA loci. This suite of moderate to highly polymorphic loci revealed 266 alleles (5,37/locus) range-wide. Statistically significant allelic and genotypic heterogeneity was observed across loci between all but one pairwise comparison. Significant isolation by distance was found within and between North American and European populations, indicating reduced gene flow at all geographical scales examined. North American Atlantic salmon populations had fewer alleles, fewer unique alleles (though at a higher frequency) and a shallower phylogenetic structure than European Atlantic salmon populations. We believe these characteristics result from the differing glacial histories of the two continents, as the North American range of Atlantic salmon was glaciated more recently and more uniformly than the European range. Genotypic assignment tests based on maximum-likelihood provided 100% correct classification to continent of origin and averaged nearly 83% correct classification to province of origin across continents. This multilocus method, which may be enhanced with additional polymorphic loci, provides fishery managers the highest degree of correct assignment to management unit of any technique currently available. [source]

    Isolation and characterization of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Cubozoa, Cnidaria)

    Abstract Population structure and migration patterns for the highly venomous cubozoan box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) are unknown. We describe the development of seven polymorphic microsatellites for this species, the first such loci to be characterized for any cubozoan or indeed cnidarian species other than some corals. These markers will be suitable for use in population and behavioural genetic studies. [source]