Potential Remedies (potential + remedy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Nonreplication in Genetic Studies of Complex Diseases,Lessons Learned From Studies of Osteoporosis and Tentative Remedies,

Hui Shen
Abstract Inconsistent results have accumulated in genetic studies of complex diseases/traits over the past decade. Using osteoporosis as an example, we address major potential factors for the nonreplication results and propose some potential remedies. Over the past decade, numerous linkage and association studies have been performed to search for genes predisposing to complex human diseases. However, relatively little success has been achieved, and inconsistent results have accumulated. We argue that those nonreplication results are not unexpected, given the complicated nature of complex diseases and a number of confounding factors. In this article, based on our experience in genetic studies of osteoporosis, we discuss major potential factors for the inconsistent results and propose some potential remedies. We believe that one of the main reasons for this lack of reproducibility is overinterpretation of nominally significant results from studies with insufficient statistical power. We indicate that the power of a study is not only influenced by the sample size, but also by genetic heterogeneity, the extent and degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the markers tested and the causal variants, and the allele frequency differences between them. We also discuss the effects of other confounding factors, including population stratification, phenotype difference, genotype and phenotype quality control, multiple testing, and genuine biological differences. In addition, we note that with low statistical power, even a "replicated" finding is still likely to be a false positive. We believe that with rigorous control of study design and interpretation of different outcomes, inconsistency will be largely reduced, and the chances of successfully revealing genetic components of complex diseases will be greatly improved. [source]

A Broken System: The Persistent Patterns of Reversals of Death Sentences in the United States

Andrew Gelman
We collected data on the appeals process for all death sentences in U.S. states between 1973 and 1995. The reversal rate was high, with an estimated chance of at least two-thirds that any death sentence would be overturned by a state or federal appeals court. Multilevel regression models fit to the data by state and year indicate that high reversal rates are strongly associated with higher death-sentencing rates and lower rates of apprehending and imprisoning violent offenders. In light of our empirical findings, we discuss potential remedies including "streamlining" the appeals process and restricting the death penalty to the "worst of the worst" offenders. [source]

Does Racial Balance in Workforce Representation Yield Equal Justice?

LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 4 2009
Race Relations of Sentencing in Federal Court Organizations
Increasing racial and ethnic group representation in justice-related occupations is considered a potential remedy to racial inequality in justice administration, including sentencing disparity. Studies to date yield little evidence of such an effect; however, research limitations may account for the mixed and limited evidence of the significance of justice workforce racial diversity. Specifically, few studies consider group-level dynamics of race and representation, thus failing to contextualize racial group power relations in justice administration. To consider these contextual dynamics we combine court organizational and case-level data from 89 federal districts and use hierarchical models to assess whether variably "representative" work groups relate to district-level differences in sentencing. Using district-specific indexes of population and work group dissimilarity to define representation, we find no relationships between black judge representation and sentencing in general across districts, but that districts with more black representation among prosecutors are significantly less likely to sentence defendants to terms of imprisonment. We also find in districts with increased black representation among prosecutors, and to a lesser degree among judges, that black defendants are less likely to be imprisoned and white defendants are more likely to be imprisoned, with the effect of narrowing black-white disparities in sentencing. Consistent with the "power-threat" perspective, and perhaps "implicit racial bias" research, findings encourage modeling diversity to account for relative racial group power in processes of social control and suggest that racial justice may be moderately advanced by equal representation among authorities. [source]

Wittgenstein's Philosophical Grammar: A Neglected Discussion of Vagueness

Nadine Faulkner
In this paper I explore a neglected discussion of vagueness put forward by Wittgenstein in his Philosophical Grammar (1932,34). In this work, unlike Philosophical Investigations (1953), Wittgenstein not only discusses the venerable Sorites paradox but provides a novel conception of vagueness using an analogy with coin tossing and converging intervals. As he sees it, the problematic picture of vagueness arises because we conflate aspects of the functioning of vague concepts with those of non-vague ones. Thus, while we accept that vague concepts have no sharp cut-off points (are boundaryless), we nevertheless retain the idea that we can progress towards the penumbra the way we progress towards the cut-off points of non-vague concepts. As a potential remedy, Wittgenstein's analogy with coin tossing and converging intervals replaces this picture and provides an understanding of the functioning of vague concepts in which no notion of a progression arises. [source]