Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Political

  • broader political
  • contemporary political
  • current political
  • different political
  • new political

  • Terms modified by Political

  • political accountability
  • political action
  • political activism
  • political activity
  • political actor
  • political affiliation
  • political agency
  • political agenda
  • political agent
  • political allegiance
  • political alliance
  • political analysis
  • political anthropology
  • political approach
  • political arena
  • political argument
  • political arrangement
  • political aspect
  • political association
  • political attention
  • political attitude
  • political authority
  • political awareness
  • political behavior
  • political behaviour
  • political belief
  • political boundary
  • political business cycle
  • political campaign
  • political candidate
  • political capacity
  • political capital
  • political career
  • political centre
  • political challenge
  • political change
  • political characteristic
  • political choice
  • political circumstance
  • political class
  • political climate
  • political coalition
  • political commentator
  • political commitment
  • political communication
  • political community
  • political competition
  • political concept
  • political concern
  • political condition
  • political conflict
  • political connection
  • political consciousness
  • political consequence
  • political consideration
  • political constraint
  • political context
  • political control
  • political controversy
  • political crisis
  • political culture
  • political cycle
  • political debate
  • political decentralization
  • political decision
  • political decision-making
  • political demand
  • political democracy
  • political development
  • political difference
  • political dimension
  • political discourse
  • political discussion
  • political dispute
  • political dynamics
  • political ecology
  • political economics
  • political economy
  • political economy approach
  • political economy literature
  • political economy perspective
  • political effects
  • political efficacy
  • political elite
  • political emergency
  • political empowerment
  • political engagement
  • political environment
  • political equality
  • political event
  • political experience
  • political expression
  • political factor
  • political failure
  • political field
  • political figure
  • political force
  • political form
  • political fragmentation
  • political freedom
  • political geography
  • political goal
  • political governance
  • political groups
  • political hierarchy
  • political historian
  • political history
  • political idea
  • political identity
  • political ideology
  • political imagination
  • political impact
  • political imperative
  • political implication
  • political incentive
  • political incorporation
  • political independence
  • political influence
  • political information
  • political instability
  • political institution
  • political interaction
  • political interest
  • political interference
  • political intervention
  • political involvement
  • political islam
  • political issue
  • political issues
  • political judgment
  • political jurisdiction
  • political knowledge
  • political leader
  • political leadership
  • political legitimacy
  • political level
  • political liberalization
  • political life
  • political marketing
  • political message
  • political mobilisation
  • political mobilization
  • political moment
  • political morality
  • political movement
  • political myth
  • political nature
  • political negotiation
  • political neutrality
  • political objective
  • political obligation
  • political office
  • political opinion
  • political opportunity
  • political opportunity structure
  • political opposition
  • political order
  • political organisation
  • political organization
  • political orientation
  • political outcome
  • political participation
  • political party
  • political persecution
  • political philosophers
  • political philosophy
  • political policy
  • political position
  • political possibility
  • political power
  • political practice
  • political preference
  • political pressure
  • political principle
  • political priority
  • political problem
  • political process
  • political program
  • political programme
  • political project
  • political psychology
  • political purpose
  • political ramification
  • political rationality
  • political realism
  • political reality
  • political realm
  • political reason
  • political regime
  • political relation
  • political relationships
  • political representation
  • political resistance
  • political resource
  • political response
  • political responsibility
  • political rhetoric
  • political right
  • political risk
  • political role
  • political salience
  • political science
  • political scientists
  • political setting
  • political significance
  • political situation
  • political skill
  • political socialization
  • political society
  • political sociology
  • political solution
  • political sophistication
  • political space
  • political spectrum
  • political sphere
  • political stability
  • political stake
  • political status
  • political strategy
  • political strength
  • political structure
  • political struggle
  • political studies
  • political support
  • political system
  • political tension
  • political term
  • political theology
  • political theorist
  • political theory
  • political thought
  • political tie
  • political tool
  • political transformation
  • political transition
  • political trust
  • political uncertainty
  • political value
  • political variable
  • political views
  • political violence
  • political work
  • political world

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 2 2008
    In this paper we look at the impact of broad policy reforms on the levels of corruption. We use a structural break approach to identify country-specific time periods in which significant shifts in corruption levels take place. We then correlate these times of change with a set of covariates with specific focus on the impact of democratization, and trade and equity market liberalization. We find robust support for the hypothesis that episodes of reduction in corruption levels tend to be correlated with democratization and equity market liberalization. [source]


    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 1 2008
    This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified, no effective separation exists even within a presidential system, but, we argue, can be partially restored by having an accountable judiciary. Our empirical findings show that a divided government and elected, rather than appointed, state supreme court judges are associated with lower corruption and, furthermore, that the effect of an accountable judiciary is stronger under a unified government, where the government cannot control itself. [source]


    Michael Asch
    This article addresses the contribution of Lévi-Strauss's The elementary structures of kinship to resolving political relations between indigenous peoples and the settler states. To this end, it explores his discussion of the origins of society within the context of Enlightenment-inspired political thought and concludes that he provides a unique, counter-hegemonic alternative to conventional narratives. It then shows how this argument thwarts the presumption in Canadian jurisprudence that indigenous peoples were automatically incorporated into the state through European settlement, and fosters an understanding that a relationship based on the concept of ,Treaty' as understood in indigenous political thought promotes a political relationship that affirms the integrity of all parties. [source]

    Strategies for Successful Marine Conservation: Integrating Socioeconomic, Political, and Scientific Factors

    áreas marinas protegidas; planificación de conservación; reservas marinas Abstract:,As the process of marine-protected-area design and implementation evolves, the incorporation of new tools will advance our ability to create and maintain effective protected areas. We reviewed characteristics and approaches that contribute to successful global marine conservation efforts. One successful characteristic emphasized in most case studies is the importance of incorporating stakeholders at all phases of the process. Clearly defined goals and objectives at all stages of the design process are important for improved communication and standardized expectations of stakeholder groups. The inclusion of available science to guide the size and design of marine protected areas and to guide clear monitoring strategies that assess success at scientific, social, and economic levels is also an important tool in the process. Common shortcomings in marine conservation planning strategies include government instability and resultant limitations to monitoring and enforcement, particularly in developing nations. Transferring knowledge to local community members has also presented challenges in areas where in situ training, local capacity, and existing infrastructure are sparse. Inaccessible, unavailable, or outdated science is often a limitation to conservation projects in developed and developing nations. To develop and maintain successful marine protected areas, it is necessary to acknowledge that each case is unique, to apply tools and lessons learned from other marine protected areas, and to maintain flexibility to adjust to the individual circumstances of the case at hand. Resumen:,A medida que evoluciona el proceso de diseño e implementación de áreas marinas protegidas, la incorporación de nuevas herramientas mejorará nuestra habilidad para crear y mantener áreas protegidas efectivas. Revisamos las características y enfoques que contribuyen a los esfuerzos exitosos de conservación marina global. La importancia de incorporar a los actores en todas las fases del proceso es una característica exitosa enfatizada en la mayoría de los estudios de caso. Es importante que haya metas y objetivos claramente definidos para todas las etapas del proceso de diseño para mejorar la comunicación y estandarizar las expectativas de los grupos interesados. La inclusión de la ciencia disponible para guiar el tamaño y diseño de áreas marinas protegidas y para guiar las estrategias de monitoreo que evalúa el éxito a nivel científico, social y económico también son herramientas importantes en el proceso. Defectos comunes en las estrategias de planificación de conservación marina incluyen la inestabilidad gubernamental y las resultantes limitaciones para el monitoreo y vigilancia, particularmente en países en desarrollo. La transferencia de conocimiento a miembros de la comunidad local también ha enfrentado retos en áreas donde el entrenamiento in situ, la aptitud local y la infraestructura existente son escasos. La ciencia inaccesible, no disponible u obsoleta a menudo es una limitación para los proyectos de conservación en países desarrollados y en desarrollo. Para desarrollar y mantener áreas marinas protegidas exitosas, es necesario reconocer que cada caso es único, aplicar herramientas y lecciones aprendidas en otras áreas marinas protegidas y mantener la flexibilidad para ajustarse a las circunstancias individuales de cada caso. [source]

    Globalization, Sovereignty, and the Rule of Law: From Political to Economic Constitutionalism?

    Kanishka Jayasuriya
    First page of article [source]

    Personal, Political, Theoretical: Learning Journals and Education

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 3 2002
    Ros King
    Abstract This paper perhaps takes a rather unusual form as it is both a description of a pedagogic method and a demonstration of that method in practice. It was first given as a presentation to the Writing in the Disciplines group run by Sally Mitchell at Queen Mary, University of London in June 2001. It concerns the use of learning journals on a particular course, ,Shakespeare in the Classroom', during which my students, who are studying for BA degrees in English or English and Drama, engage in an intense and demanding practical experience: teaching a Shakespeare play to classes in years 6, 7 or 8 in local inner London schools (website at: http:www.english.qmw.ac.uMShakesinClassHomePage.html). [source]

    The Self-Referential European Polity, its Legal Context and Systemic Differentiation: Theoretical Reflections on the Emergence of the EU's Political and Legal Autopoiesis

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 4 2009
    Jiri Priban
    It highlights the role of statehood in those debates and suggests moving beyond the constraints of institutionalist and constructivist perspectives by adopting specific notions from the theory of autopoietic social systems. The following part describes the EU political system as self-referential, functionally differentiated from the system of European law, and internally differentiated between European institutions and Member State governments. Although the Union transgresses its nation-state segmentation, the notions of statehood and democratic legitimacy continue to inform legal and political semantics of the EU and specific responses to the Union's systemic tensions, such as the policy of differentiated integration legislated by the flexibility clauses. The democratic deficit of instrumental legitimation justified by outcomes, the most recent example of which is the Lisbon Treaty, subsequently reveals the level of EU functional differentiation and the impossibility of fostering the ultimate construction of a normatively integrated and culturally united European polity. It shows a much more profound social dynamics of differentiation at the level of emerging European society,dynamics which do not adopt the concept of the European polity as an encompassing metaphor of this society, but makes it part of self-referential and self-limiting semantics of the functionally differentiated European political system. [source]

    Rethinking the Personal and the Political: Feminist Activism and Civic Engagement

    HYPATIA, Issue 4 2007
    The slogan "the personal is political" captures the distinctive challenge to the public-private divide posed by contemporary feminists. As such, feminist activism is not necessarily congruent with civic engagement, which is predicated on the paradoxical need to both bridge and sustain the public-private divide. Lee argues that rather than subverting the divide, the politics of the personal offers an alternative understanding of civic engagement that aims to reinstate individuals' dignity and agency. [source]

    Political and social drivers for access to the countryside: the need for research on birds and recreational disturbance

    IBIS, Issue 2007
    The introduction of a statutory right of access to open country and registered common land in England and Wales in 2005 was a major milestone in a campaign traceable to the 19th century, with views strongly polarized between social classes and political parties, and between land owners and campaigners. More recently, access has also been recognized as a factor contributing to quality-of-life, public health, social diversity and rural economic issues. The mapping of access land revealed that 55% of it is also designated Site of Special Scientific Interest, where wildlife is legally conserved. This has generated a need to assess the implications of access in each case, and take measures to ensure nationally and internationally important features are protected, drawing on sound scientific principles. Early research, although competently undertaken, often failed to address population-scale effects significant at the designated-site level, enabling disputes and polarized ,beliefs' to be articulated. Hence, in addition to drawing up formal and transparent procedures for evaluating impacts and resolving difficulties, funds were released and a major programme initiated, commissioning applied research of direct relevance to the implementation of the legislation. This has pushed forward the boundaries of knowledge in a field which is both difficult and expensive to study. By gradually replacing ,belief' with evidence, this represents a case study in resolving environmental disputes. [source]

    A paradigmatic and methodological examination of information systems research from 1991 to 2001

    WenShin Chen
    Abstract., The field of information systems (IS) has evolved for more than three decades. Although many schools of thought have emerged and even become well established, few historical analyses of research paradigms and methodologies have been undertaken. One of the rare exceptions is Orlikowski & Baroudi (1991). Yet, the IS research community has evolved substantially since 1991 in many aspects. A variety of journal outlets have emerged and become well established. More attention has been paid to paradigmatic and methodological issues. Political and professional contexts have also changed noticeably. Therefore, it should be an opportune time for the field to ask: ,What changes are manifested in journal publications?',Is the field making progress regarding pluralism in IS research?',How will the field's publications practices change in the future?' The purpose of this paper is to investigate these questions and, in turn, reflect on the paradigmatic and methodological progress made since 1991. We examined 1893 articles published in eight major IS publication outlets between 1991 and 2001. Our findings suggest that the long-term endeavours of interpretivist researchers might need to continue because the paradigmatic progress appears somewhat inconsequential; positivist research still dominates 81% of published empirical research. In particular, US journals, as opposed to European journals, tend to be more positivist, quantitative, cross-sectional and survey oriented. With respect to research design, survey research is still the most widely used method (41%), although case studies have gained substantial recognition (36%). Further, the increase of qualitative research (30%), empirical studies (61%) and longitudinal cases (33%) at the expense of laboratory experiments (18%) might suggest that IS researchers have become more interested in obtaining scientific knowledge in real world settings. In summary, we suggest that the field has been dominated by the positivist paradigm, despite calls to the contrary. Indeed, if the field was to truly embrace pluralism, it would have to find ways to fundamentally change the publication practices of the journal system, including the current tenure and promotion system, which pose considerable obstacles for the acceptance of alternative paradigms. [source]

    Managing Contradiction: Civic Stratification and Migrants'Rights,

    Lydia Morris
    Political and academic interest in cross-national migration has generated two very different and potentially polarized positions. One perspective emphasizes the continuing power of the nation state, while the other sees migration, and more specifically migrants' rights, as the manifestation of an emergent ,post-national' society. This article offers a conceptual framework which addresses this polarization through the concept of civic stratification (Lockwood, 1996). In illustrating its application, the study shows how such an approach goes beyond a traditional citizenship framework (e.g., Marshall, 1950) in considering degrees of partial membership, but remains cautious with respect to claims about universal, transnational rights. [source]

    New Wine in Old Wineskins: Promoting Political Reforms through the New European Neighbourhood Policy,

    The EU's newly launched European neighbourhood policy (ENP) is a fascinating case study in organizational management theory of how the Commission strategically adapted enlargement policies to expand its foreign policy domain. From the use of action plans, regular reports and negotiations to the larger conceptualization and use of socialization and conditionality, the development of the policy shows significant mechanical borrowing from the enlargement strategies. Given the lack of the membership carrot, the question is whether such adaptation from enlargement can promote political reforms in the ENP countries, which are generally poor, often autocratic and, in some cases, embroiled in domestic conflicts. This article traces the development of the policy and assesses prospects for human rights and democracy reforms. [source]

    Political and Regulatory Risk in Water Utilities: Beta Sensitivity in the United Kingdom

    Roger Buckland
    UK utilities are generally regulated by the periodic setting of a price cap (the RPI-X mechanism). To establish these caps, regulators must determine what returns are appropriate on the capital employed by utilities. This paper addresses the issue of the level of risk inherent in investment in the equity of regulated water utilities in the UK. It uses the techniques of the Kalman Filter to estimate daily betas for the major utilities in the period from privatisation to mid-1999. The paper demonstrates that water utilities' risk is time-variant. It demonstrates, also, that there have been significant political and regulatory influences in the systematic risk faced by water utility shareholders. It finds beta to display little evidence of cyclical variation across the regulatory review cycle. The paper also confirms that significant excess returns have been generated over the history of the privatised water sector and suggests that over-estimation of systematic risk faced by investors in the sector may imply further excess returns in the next regulatory review period. [source]

    Political will, political skill, and political behavior

    Darren C. Treadway
    The current study used Mintzberg's (1983) conceptualization of political will and political skill to evaluate the predictors and consequences of political behavior at work. As elements of political will, we hypothesized that need for achievement and intrinsic motivation would predict the use of political behavior at work. Furthermore, we argued that political skill would moderate the relationship between political behavior and emotional labor. Data gathered from employees (N,=,193) representing a wide array of organizations substantiated the proposed relationships. Specifically, need for achievement and intrinsic motivation were positively associated with political behavior. In turn, those opting to employ political behavior at work experienced a higher degree of emotional labor, but this relationship was found to operate differently at low and high levels of political skill. Specifically, emotional labor was a consequence of political behavior for those low in political skill, but emotional labor reactions from political behavior were neutralized for individuals high in political skill. Implications of these results, strengths and limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Peter Simonson (Ed.). Politics, Social Networks, and the History of Mass Communications Research: Rereading "Personal Influence."Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 608.

    2006., Thousand Oaks: Sage
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    On the Role of Heroes in Political and Economic Processes

    Gebhard Kirchgässner
    I gratefully acknowledge helpful comments and suggestions by the participants of this conference, especially Geoffrey Brennan, Christoph Engel and Torsten Persson, as well as by Simon Gaechter. [source]

    Factors influencing the choice of methods in federal evaluation practice

    Eleanor Chelimsky
    A critical historical review of the tensions in American governance places the method choice debate in a broader perspective. This chapter reviews the factors that influence the evaluation questions posed to evaluators and, in turn, the methods choices that stem from it. Political and professional pressures on the evaluators also influence methods choice. Flexibility in methods is considered essential for the evaluator to design a study that considers both the context and the specifics of the question. [source]

    Varieties of Muslim Experience: Encounters with Arab Political and Cultural Life by Lawrence Rosen

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Georg Brandes between Politics and the Political,

    ORBIS LITERARUM, Issue 3 2007
    Poul Houe
    While conventional politics played a part in Georg Brandes's critical practice that has received ample scholarly attention, his appropriation of the political as an ontological concern with ,,the very way society is instituted'' (to cite Chantal Mouffe) has gone quite unheeded in studies of his writings. Yet I consider this dimension to be indispensable for Brandes's ability to articulate his most antagonistic leanings within democratic forms of discourse. Thus he reconciled an acceptance of concensus with the need for dissent. My essay interrogates three areas that were strongly on Brandes's mind during successive phases of his mature life: the Danish constitutional struggle of the 1880s, the so-called Dreyfus affair around 1900, and later the repression of minorities, foreign lands, and anti-war movements in Europe. In each area he makes an uncompromising stand within the boundary of civil, intellectual discourse. Such antagonism channeled into democratic expresssion is what Mouffe calls agonism, and as Brandes expresses antagonism at its most agonizing, I argue that he displays the political in a nutshell for a post-political era to behold. [source]

    Challenged Borderlands: Transcending Political and Cultural Boundaries.

    Olivier Kramsch
    First page of article [source]

    ,The Cow is Still the Most Important Figure in Indian Politics!': Religion, Imperial Culture and the Shaping of Indian Political Reform in the 1930s

    This essay assesses the impact of imperial culture, particularly constructions of India and hinduism, on British responses to the Indian nationalist movement in the 1930s. The essay draws on personal and governmental papers, paying special attention to the language and vocabulary employed by British policy makers concerned with Indian affairs. The major issue addressed here is the British presumption that the 1935 Government of India Act, a plan for a federated India with British central control, would defuse nationalist agitation. Such a sanguine view of this proposal seemed misplaced, given the popular success of the nationalists, especially Gandhi, and given the explicit demands of Indians for full self-government. However, such an optimistic assessment drew on presumptions about Indian political and social behaviour, and especially on conceptions of hinduism. Policy makers in Britain and India argued along well-established lines, that hinduism inculcated moral and physical weakness, among other deficiencies, and that a British offer of compromise would attract many Indians who feared continuing confrontation with the Raj. Moreover, colonial advisors relied on a belief that social and caste divisions within hinduism would recur within the nationalist ranks as well. This sense that Indians would respond to half-measures of reform persisted until the 1937 provincial elections. Though British administrators predicted only a moderate showing by the Indian National Congress, the polling proved otherwise, as Congress took power in the majority of the provinces. The Raj lasted another decade, but the confident cultural assumptions sustaining it took a fatal blow. [source]

    Seeking the Truth, Spiritual and Political: Japanese American Community Building through Engaged Ethnic Buddhism

    PEACE & CHANGE, Issue 1 2010
    Masumi Izumi
    This essay documents the history of the Senshin Buddhist Temple in South Central Los Angeles, a Japanese American temple belonging to the Jodo Shinshu (True Pure Land) School. In the United States, ethnic Buddhists are generally perceived as socially conservative and politically passive, while convert Buddhists are known to be active in peace movements and social activism. The essay analyzes the reforms Senshin members introduced to the temple's religious rituals and elucidates the development of new cultural activities and art forms, which not only contributed to the emergence of vernacular ethnic art and music, but also to the construction of a community of socially engaged Japanese American Buddhists. By opening their temple to members of local minority communities, Senshin Buddhists formed artistic and political coalitions with other peoples of color, harboring subaltern cultural activism, which transgressed national, racial, and religious borders, and defied hegemonic racial, gender, and class hierarchies. [source]

    External Freedom in Kant's Rechtslehre: Political, Metaphysical,

    External freedom is the central good protected in Kant's legal and political philosophy. But external freedom is perplexing, being at once freedom of spatio-temporal movement and a form of noumenal or ,intelligible'freedom. Moreover, it turns out that identifying impairments to external freedom nearly always involves recourse to an elaborated system of positive law, which seems to compromise external freedom's status as a prior, organizing good. Drawing heavily on Kant's understanding of the role of empirical ,anthropological'information in constructing a Doctrine of Right, or Rechtslehre, this essay offers an interpretation of external freedom that makes sense of its simultaneous spatio-temporality, dependence on positive law, intelligibility (or ,noumenality'), and a priority. The essay suggests that this account of Kantian external freedom has implications both for politics and for the metaphysics of everyday objects and institutions. [source]

    "For God and for the Crown": Contemporary Political and Social Attitudes among Orange Order Members in Northern Ireland

    James W. McAuley
    The Protestant Orange Order is the largest organization in civil society in Northern Ireland. From 1905 until 2005, the Order was linked to the Ulster Unionist Party, until recently the dominant local political force. However, widespread Unionist disenchantment with the 1998 Good Friday Agreement led to a shift in the votes of Orange Order members, in common with other Protestants, to the anti-Agreement Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), which traditionally has had no links to the Order. This article examines the political, religious, and cultural attitudes of Orange Order members that prompted such a switch. It suggests that a combination of cultural and political insecurities over the fate of Protestant-British-Unionism has led to a realignment of Orangeism towards the stronger brand of Protestant and Unionist politics offered by the DUP. [source]

    Protracted National Conflict and Fertility Change: Palestinians and Israelis in the Twentieth Century

    Philippe Fargues
    This article examines atypical trends of birth rates and fertility,their irregular time trends and relatively high levels,among Palestinians and Israelis in light of the protracted conflict between them and related political developments. Migration, in itself a major dimension of the conflict, has been formative in contrasting evolutions of fertility: convergence among the Jews, originating from various countries but gradually coalescing in Jewish Israeli society, as opposed to divergence for the Palestinians, members of the same initial society but dispersed by the conflict and subjected to political and socioeconomic conditions varying with their place of residence. Demography is at stake in the conflict, and pronatalism becomes a dimension of nationalism, for Palestinians as well as for Israelis. Political and civil institutions influence fertility through redistribution of resources that subsidize procreation. For both sides, it seems that belligerence has produced excess fertility. [source]

    Addressing Political and Racial Terror in the Therapeutic Relationship

    Pratyusha Tummala-Narra PhD
    Political and racial terror have important implications for the process of psychotherapy. This type of trauma can have unique effects on individual psychology and the larger social context of patients' lives that are distinct from other types of interpersonal trauma. Several intrapsychic processes, such as one's experience of mirroring, fear of annihilation, identification and internalization of aggression, the collective remembering of trauma, and subsequent mourning, are transformed through one's experiences of political and racial terror. Clinical illustrations of 2 patients treated in psychotherapy before and after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, elaborate these effects of political and racial trauma. The implications of addressing these types of traumatic experience in psychotherapy, including issues of therapeutic neutrality, are discussed. [source]

    What's the Matter with Political and Social Science?

    Daniel W. Williams
    First page of article [source]

    Lyotard and the Political , James Williams

    Richard Walsh
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Mothers, sisters, and daughters: girls and conservatory guardianship in late Renaissance Florence1

    Nicholas Terpstra
    From 1540 to 1591, Florentines established six shelters for orphaned and abandoned girls. These came to be called ,conservatories' in light of their aim of conserving the girls' virginity and honour, and were distinct from orphanages, which were reserved for needy boys. Conservatories run by men were mandated by the state and operated on the model of local hospitals. Those run by women originated in the religious and charitable drive of a group, and initially operated on the model of widows' communities, without a formal organizational structure. Women had a distinct style of governance, but it did not outlast the generation of founders. Political and ecclesiastical forces turned one of the women's communities into a more formally organized conservatory under male administration and turned the other two into convents. (pp. 201,229) [source]