Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Poverty

  • absolute poverty
  • alleviating poverty
  • child poverty
  • extreme poverty
  • global poverty
  • income poverty
  • mass poverty
  • persistent poverty
  • reducing poverty
  • relative poverty
  • rural poverty
  • urban poverty
  • widespread poverty

  • Terms modified by Poverty

  • poverty alleviation
  • poverty dynamics
  • poverty eradication
  • poverty estimate
  • poverty gap
  • poverty impact
  • poverty incidence
  • poverty index
  • poverty level
  • poverty line
  • poverty measure
  • poverty measurement
  • poverty rate
  • poverty reduction
  • poverty reduction strategy paper
  • poverty status
  • poverty trap

  • Selected Abstracts


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2007
    Chris Sarlo
    Absolute poverty can be thought of as a condition of ,insufficiency', i.e. the inability to acquire the basic necessities of life. Relative poverty can be thought of as a condition of ,inequality'. At the World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen in 1995, all participants made a commitment to produce official measures of both absolute and relative poverty and to strive to eradicate absolute poverty within a reasonable time frame. Despite these commitments, measures of absolute poverty are rare in the developed world. This paper concludes that both kinds of measures are needed for intelligent discussions and good policy-making. [source]


    METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 1-2 2005
    Ingrid Robeyns
    Abstract: Are global poverty and inequality on the rise or are they declining? And is the quality of life of the world's poorest people getting worse or better? These questions are often given conflicting answers by economists, the World Bank, and social activists. One reason for this is that assessments of quality of life can be made in terms of people's income, their resources, or their functionings and capabilities. This essay discusses the pros and cons of these evaluative approaches, and it argues that all approaches have complementary strengths and should therefore in principle all be considered. Moreover, being aware that assessments of poverty and inequality can be made using these different frameworks helps us to understand the conflicting claims. [source]


    Valerie Githinji
    This chapter focuses on how the marginalization of Bahaya women increases poverty, thus exacerbating issues of hunger and related disease in a region characterized by a history of environmental degradation, agricultural change and decline, rural poverty and disease. In the past several decades, diminishing sizes of banana farms, an overall decline in cattle, decreasing soil fertility, and an increase in food crop pathogens have posed challenges to achieving adequate agricultural yields in Buhaya of northwestern Tanzania. This situation has resulted in an increase in poverty, food insecurity, nutrition insecurity, and related disease. Culturally, women are the primary agriculturalists and producers and providers of food in Buhaya. However, Bahaya cultural practices hinder women from achieving equal representation in society, thus blocking their access to self advancement and resources such as money, land, education, and agricultural inputs. These constraints marginalize and hinder women from fulfilling their social role as primary farmers and provisioners of food, nutrition, and care. As patriarchal practices and ecological challenges work to constrain women's roles, poverty, food scarcity, and disease increase, affecting and weakening the foundation of Bahaya society and culture. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 5-6 2005
    ABSTRACT This paper focuses on poverty and inequality in the world today. First, it points out how this topic is a main concern for the IAB. Second, it proposes ,new' theoretical tools in order to analyze global justice and our obligations towards the needy. I present John Rawls's denial that the egalitarian principle can be applied to the global sphere, his proposed weak duty of assistance, and his consideration of endemic poverty as essentially homegrown. In opposition, I focus on Thomas Pogge as representative of a cosmopolitan view who also holds a critical position towards the international systems which allow and cause poverty. I endorse the general normative proposal that defends every human being as an ultimate unit of moral concern, as well as the strategy of moving away from the charity model of bilateral aid to the realm of rights and duties. These ideas should redesign and broaden the normative and practical roles of institutions, and should also help provide a new approach on bioethical issues such as drug patenting or the imbalance in global research and neglected diseases. [source]


    David Glick
    H51; H52; O12 ABSTRACT This study examines the effect of government health care and education programs on the poor in Chile from 2000 to 2006. Results are obtained from a country-wide provincial-level panel data set with information on poverty and indigence head-count ratios, measures on the severity of poverty as captured by the Foster,Greer,Thorbecke P2 statistic, per capita public expenditures on health and education, as well as other variables that are thought to influence well-being. We use fixed-effects techniques to correct for time-invariant province-specific characteristics that may affect program placement. Our analysis demonstrates that per capita public health and education expenditures significantly reduce the incidence of poverty and indigence in Chile. In particular, for a 10,000 pesos (about $23) increase in provincial per capita health spending, the poverty head-count ratio decreases by 0.48 percent. Per capita education expenditures are particularly important to reducing the severity of poverty. Our results indicate that for a 10,000 pesos increase in education spending, the severity of poverty declines by as much as 1.53 percent. Furthermore, we provide evidence that public spending in Chile is non-random. In particular, government education expenditures may be allocated in keeping with compensatory motives. [source]

    Complicating Discontinuity: What About Poverty?

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 1 2005
    ABSTRACT In this article, two white science teachers at tribal schools in the Upper Midwest of the United States, who were identified by community members and school administrators as "successful" teachers, describe experiences of how they wrestle with the daily effects of generations of oppression. Most vividly, they talk about poverty. This article provides a description of some of the beliefs and attitudes, described by the teachers, that help them to be effective allies and teachers for Native American students. Their interviews offer a glimpse into the internal struggle with the contradictions of oppression. This article broadens the discussion of Native American culture-based education and raises questions for the general applicability of cultural discontinuity as an all-encompassing explanation for Native American school failure. [source]

    From Poverty to Power: How Active Citizens and Effective States can Change the World,by Duncan Green

    Sylvia I. Bergh
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations by Raymond Fisman and Edward Miguel

    Raghav Gaiha
    First page of article [source]

    Challenging Orthodoxies: Understanding Poverty in Pastoral Areas of East Africa

    Peter D. Little
    ABSTRACT Understanding and alleviating poverty in Africa continues to receive considerable attention from a range of diverse actors, including politicians, international celebrities, academics, activists and practitioners. Despite the onslaught of interest, there is surprisingly little agreement on what constitutes poverty in rural Africa, how it should be assessed, and what should be done to alleviate it. Based on data from an interdisciplinary study of pastoralism in northern Kenya, this article examines issues of poverty among one of the continent's most vulnerable groups, pastoralists, and challenges the application of such orthodox proxies as incomes/expenditures, geographic remoteness, and market integration. It argues that current poverty debates ,homogenize' the concept of ,pastoralist' by failing to acknowledge the diverse livelihoods and wealth differentiation that fall under the term. The article concludes that what is not needed is another development label (stereotype) that equates pastoralism with poverty, thereby empowering outside interests to transform rather than strengthen pastoral livelihoods. [source]

    Poverty, AIDS and Hunger: Breaking the Poverty Trap in Malawi edited by Anne C. Conroy

    Jan Kees Van Donge
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Poverty and Neo-Liberal Bias in the Middle East and North Africa

    Ray Bush
    This article examines the definition of poverty and the evidential base for the claims that the region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has historically low levels of poverty and relatively good levels of income distribution. It argues that the dominant trend in the literature on poverty in the global south in general, and in MENA in particular, has a neo-classical bias. Amongst other things, that bias fails to understand that poverty does not emerge because of exclusion but because of poor people's ,differential incorporation' into economic and political processes. It also raises the question: if the MENA has indeed had relatively low levels of poverty and good income distribution, does this complicate the issue of autocracy and the western drive to remove political ,backwardness' in the region? In particular, the characterization of autocracy and the west's attempt to promote political liberalization is likely to impact adversely on the social contract that autocratic rulers have enforced regarding the delivery of basic services. [source]

    Integrating Poverty and Environmental Concerns into Value-Chain Analysis: A Conceptual Framework

    Simon Bolwig
    Many policy prescriptions emphasise poverty reduction through closer integration of poor people or areas with global markets. Global value chain (GVC) studies reveal how firms and farms in developing countries are upgraded by being integrated in global markets, but few explicitly document the impact on poverty, gender and the environment, or conversely, how value chain restructuring is in turn mediated by local history, social relations and environmental factors. This article develops a conceptual framework that can help overcome the shortcomings in ,standalone' value-chain, livelihood and environmental analyses by integrating the ,vertical' and ,horizontal' aspects of value chains that together affect poverty and sustainability. [source]

    Integrating Poverty and Environmental Concerns into Value-Chain Analysis: A Strategic Framework and Practical Guide

    Lone Riisgaard
    This article aims to guide the design and implementation of action-research projects in value-chain analysis by presenting a strategic framework focused on small producers and trading and processing firms in developing countries. Its stepwise approach , building on the conceptual framework set out in a companion article , covers in detail what to do, questions to be asked and issues to be considered, and integrates poverty, gender, labour and environmental concerns.,Upgrading' strategies potentially available for improving value-chain participation for small producers are identified, with the ultimate purpose of increasing the rewards and/or reducing the risks. [source]

    Never the Twain Shall Meet: A Memetic Analysis of Poverty Perceptions

    Federica Misturelli
    Poverty, as defined within development discourse, does not fully capture the reality in which the poor live, which is formed also by values and beliefs specific to a given culture and setting. This article uses a memetic approach to investigating the reality of poverty among pastoralists and urban dwellers in Kenya. By distinguishing the semantic space and the cultural context in which the definitions are framed, it enables the researcher to make sufficient generalisations while also recognising the differences between cultures. The results demonstrate how pastoralists and urban dwellers conceptualise poverty differently particularly in regard to causes. Further, the article suggests that development actors often utilise a Western construct which does not entirely reflect the values and beliefs of the poor. [source]

    Reducing Child Poverty with Cash Transfers: A Sure Thing?

    Armando Barrientos
    Children are disproportionately represented among the income-poor, many suffer from severe deprivation, and their poverty and vulnerability have cumulative and long-term consequences. This article provides a comparative examination of the poverty-reduction effectiveness of cash transfer programmes targeting children, focusing on three types of such programmes: the Child Support Grant in South Africa, family allowances in transition countries, and targeted conditional cash transfer programmes in Latin America and the Caribbean. It finds that, despite differences in design, cash transfer programmes targeting children in poor households are an effective way of reducing poverty. [source]

    Even the ,Rich' are Vulnerable: Multiple Shocks and Downward Mobility in Rural Uganda

    Kate Bird
    Poverty data rarely capture processes of change, limiting our ability to understand poverty trajectories at the individual or household levels. This article uses a household survey, village-level participatory studies and indepth life-history interviews to examine people's poverty trajectories and to identify what drives and maintains chronic poverty. Composite shocks can propel previously non-poor households into severe and long-term poverty. Poverty is hard to escape, and people born into chronically poor households find few opportunities for accumulation and wealth creation. The analysis highlights the importance of poverty interrupters, including the end of conflict and the re-integration of internally displaced people, and suggests that state-led interventions would be needed to provide real opportunities to the chronically poor. [source]

    Economic Growth, Health and Poverty: An Exploratory Study for India

    Indrani Gupta
    This article analyses the possible links between economic growth, poverty and health, using panel data for the Indian states. The findings indicate that, though growth tends to reduce poverty, significant improvements in health status are also necessary for poverty to decrease. Also, economic growth and health status are positively correlated and have a two-way relationship, suggesting that better health enhances growth by improving productivity, and higher growth allows better human capital formation. Health expenditure is an important determinant of both higher growth and better health status, and is therefore a key tool available to policy-makers. Among other exogenous variables, literacy and industrialisation seem to improve both health outcomes and growth, and to reduce poverty. [source]

    Food and Poverty: Insights from the ,North'

    Elizabeth Dowler
    The role that food and nutrition play in the material definitions of poverty are contrasted with the social construction of malnutrition and poverty, drawing largely on British experience. The consequences for poor health and premature death are briefly examined; in particular, the connection is made to the world-wide growth in obesity, and in cardio-vascular disease, cancers and diabetes. The lived experience of those defined as poor in the North, and the implications of contemporary policy initiatives and responses by state, private and voluntary sectors, are explored. The challenges of the dominant policy framework remain consumer and individual choice, rather than public health and citizenship, which militates against the realisation of true food security. [source]

    The Aid Trap: Hard Truths about Ending Poverty , By R. Glenn Hubbard and William Duggan

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2010
    Astrid Arca
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Poverty among the elderly in late Victorian England1

    Despite rapid increases in manual workers' wages, poverty rates among the elderly remained high in late Victorian England, although they varied significantly across Poor Law Unions. This paper begins by examining the ability of workers to provide for their old age. A data set is constructed, consisting of all English Poor Law Unions in 1891,2, and regression equations are estimated in order to explain variations across unions in pauperism rates. This is followed by the testing of several conjectures made by contemporaries, and repeated by historians, regarding the deterrent effect of workhouse relief, the effects of wages and of the industrial character of Poor Law Unions on pauperism rates, and regional differences in workers' reliance on the poor law. The paper then examines the implications of these results for the debate over national old age pensions in the decades before the adoption of the Old Age Pension Act. [source]

    Poverty, progress, and population

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Alcohol and Poverty in Sri Lanka

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2004
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A Space of Vulnerability in Poverty and Health: Political-Ecology and Biocultural Analysis

    ETHOS, Issue 1 2005
    In this article I present a political-ecological approach for biocultural analyses that attempts to synthesize perspectives from anthropological political economy and those from ecological anthropology and human adaptability approaches. The approach is used to examine contexts and consequences of vulnerability among Andean peoples in southern Peru, and specifically the ongoing and dialectical relationships between poverty, illness, and household production. Household demographic composition, class position, economic status, and interpersonal relations are all important in shaping their experience with illness, and coping capacity in dealing with the consequences of illness on household livelihood. I suggest that the contexts and consequences of vulnerability among rural producers in southern Peru contributed in part to the spread of the Sendero Luminoso revolutionary movement into the region in the late 1980s and early 1990s. [source]

    Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2008
    Silvia Domínguez
    Abstract: This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of themselves and their children, to alleviate social isolation, and to provide a safer summer housing alternative for their children. Transnational ties may have had some negative consequences, including financial and social burdens associated with maintaining long-distance familial relationships. However, despite some negative aspects, we conclude that transnational ties are often an instrumental resource for immigrant mothers living in poverty and are vital to immigrant social mobility. [source]

    Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions About Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 2 2002
    Velma McBride Murry
    Functional changes in rural African American single-mother-headed families after the implementation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families were explored from an ecological risk,protection perspective. The sample included 96 single mothers who received government assistance and their 10- or 11-year-old children. Links among maternal employment status, mothers' physical health and psychological functioning, parenting, and children's attributions about the causes of poverty were examined. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's attributions about the causes of poverty, both directly and indirectly through its association with parenting. Children who did not attribute poverty to social causes had higher academic goals than did those who attributed poverty to social, economic, or political barriers. Further research is needed on barriers to employment and the influence of maternal psychological functioning on parenting. [source]

    A socio-economic perspective on gear-based management in an artisanal fishery in south-west Madagascar

    T. E. DAVIES
    Abstract, Artisanal fisheries are important socially, nutritionally and economically. Poverty is common in communities dependent on such fisheries, making sustainable management difficult. Poverty based on material style of life (MSL) was assessed, livelihoods surveyed and the relationship between these factors and fishery data collected using a fish landing study were examined. Species richness, diversity, size and mean trophic level of catches were determined for six fishing gears in an artisanal fishery in south-west Madagascar. There was little livelihood diversification and respondents were highly dependent on the fishery. No relationship was found between poverty and gear use. This suggests that poverty does not have a major impact on the nature of the fishery; however, this study was dominated by poor households, so it remains possible that communities with more variation in wealth might show differences in fishing methods according to this parameter. The fishery was heavily exploited with a predominance of small fish in the catches. Beach seines caught some of the smallest fish, overlapped in selectivity with gill nets and also had the highest catch per fishers. Thus, a reduction in the number of beach seines could help reduce the catch of small fish and the overlap in selectivity among gears. [source]

    Poverty and Local Governments: Economic Development and Community Service Provision in an Era of Decentralization

    GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 3 2009
    ABSTRACT Social scientists have given substantial attention to poverty across U.S. localities. However, most work views localities through the lens of population aggregates, not as units of government. Few poverty researchers question whether governments of poorer localities have the capacity to engage in economic development and service activities that might improve community well-being. This issue is increasingly important as responsibilities for growth and redistribution are decentralized to local governments that vary dramatically in resources. Do poorer communities have less activist local governments? Are they more likely to be engaged in a race to the bottom, focusing on business attraction activities but neglecting services for families and working people? We bring together two distinct literatures, critical research on decentralization and research on local development efforts, that provide contrasting views about the penalty of poverty. Data are from a unique, national survey of county governments measuring activity across two time points. The most consistent determinants of activity are local government capacity, devolutionary pressures, and inertia or past use of strategies. Net of these factors, levels and changes in poverty do not significantly impact government activity. There is no evidence the nations' poorest counties are racing to the bottom. Findings challenge views that poverty is a systematic structural barrier to pursuing innovative economic development policies and suggest that even poorer communities can take steps to build local capacity, resources, and networks that expand programs for local businesses and low-wage people. [source]

    Introduction to Social Security: Policies, Benefits and Poverty

    Article first published online: 29 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Effects of Poverty and Lack of Insurance on Perceptions of Racial and Ethnic Bias in Health Care

    Irena Stepanikova
    Objective. To investigate whether poverty and lack of insurance are associated with perceived racial and ethnic bias in health care. Data Source. 2001 Survey on Disparities in Quality of Health Care, a nationally representative telephone survey. We use data on black, Hispanic, and white adults who have a regular physician (N=4,556). Study Design. We estimate multivariate logistic regression models to examine the effects of poverty and lack of health insurance on perceived racial and ethnic bias in health care for all respondents and by racial, ethnic, and language groups. Principal Findings. Controlling for sociodemographic and other factors, uninsured blacks and Hispanics interviewed in English are more likely to report racial and ethnic bias in health care compared with their privately insured counterparts. Poor whites are more likely to report racial and ethnic bias in health care compared with other whites. Good physician,patient communication is negatively associated with perceived racial and ethnic bias. Conclusions. Compared with their more socioeconomically advantaged counterparts, poor whites, uninsured blacks, and some uninsured Hispanics are more likely to perceive that racial and ethnic bias operates in the health care they receive. Providing health insurance for the uninsured may help reduce this perceived bias among some minority groups. [source]

    The provincial social survey in Edwardian Britain

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 187 2002
    Mark Freeman
    This article examines three social surveys carried out in English provincial towns after Seebohm Rowntree's study of York and before A. L. Bowley's sample surveys of five towns. The authors emphasized specific local circumstances and suggested local voluntary and municipal remedies for the social problems they described. Their focus was on the community, and although informed by the discourses of ,national efficiency' that also lay behind Rowntree's researches, the solutions to the problems of juvenile life and casual labour that compromised national efficiency were to be found in local endeavour. Poverty was viewed in the context of its impact on the community rather than on the individual. [source]