Population Dynamics (population + dynamics)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Population Dynamics

  • fish population dynamics
  • herbivore population dynamics
  • host population dynamics
  • insect population dynamics
  • local population dynamics
  • microbial population dynamics
  • plant population dynamics
  • prey population dynamics
  • spatial population dynamics
  • species population dynamics

  • Terms modified by Population Dynamics

  • population dynamics model

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2002
    Vitaly V. Ganusov
    Abstract Why do parasites harm their hosts? The general understanding is that if the transmission rate and virulence of a parasite are linked, then the parasite must harm its host to maximize its transmission. The exact nature of such trade-offs remains largely unclear, but for vertebrate hosts it probably involves interactions between a microparasite and the host immune system. Previous results have suggested that in a homogeneous host population in the absence of super- or coinfection, within-host dynamics lead to selection of the parasite with an intermediate growth rate that is just being controlled by the immune system before it kills the host (Antia et al. 1994). In this paper, we examine how this result changes when heterogeneity is introduced to the host population. We incorporate the simplest form of heterogeneity,random heterogeneity in the parameters describing the size of the initial parasite inoculum, the immune response of the host, and the lethal density at which the parasite kills the host. We find that the general conclusion of the previous model holds: parasites evolve some intermediate growth rate. However, in contrast with the generally accepted view, we find that virulence (measured by the case mortality or the rate of parasite-induced host mortality) increases with heterogeneity. Finally, we link the within-host and between-host dynamics of parasites. We show how the parameters for epidemiological spread of the disease can be estimated from the within-host dynamics, and in doing so examine the way in which trade-offs between these epidemiological parameters arise as a consequence of the interaction of the parasite and the immune response of the host. [source]


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 1 2002
    ZHENG Bo-yi
    Abstract The population of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), does not increase on pear from spring to mid-summer but thereafter increases abruptly. To elucidate this phenomenon, we compared the performance of the mites on pear leaves with that on citrus leaves, at different time throughout the pear-growing season. No significant difference was detected between the oviposition rate on pear and that on citrus throughout the season. However, the survival rate of ovipositing females that had fed on pear and the hatch rate of eggs laid by those females were significantly lower than those for females that had fed on citrus, until August. However, no significant difference was observed thereafter. The results showed that the decline of the population of citrus red mite before autumn is due to the high mortality of adult females that had fed on pear leaves and the low hatch rate of the eggs produced by those females. [source]


    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Lee, J. A.1, Choi, A. R.1, Park, J. H.1 & Chung, I. K2 1Department of Environmental Science, Inje University, Kimhae 621-749, Korea; 2Departement of Marine Science, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735, Korea Seasonal and spatial variations of phytoplankton community were monitored at 16 sites along the Naktong River. Blue-green algae appeared from May through November with dominant genera of Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria and Gomphosphaeria. Frequency and biomass of the genera became greater at lower reaches. The Microcystis were observed from May to October up to 85,750cells/ml. Six species of Microcystis were identified with morphological characteristics and M. aeruginosa was most dominant. There were significant relationships between biomass of Microcystis and NO -3, TP and pH in water column. However, NH4+, PO4 -3 and N/P were not critical in successions to the Microcystis dominated community. Microcystis blooms were notable at water temperature higher than 25°C. Microcystis density in sediment was 3 orders of magnitude higher than water column. Anabaena density ranged up to 11,220cells/ml. Four species of Anabaena were identified and A. flos-aquae was most dominant. Anabaena biomass was not related to temperature, NO3 - , TN, PO4 -3, TP and N/P of water column and the frequency of trichome with akinete and/or heterocyte were not related to these parameters. Microcystins were detected from May to November with yearly fluctuations. Microcystin-RR was most dominant. Total 84.2% of algal materials with Microcystis exhibited toxicity of microcystin with maximum of 3,292,g/g dry wt. Total 12.5% of water column with Microcystis exhibited dissolved microcystin up to 3.3,g/l. Microcystin concentrations were positively related to Microcystis biomass and pH of water column. Anatoxin-a was determined by FD-HPLC analysis with NBD-F and all concentrations were below the detection limit of 0.1,g/l. [source]


    ABSTRACT. In this paper we develop a micro ecosystem model whose basic entities are representative organisms which behave as if maximizing their net offspring under constraints. Net offspring is increasing in prey biomass intake, declining in the loss of own biomass to predators and Allee's law applies. The organism's constraint reflects its perception of how scarce its own biomass and the biomass of its prey is. In the short-run periods prices (scarcity indicators) coordinate and determine all biomass transactions and net offspring which directly translates into population growth functions. We are able to explicitly determine these growth functions for a simple food web when specific parametric net offspring functions are chosen in the micro-level ecosystem model. For the case of a single species our model is shown to yield the well-known Verhulst-Pearl logistic growth function. With two species in predator-prey relationship, we derive differential equations whose dynamics are completely characterized and turn out to be similar to the predator-prey model with Michaelis-Menten type functional response. With two species competing for a single resource we find that coexistence is a knife-edge feature confirming Tschirhart's [2002] result in a different but related model. [source]


    ABSTRACT. The population dynamics in a food chain are derived from a sequence of short-run equilibria of an ecosystem where predator species demand prey biomass, supply own biomass to their predators and are assumed to behave as if they maximize net biomass intake. Introducing prices as scarcity indicators for the biomass of each species enables us to determine a short-run ecosystem equilibrium guided by prices. Equilibrium regimes differ with respect to their mix of zero-priced (= abundant) and positive-priced (= scarce) species. The population dynamics turn out to vary with the prevailing equilibrium regime. Our analysis yields a richer and more complex population dynamics than the traditional predator-prey dynamics of the Lotka-Volterra type. [source]

    Simulation and quantification of enrichment and retention processes in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem

    Abstract Important environmental processes for the survival and recruitment of early life stages of pelagic fishes have been synthesized through Bakun's fundamental triad as enrichment, concentration and retention processes (A. Bakun, 1996, Patterns in the Ocean. Ocean Processes and Marine Population Dynamics. San Diego, CA, USA: University of California Sea Grant). This conceptual framework states that from favourable spawning habitats, eggs and larvae would be transported to and/or retained in places where food originating from enrichment areas would be concentrated. We propose a method for quantifying two of the triad processes, enrichment and retention, based on the Lagrangian tracking of particles transported within water velocity fields generated by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We apply this method to the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem, constructing putative maps of enrichment and retention. We comment on these maps regarding main features of the circulation in the region, and investigate seasonal variability of the processes. We finally discuss the results in relation to available knowledge on the reproductive strategies of two pelagic clupeoid species abundant in the southern Benguela, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardinops sagax). Our approach is intended to be sufficiently generic so as to allow its application to other upwelling systems. [source]

    Population Dynamics of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Strains on Tomato Cultivars Rio Grande and Rio Grande- Pto under Field Conditions

    David K. Willis
    Abstract We examined the effects of the Pto resistance locus on the population dynamics of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) strains in field experiments with the nearly isogenic tomato lines Rio Grande (RG, susceptible to Pst races 0 and 1) and Rio Grande-Pto (RG-Pto, resistant to Pst race 0, susceptible to Pst race 1). Pst strain SM78-1Smr (race 0) grew well under field conditions and caused ample bacterial speck disease on susceptible RG plants. In contrast, strain DC3000 failed to establish large populations when inoculated onto field grown RG plants. Mean population sizes of SM78-1Smr were 4,5 orders of magnitude larger on RG than RG-Pto plants indicating that RG-Pto plants were highly effective in attenuating pathogen population development. Most of the sampled leaflets from RG-Pto field plots harboured small numbers of SM78-1Smr. However, population sizes SM78-1Smr as large as 105,106 CFU were found on a few leaflets. Bacteria isolated from these leaflets had phenotypes characteristic of Pst race 1 strains. In growth chamber plant assays, the bacterial strains grew well and caused typical speck lesions on RG-Pto plants. The strains appeared to be race-shift mutants of SM SM78-1Smr. Interestingly, results from DNA hybridization experiments demonstrated that the race-shift mutants were deleted for the avirulence gene, avrPto but not for avrPtoB. [source]

    Commuting, Migration, and Rural-Urban Population Dynamics

    Mitch Renkow
    Over the past 25 years social scientists attempting to explain the dramatic changes in the relative distribution of urban and rural population growth have gravitated toward two competing explanations. The regional restructuring hypothesis holds that changes in the spatial distribution of employment opportunities have been dominant whereas the deconcentration hypothesis attributes these changes to changes in residential preferences of workers and consumers. We develop an empirical test of these two explanations based on whether commuting and migration are positively or negatively related after controlling for other economic factors. Our econometric results support the deconcentration hypothesis. [source]

    Size-Frequency Distributions of Miocene Micromorphic Brachiopods: Interpretation Tool for Population Dynamics

    MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Maria Aleksandra Bitner
    Abstract. The population dynamics of the fossil micromorphic brachiopods from shallow-water Miocene deposits (calcareous clays to hard bottom of reef cavities) of the Roztocze Hills, south-eastern Poland were studied by means of size-frequency distributions. The following four species, which all also occur in the Recent Mediterranean, were used for the study: Megathiris detruncata (Gmelin), Argyrotheca cuneata (Risso), A. cordata (Risso) and Megerlia truncata (Linnaeus). The size-frequency distributions for 28 assemblages studied here vary widely, even within a single species, from right-skewed, through bell-shaped to polymodal; no left-skewed distribution was noted. The size-frequency distributions with a large peak in the smaller size classes represent mostly assemblages collected from marly deposits. Those assemblages may be interpreted as inhabiting soft bottoms where small brachiopods are more vulnerable to burial by sediment and/or clogging effects on the lophophore apparatus. The assemblages collected from the reef cavities produced bell-shaped size-frequency distributions or distributions with a relatively high percent of larger individuals. This is because the protected hard bottom cryptic habitats are characterised by lower juvenile mortality and enable the brachiopods to reach a larger size. These results suggest that environmental factors play a crucial role in shaping brachiopod population structures, and that empty shells can be used to study population dynamics as well in Recent environments. [source]

    Herbivory and Abiotic Factors Affect Population Dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana in a Sand Dune Area

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    A. Mosleh Arany
    Abstract: Population dynamics of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. were studied in a natural habitat of this species on the coastal dunes of the Netherlands. The main objective was to elucidate factors controlling population dynamics and the relative importance of factors affecting final population density. Permanent plots were established and plants were mapped to obtain data on survival and reproductive performance of each individual, with special attention to herbivore damage. In experimental plots we studied how watering, addition of nutrients, artificial disturbance, and natural herbivores affected survival and growth. Mortality was low during autumn and early winter and high at the time of stem elongation, between February and April. A key factor analysis showed a high correlation between mortality from February to April and total mortality. The specialist weevils Ceutorhyncus atomus and C. contractus (Curculionidae) were identified as the major insect herbivores on A. thaliana, reducing seed production by more than 40 %. These herbivores acted in a plant size-dependent manner, attacking a greater fraction of the fruits on large plants. While mortality rates were not affected by density, fecundity decreased with density, although the effect was small. Adding water reduced mortality in rosette and flowering plant stages. Soil disturbance did not increase seed germination, but did have a significant positive effect on survival of rosette and flowering plants. Seed production of A. thaliana populations varied greatly between years, leading to population fluctuations, with a small role for density-dependent fecundity and plant size-dependent herbivory. [source]

    Measurement Error in a Random Walk Model with Applications to Population Dynamics

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2006
    John Staudenmayer
    Summary Population abundances are rarely, if ever, known. Instead, they are estimated with some amount of uncertainty. The resulting measurement error has its consequences on subsequent analyses that model population dynamics and estimate probabilities about abundances at future points in time. This article addresses some outstanding questions on the consequences of measurement error in one such dynamic model, the random walk with drift model, and proposes some new ways to correct for measurement error. We present a broad and realistic class of measurement error models that allows both heteroskedasticity and possible correlation in the measurement errors, and we provide analytical results about the biases of estimators that ignore the measurement error. Our new estimators include both method of moments estimators and "pseudo"-estimators that proceed from both observed estimates of population abundance and estimates of parameters in the measurement error model. We derive the asymptotic properties of our methods and existing methods, and we compare their finite-sample performance with a simulation experiment. We also examine the practical implications of the methods by using them to analyze two existing population dynamics data sets. [source]

    Contrasting Population Dynamics of the Endemic New Caledonian Conifer Araucaria laubenfelsii in Maquis and Rain Forest

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 4 2010
    Lesley S. Rigg
    ABSTRACT This study compares demographic parameters and population dynamics for high disturbance (maquis) and low disturbance (rain forest) environments of the montane conifer, Araucaria laubenfelsii, in New Caledonia. The establishment, growth, survival and reproduction of ca 2500 individuals were followed in permanent plots over 10 yr. Growth and survival rates for A. laubenfelsii show that it is a long-lived, slow growing tree, with evidence of suppression in the sapling size classes in mature rain forest. Growth rates for all size classes are generally faster in maquis than rain forest. Transition matrix analyses estimated positive rates of population increase (, values>1), with populations expanding in maquis, and stable in mature forest. Araucaria laubenfelsii is able to regenerate continuously in maquis and early successional rain forest, but recruitment is limited in older stands. Life table response experiment analyses showed that reproduction, and transitions from sapling to mature tree stage, contributed positively to , in maquis, but negatively in forest. Araucaria laubenfelsii on Mont Do can be considered a long-lived pioneer, with early maquis colonizers helping to drive succession from maquis to forest. While opportunities for recruitment decline with time as rain forest sites develop a closed canopy, occasional gap phase recruitment, combined with disturbance by cyclones, landslides and fire, provide opportunities to ensure species persistence. Understanding contrasting population dynamics of A. laubenfelsii in maquis and rain forest will better facilitate conservation management of this species, particularly given current high rates of land conversion and degradation in New Caledonia. Abstract in French is available at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/btp [source]

    Population Dynamics of a Resident Colony of Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Central México

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2004
    Cristobal Galindo G.
    ABSTRACT We studied the population dynamics of the lesser long,nosed bat Leptonycteris curasoae in a cave in central Mexico for a two-year time. The population had substantial seasonal changes in size and composition during this time. Colony size was largest from February to July (22,000,27,000 adults) and contained equal numbers of males and females. In June and July, males had enlarged testes and presumably mated with females. In August, the population size began to decline and was mostly composed of pregnant females. Between September and December, the colony was composed exclusively of pregnant and lactating females and their young, and population size decreased to about one,third of the observed maximum size. In January, adult males returned to the roost and the population size increased. We also observed an increase in body mass and fat accumulation in both sexes, apparently related to reproductive activity. This is the first report of the continuous presence of a substantial female population of L. curasoae throughout the year in a single roost in Mexican tropics, indicating that some populations of L curasoae in central Mexico complete their life cycle without having to migrate. RESUMEN Se estudió la dinámica poblacional del murciélago nectarivoro Leptonycteris curasoae en una cueva localizada en el centro de México durante dos años. La población presentó cambios sustanciales en su tamaño y composición durante este periodo. El tamaño más grande de la población se registró entre febrero y julio (22,000,27,000 individuos) con una proporción similar de hembras y machos. En junio y Julio los testfculos de los machos crecieron y aparentemente se aparearon con las hembras. En agosto, la población empezó a disminuir y se encontraron casi exclusivamente hembras preñadaz. Entre septiembre y diciembre, la colonia estuvo compuesta exclusãvamente de hembras preñadaz o lactantes y de sus cri'as. La población disminuyó en este periodo hasta equivaler a una tercera pane del tamaño máximo registrado en el año. En enero, la población empezo a crecer de nuevo con la incorporación de machos adultos. Durante el ano, en ambos sexos se observaron también cambios en la masa corporal y en la acumulación de grasa aparentemente relacionados con la actividad reproductiva. Este es el primer estudio que reporta la presencia continua de hembras en una colonia de L. curasoae en la misma cueva durante todo el ano para el centro de México. Nuestros resultados indican que esta población no es migratoria a diferencia de otras poblaciones de esta especie. [source]

    Population dynamics of insects associated with Rumex obtusifolius in different habitats

    Ohseok KWON
    Abstract The effect of different habitats on insect communities associated with Rumex obtusifolius was studied in detail. Study sites were selected for their variety of environmental characteristics (vegetation and habitat): shaded woodland, disturbed wasteland and pasture. The results of this study were that insect populations associated with R. obtusifolius responded differently to the different habitats. The observed differences in population dynamics among the insects showed quite clearly their responses to different habitats. There was also a pattern of time partitioning in the exploitation of the host-plant among the insect species observed. Philaenus spumarius at nymphal stage had a peak density on approximately 20 June, Apion frumentarium and Apion spp. (Apion species other than A. frumentarium) had a peak density on approximately 30 June and Aphis rumicis had a peak density on approximately 28 July. This pattern of shift in time for peak population density (time-shift) among the insects sharing a common host-plant may guarantee each insect the opportunity to exploit the plant to a maximum. [source]

    Population dynamics of the ectomycorrhizal fungal species Tricholoma populinum and Tricholoma scalpturatum associated with black poplar under differing environmental conditions

    Hervé Gryta
    Summary Fungi combine sexual reproduction and clonal propagation. The balance between these two reproductive modes affects establishment dynamics, and ultimately the evolutionary potential of populations. The pattern of colonization was studied in two species of ectomycorrhizal fungi: Tricholoma populinum and Tricholoma scalpturatum. The former is considered to be a host specialist whereas T. scalpturatum is a generalist taxon. Fruit bodies of both basidiomycete species were mapped and collected over several years from a black poplar (Populus nigra) stand, at two different sites. Multilocus genotypes (= genets) were identified based on the analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (rDNA IGS). The genetic analyses revealed differences in local population dynamics between the two species. Tricholoma scalpturatum tended to capture new space through sexual spores whereas T. populinum did this by clonal growth, suggesting trade-offs in allocation of resources at the genet level. Genet numbers and sizes strongly differ between the two study sites, perhaps as a result of abiotic disturbance on mycelial establishment and genet behaviour. [source]

    Population dynamics and stock status of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, caught in Australian recreational and commercial coastal fisheries

    G. C. FRY
    Abstract, Age and growth of Rachycentron canadum (L.) was studied in northern and eastern Australia to provide data for a preliminary assessment of the stock and to explore possible fisheries management strategies using minimum legal lengths. Fish collected from commercial and recreational fisheries ranged in size and weight from 125 to 1633 mm fork length (FL) and 0.031 to 55 kg respectively. Annual growth increments in sectioned otoliths formed by November,December. Estimated ages ranged from 0 to 7 yr for both genders. Longevity was estimated to be at least 13 yr. Von Bertalanffy growth function parameters were L = 1160 mm FL, K = 0.63 yr,1 and t0 = ,0.21 yr,1. Rachycentron canadum reach 600 mm FL in their first year and over 1000 mm FL in 3 years. Natural and total mortalities were estimated at 0.35 yr,1 and 0.85 yr,1, respectively. Populations of R. canadum may be vulnerable to growth overfishing under the current minimum legal length of 750 mm total length (TL) in Queensland waters. An increase in minimum legal length to 850 mm TL is recommended. [source]

    Population dynamics and reproduction of Northern Lapwings Vanellus vanellus in a meadow restoration area in central Sweden

    IBIS, Issue 3 2002
    Åke Berg
    To investigate the effectiveness of a meadow restoration programme, we studied the relationships between population changes and environmental changes, return rates and hatching success in a population of Northern Lapwings Vanellus vanellus. The study was performed on mixed farmland (59 km2) in central Sweden, an area that underwent extensive meadow restoration between 1985 and 1994. The study included more than 2600 nests, supplemented with observations of 127 individually colour-ringed Northern Lapwings. The breeding population varied (2.7,5.3 pairs/km2), but showed no significant trend with time. The population increased in years with high spring flooding levels. Population size was unrelated to demographic factors (e.g. hatching success the previous year (14,50%), and return rate). Lapwings moved considerably between years and their nest site fidelity was unrelated to previous hatching success or other factors, suggesting that changes in habitat quality and migration between populations were important in regulating population size. Recent extensive meadow restoration did not seem to aid the Northern Lapwing population; birds continued nesting on tillage even though most nests were destroyed by farming activities. A relatively high relaying frequency improved hatching success, which was still lowest in the most preferred habitats (spring sown crops, total hatching success c. 30%). The few Northern Lapwings breeding in the least preferred habitats (meadows and cultivated grassland) had a better hatching success (> 70% total hatching success), suggesting that habitat selection was not determined by hatching success. From these results, recommendations are made for the management of Northern Lapwing (and associated species) populations on farmland. [source]

    Population dynamics of serologically identified coinfections with human papillomavirus types 11, 16, 18 and 31 in fertile-aged Finnish women

    Marjo Kaasila
    Abstract Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are expected to prevent high-risk (hr) HPV-infections (most notably types 16 and 18). Whether HPV vaccination will change the distribution of hrHPVs at the population level is open, since competition between HPV types is not well understood. Two stratified random subcohorts (1983,1997 and 1995,2003) of 7,815 and 3,252 women with a minimum of 2 pregnancies (<32 years) were selected from the Finnish Maternity Cohort. Using ELISA based on virus-like particles (VLP), we determined antibodies to HPV11, 16, 18 and 31 in paired sera of the women and used Poisson regression models to estimate the risk of further infection with other HPV types in those positive for HPV16 or HPV18 at baseline. Baseline HPV16 seropositivity was associated with increased risk of later infections with HPV18 (3.1, 95% CI: 1.7, 5.6). HPV18 seropositivity was associated with increased risk of HPV16 (3.9, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.1). Our observations favor a coinfection rather than superinfection model for the different HPV types and are not suggestive for type-replacement following HPV vaccination. © 2009 UICC [source]

    Population dynamics of the pipistrelle bat: effects of sex, age and winter weather on seasonal survival

    Thomas Sendor
    Summary 1Life-history theory assumes increased mortality at certain stages such as hibernation. However, seasonal variation of survival rates of hibernating mammals has rarely been estimated. In this study, apparent survival of pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) hibernating and performing summer swarming at a large hibernaculum (Marburg Castle, Hesse, Germany), was modelled using seasonal (summer/winter) capture,recapture data for the years 1996,2000. The spring survival interval includes the period of arousal at the end of hibernation and therefore validly measures survival associated with hibernation. 2In five summers and four winters, 15 839 bats were captured and released (13 082 individuals) and 3403 recaptures recorded. Analysis was complicated by transience and trap-dependence. Recapture rates varied seasonally and by group. The autumnal survival estimates were negatively biased due to transience effects that could not be taken into account. 3Survival could be modelled using two age-classes, with reduced first-year juvenile survival. The age effect persisted over the first autumn and spring. There was virtually no evidence for sex-specific survival rates; male and female survival were found to be almost equal. In the best-fitting models, survival rates varied over time and differed among sexes and age-classes by a constant amount. Between years, there was only a small variation in spring survival, which could not be explained by winter severity. 4Adult spring survival was surprisingly high, averaging 0·892 (= 0·028). No evidence for increased mortality during hibernation could be found. This contradicted the expectation of reduced over-winter survival due to depleted fat reserves at the end of hibernation. Thus, hibernation does apparently not entail a survival cost for the pipistrelle bat. Rough estimates of annual adult survival averaged 0·799 ( = 0·051), which considerably exceeds previous estimates; annual juvenile survival was estimated at 0·527 ( = 0·095). Hence, previous studies have substantially underestimated pipistrelle bat survival. Possible consequences of these findings for various aspects of life histories are discussed. [source]

    Simulating spatially and physiologically structured populations

    William S. C. Gurney
    Summary 1,Population dynamics are frequently the product of a subtle interplay between development and dispersal in an inhomogeneous environment. Simulations of spatially inhomogeneous populations with physiologically distinguishable individuals are a known source of numerical difficulty. 2,This paper reports a new and highly efficient algorithm for this problem, whose accuracy we demonstrate by comparison with conventional numerical solutions of one-dimensional problems. 3,As an illustration, we construct a two (space)-dimensional model of a copepod (Calanus finmarchicus) in the NE Atlantic, and demonstrate that its predictions correspond closely with those of an equivalent Lagrangian ensemble. [source]

    Population dynamics of nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and impala (Aepyceros) in Lengwe National Park, Malawi

    John A. Kazembe
    First page of article [source]

    Genetic structure of two populations of the Namibian giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis

    Rick A. Brenneman
    Abstract Two geographically distinct populations of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) were sampled for this study, the northern Namib Desert and Etosha National Park. Population genetic parameters and relationships within subpopulations were estimated to better understand the genetic architecture of this isolated subspecies. Gene flow between the geographically separated populations can be attributed to recent translocation of giraffe between the two populations. Inbreeding estimates in the six subpopulations studied were low though we found evidence that genetic drift may be affecting the genetic diversity of the isolated populations in northern Namibia. Population dynamics of the sampling locations was inferred with relationship coefficient analyses. Recent molecular systematics of the Namibian giraffe populations indicates that they are distinct from the subspecies Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa and classified as G. c. angolensis. Based on genetic analyses, these giraffe populations of northern Namibia, the desert-dwelling giraffe and those protected in Etosha National Park, are a distinct subspecies from that previously assumed; thus we add data on G. c. angolensis to our scientific knowledge of this giraffe of southern Africa. Résumé Deux populations de girafes (Giraffa camelopardalis) distinctes sur le plan géographique ont servi d'échantillons pour cette étude, celle du nord du Désert du Namib et celle du Parc National d'Etosha. Nous avons estimé les paramètres génétiques des populations et les relations au sein des sous-populations pour mieux comprendre l'architecture génétique de cette sous-espèce isolée. Les flux génétiques entre les populations séparées géographiquement peuvent être attribués à la récente translocation de girafes entre ces deux populations. L'inbreeding estimé dans les six sous-populations étudiées était faible, encore que nous ayons découvert des preuves que la dérive génétique pourrait bien affecter la diversité génétique des populations isolées dans le nord de la Namibie. La dynamique des populations des endroits où furent faits les échantillonnages fut déduite en fonction de l'analyse des coefficients. La nouvelle systématique moléculaire des populations de girafes de Namibie indique qu'elles sont distinctes de la sous-espèce Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa et classées comme G.c. angolensis. Selon les analyses génétiques, ces populations de girafes du nord de la Namibie, les girafes qui vivent dans le désert et celles qui sont protégées dans le Parc National d'Etosha sont une sous-espèce distincte de celle que l'on croyait auparavant, et nous ajoutons ainsi des données sur G.c. angolensisà la connaissance scientifique de cette girafe d'Afrique australe. [source]

    Population dynamics in Digitalis purpurea: the interaction of disturbance and seed bank dynamics

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    Summary 1Plant ecologists have long since realized that the persistence of many facultative biennial plants depends upon disturbance. However, we still have a limited knowledge of the population-level effects of disturbance, and the connection between adult and seed bank dynamics. 2Using data from a 3-year demographic study combined with experimental gap-opening in a large population of Digitalis purpurea, we parameterized stochastic transition matrix models in ,disturbed' vs. ,undisturbed' areas. We simulated different gap sizes (fraction of population that was disturbed) and temporal disturbance patterns (constant, random, regular and irregular return intervals) and evaluated the effects on population growth rate and seed bank dynamics. To explore seed bank importance we used two alternatives for seed bank survival rate (0.75/0.35) and three alternatives for seed bank recruitment fraction (0.9/0.5/0.1). 3Observed background recruitment levels were insufficient to ensure a positive population growth rate. Increased amounts of gap-opening led to higher growth rates, and population persistence was predicted at moderate disturbance levels if seed bank survival was high (0.75). 4Temporal disturbance pattern affected model results; random and interval scenarios resulted in lower population growth rates and higher extinction risks than constant scenarios of the same average disturbance level. Small and frequent disturbances led to considerably higher growth rates than large and rare disturbances. 5Stochastic elasticity analyses identified the seed bank as the most important life cycle stage with respect to population growth and persistence in most scenarios, and its relative impact was positively related to seed bank survival rate and negatively related to disturbance level. Variation in the recruitment fraction from seed bank vs. seed rain affected both population growth rate and elasticity patterns, indicating the large impact of spatial variation in seed bank density. 6Synthesis: Despite the existence of a large seed bank, our data suggest that recruitment may be locally seed-limited due to a patchy seed bank structure. Local population development may consequently differ widely from gap to gap. These results illustrate how spatial structures in both seed bank, adult population and gap formation interact to shape plant population dynamics, as well as the occurrence of microsite- vs. seed-limitation. [source]

    Population dynamics and stage structure in a haploid-diploid red seaweed, Gracilaria gracilis

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Carolyn Engel
    Summary 1,Many red seaweeds are characterized by a haploid-diploid life cycle in which populations consist of dioecious haploid (gametophyte) and diploid (tetrasporophyte) individuals as well as an additional diploid zygote-derived sporangium (carposporophyte) stage. A demographic analysis of Gracilaria gracilis populations was carried out to explore and evaluate the population dynamics and stage structure of a typical haploid-diploid red seaweed. 2,Four G. gracilis populations were studied at two sites on the French coast of the Strait of Dover. Survival, reproduction and recruitment rates were measured in each population for up to 4 years. Eight two-sex stage-based population projection matrices were built to describe their demography. 3,All four populations were characterized by high survival and low recruitment rates. Population growth rates (,) were similar between populations and between years and ranged from 1.03 to 1.17. In addition, generation times were found to be as long as 42 years. 4,Sex and ploidy ratios were variable across populations and over time. Female frequencies ranged from 0.31 to 0.59 and tetrasporophyte frequencies from 0.44 to 0.63. However, in most cases, the observed population structures were not significantly different from the calculated stage distributions. 5,Eigenvalue elasticity analysis showed that , was most sensitive to changes in matrix transitions that corresponded to survival of the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte stages. In contrast, the contribution of the fertility elements to , was small. Eigenvector elasticity analysis also showed that survival elements had the greatest impact on sex and ploidy ratios. [source]

    Population dynamics of fisheries stock enhancement

    K. Lorenzen
    The population dynamics of fisheries stock enhancement, and its potential for generating benefits over and above those obtainable from optimal exploitation of wild stocks alone are poorly understood and highly controversial. I extend the dynamic pool theory of fishing to stock enhancement by unpacking recruitment, incorporating regulation in the recruited stock, and accounting for biological differences between wild and hatchery fish. I then analyse the dynamics of stock enhancement and its potential role in fisheries management, using the candidate stock of North Sea sole as an example. Enhancement through release of recruits or advanced juveniles is predicted to increase total yield and stock abundance, but reduce abundance of the naturally recruited stock component through compensatory responses or overfishing. Release of genetically maladapted fish reduces the effectiveness of enhancement, and is most detrimental overall if fitness of hatchery fish is only moderately compromised. As a temporary measure for rebuilding of depleted stocks, enhancement can not substitute for effort limitation, and is advantageous as an auxiliary measure only if the population has been reduced to a very low proportion of its unexploited biomass. Quantitative analysis of population dynamics is central to the responsible use of stock enhancement in fisheries management, and the necessary tools are available. [source]

    Population dynamics of cereal aphids: influence of a shared predator and weather

    T. W. Leslie
    Abstract 1,Aphid populations may show strong year-to-year fluctuations, but questions remain regarding the dominance of factors that cause this variation, especially the role of natural enemies. To better understand the dynamics of aphid species that occur as pests in cereals, we investigated the relative influence of top-down control by a predator and weather (temperature and precipitation) on population fluctuations of three cereal aphid species. 2,From 1987 to 2005, populations of Metopolophium dirhodum, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi in insecticide-free stands of winter wheat were monitored in the Praha-Ruzyné region of the Czech Republic. Densities of an aphidophagous predator, the ladybeetle Coccinella septempunctata, were recorded from an overwintering site in the landscape. Weather was quantified using historical records. 3,A significant bottom-up effect of densities of aphids on those of C. septempunctata was found, but evidence of direct top-down regulation of aphids by C. septempunctata was only significant in the case of R. padi. There was no significant periodicity in the dynamics of the aphid or C. septempunctata, suggesting that there was no clear predator-prey cycle. Combinations of C. septempunctata and weather variables could be used to explain M. dirhodum and R. padi per capita rate of change. There were also indications that weather directly affected peak density of M. dirhodum. 4,We conclude that regional estimates of C. septempunctata densities are not sufficient to determine whether aphid population dynamics are driven by predator,prey interactions. Feasibility of time series analysis as an investigative tool in aphid population dynamics studies is discussed. [source]

    Spatial synchrony of planthopper species with contrasting outbreak behaviour

    Mariano P. Grilli
    Abstract 1,We studied the synchrony of two sympatric delphacids species with different outbreak behaviours over a range of 250 km in Argentina. 2,The spatial synchrony in the dynamics of Delphacodes kuscheli and Toya propinqua was quantified by collecting individuals of both species simultaneously at three sampling heights: ground, 1.5 m and 6 m above the ground. Synchrony between paired sampling sites separated by increasing distances was estimated using a nonparametric covariance function. 3,A significant difference was found between the spatial synchrony of the species studied. Delphacodes kuscheli individuals collected at 6 m above the ground showed consistent spatial synchrony over long distances with correlation values declining by 40%. Population dynamics showed declining synchrony as site separation increased. Toya propinqua populations did not show this pattern. This species had a lower mean regional synchrony at at 6 m above the ground, but their ground height synchrony was greater than that observed for D. kuscheli. 4,One possible synchronizing mechanism is seasonality and the dispersal strategies of each species. The main host plants of D. kuscheli are winter cereals sown as pasture for cattle grazing and the synchrony of the crop may affect the general pattern of dispersing individuals of this species. The lack of synchrony observed in T. propinqua populations was probably due to the wider host range of this species. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Corinne R. Lehr
    The unicellular eukaryotic algae Cyanidium, Galdieria, and Cyanidioschyzon (herein referred to as "cyanidia") are the only photoautotrophs occurring in acidic (pH<4.0) geothermal environments at temperatures above 40°C. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), we examined an annual event we refer to as "mat decline," where cyanidial mats undergo a seasonably defined color fading. Monthly sampling of chemical, physical, and biological features revealed that spring aqueous chemistry was essentially invariant over the 1-year sampling period. However, multiple regression analysis suggested that a significant proportion of algal most probable number (MPN) count variation could be explained by water temperature and UV,visible (VIS) light exposure. Irradiance manipulations (filtering) were then coupled with 14CO2 incorporation experiments to directly demonstrate UV inhibition of photosynthesis. Population dynamics were also evident in 18S rDNA PCR clone libraries, which were different in composition at MPN maxima and minima, and again evident in PCR-amplified chloroplast genomic short sequence repeat (SSR) analysis. PCR-cloned SSRs of the YNP isolates and mats were very similar to Cyanidioschyzon merolae Luca, Taddei et Varano, although distance analysis could distinguish the YNP cyanidia from the genome sequenced C. merolae that was isolated in Italy. Unexpectedly, while phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequences and SSR sequences derived from YNP cyanidial mats and pure cultures suggested these algae are most closely related to C. merolae (99.7% identity), cell morphology was consistent with the genera Galdieria and Cyanidium. [source]

    Comparative demography of three coexisting Acer species in gaps and under closed canopy

    H. Tanaka
    Abstract Questions: 1. Is there a trade-off between gap dependency and shade tolerance in each of the life-history stages of three closely related, coexisting species, Acer amoenum (Aa), A. mono (Am) and A. rufinerve (Ar)? 2. If not, what differences in life-history traits contribute to the coexistence of these non-pioneer species? Location: Ogawa Forest Reserve, a remnant (98 ha), species-rich, temperate deciduous forest in central Japan (36°56' N, 140°35' E, 600 - 660 m a.s.l.). Methods: We estimated the demographic parameters (survival, growth rate and fecundity) by stage of each species growing in gaps and under closed canopy through observations of a 6-ha permanent plot over 12 years. Population dynamics were analysed with stage-based matrix models including gap dynamics. Results: All of the species showed high seedling and sapling survival rates under closed canopies. However, demographic parameters for each growth stage in gaps and under closed canopies revealed inter-specific differences and ontogenetic shifts. The trade-off between survival in the shade and growth in gaps was detected only at the small sapling stage (height < 30 cm), and Ar had the highest growth rate both in the shade and in the gaps at most life stages. Conclusions: Inter-specific differences and ontogenetic shifts in light requirements with life-form differences may contribute to the coexistence of the Acer species in old-growth forests, with Aa considered a long-lived sub-canopy tree, Am a long-lived canopy tree, and Ar a short-lived,,gap-phase' sub-canopy tree. [source]

    Is Anywhere Stuck in a Malthusian Trap?

    Charles Kenny
    SUMMARY The key features of the Malthusian model are that (i) income determines population growth, with rising wages increasing survival rates and (ii) there is a vital factor of production (land) which is fixed, implying decreased returns to scale for all other factors. The equilibrium state in such a model is a population living on subsistence incomes. The country-level analysis in this paper suggests that (i) the link between income and population growth is (almost) everywhere broken and (ii) there is little evidence of declining returns to scale because of constraints imposed by land carrying capacity anywhere. Population dynamics are being driven by non-income factors in a manner that is reducing population growth rates everywhere. At the same time, output is increasing everywhere, in a manner inconsistent with significantly declining returns to scale based on land being a vital factor of production. [source]