Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Ponds

  • artificial pond
  • breeding pond
  • catfish pond
  • control pond
  • earthen pond
  • ephemeral pond
  • experimental pond
  • fish pond
  • freshwater pond
  • large pond
  • natural pond
  • nursery pond
  • permanent pond
  • polyculture pond
  • production pond
  • retention pond
  • shrimp pond
  • small pond
  • temporary pond

  • Terms modified by Ponds

  • pond condition
  • pond culture
  • pond management
  • pond sediment
  • pond size
  • pond system
  • pond turtle
  • pond water

  • Selected Abstracts

    Is competition important to arctic zooplankton community structure?

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 9 2004
    Andrew R. Dzialowski
    Summary 1. Daphnia pulex and Daphnia middendorffiana are commonly found in the Toolik Lake region of arctic Alaska. These two species are very similar morphologically, although their natural distributions differ markedly: D. pulex is restricted to shallow ponds, while D. middendorffiana is widely distributed and found in a variety of ponds and lakes. We compared the reproductive capabilities of D. pulex and D. middendorffiana grown under similar resource conditions and in the absence of the invertebrate predator Heterocope septentrionalis. In situ life table and mesocosm experiments were conducted in Toolik Lake and Dam Pond, habitats that have historically contained natural populations of D. middendorffiana, but never D. pulex. 2. Daphnia pulex exhibited a significantly higher net growth rate than D. middendorffiana in both life table and mesocosm experiments although D. pulex has never been found in either Toolik Lake or Dam Pond. Daphnia middendorffiana exhibited a negative net growth rate in Dam Pond, which had lower resource levels then Toolik Lake. Therefore, the smaller D. pulex appears to have a lower food threshold concentration than the larger D. middendorffiana. 3. Our results indicate that D. pulex is a superior resource competitor in the Toolik Lake region. These results combined with distributional patterns suggest that the restricted distribution of D. pulex in these arctic lakes and ponds cannot be explained by resource competition alone. We suggest that in the presence of H. septentrionalis, predation is an important factor structuring arctic zooplankton communities in the Toolik Lake region. [source]

    ,Over the Pond and Across the Water': Developing the Field of ,Gendered Organizations'

    Patricia Yancey Martin
    This article is concerned with the development of gendered organizations as a field of study. It begins by exploring some of the factors that militate against integrating organization studies and gender studies and gendered organizations scholarship over national/continental divides. Increasingly doubtful about whether traditional (mainstream and critical) organization theories will or can adequately address gender, we contend that scholars of gendered organizations should ,strike out' on our/their own, ,boldly going' into unfamiliar territory to create new, innovative theories, concepts and ideas. We make various suggestions about possible future directions for theorizing and research. [source]

    Controls on surface water chemistry in two lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York: differences in nitrogen solute sources and sinks

    Mari Ito
    Abstract The southwestern Adirondack region of New York receives among the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in the USA. Atmospheric N deposition to sensitive ecosystems, like the Adirondacks, may increase the acidification of soils through losses of exchangeable nutrient cations, and the acidification of surface waters associated with enhanced mobility of nitrate (NO3,). However, watershed attributes, including surficial terrestrial characteristics, in-lake processing, and geological settings, have been found to complicate the relationships between atmospheric N deposition and N drainage losses. We studied two lake-watersheds in the southwestern Adirondacks, Grass Pond and Constable Pond, which are located in close proximity (,26 km) and receive similarly high N deposition, but have contrasting watershed attributes (e.g. wetland area, geological settings). Since the difference in the influence of N deposition was minimal, we were able to examine both within- and between-watershed influences of land cover, the contribution of glacial till groundwater inputs, and in-lake processes on surface water chemistry with particular emphasis on N solutes and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Monthly samples at seven inlets and one outlet of each lake were collected from May to October in 1999 and 2000. The concentrations of NO3, were high at the Grass Pond inlets, especially at two inlets, and NO3, was the major N solute at the Grass Pond inlets. The concentrations of likely weathering products (i.e. dissolved Si, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) as well as acid neutralizing capacity and pH values, were also particularly high at those two Grass Pond inlets, suggesting a large contribution of groundwater inputs. Dissolved organic N (DON) was the major N solute at the Constable Pond inlets. The higher concentrations of DON and DOC at the Constable Pond inlets were attributed to a large wetland area in the watershed. The DOC/DON ratios were also higher at the Constable Pond inlets, possibly due to a larger proportion of coniferous forest area. Although DON and DOC were strongly related, the stronger relationship of the proportion of wetland area with DOC suggests that additional factors regulate DON. The aggregated representation of watershed physical features (i.e. elevation, watershed area, mean topographic index, hypsometric-analysis index) was not clearly related to the lake N and DOC chemistry. Despite distinctive differences in inlet N chemistry, NO3, and DON concentrations at the outlets of the two lakes were similar. The lower DOC/DON ratios at the lake outlets and at the inlets having upstream ponds suggest the importance of N processing and organic N sources within the lakes. Although an inverse relationship between NO3, and DOC/DON has been suggested to be indicative of a N deposition gradient, the existence of this relationship for sites that receive similar atmospheric N deposition suggest that the relationship between NO3, and the DOC/DON ratio is derived from environmental and physical factors. Our results suggest that, despite similar wet N deposition at the two watershed sites, N solutes entering lakes were strongly affected by hydrology associated with groundwater contribution and the presence of wetlands, whereas N solutes leaving lakes were strongly influenced by in-lake processing. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Diel Changes in Phytoplankton Composition and Abundance in the Surface and Sub-Surface Strata from a Shallow Eutrophic Pond

    bieta Wilk-Wo, niak
    Abstract Representative phytoplankton assemblages were identified in a eutrophic pond over a 24 hour period. One assemblage characterized species in the surface (neuston) layer and another consisted of algae from 2, 5, and 20 cm sub-surface depths. The surface layer (0 cm) included a similar, but less diverse assemblage of species, and a lower abundance of cells per unit volume, than those at the lower depths. At each of the sub-surface depths (2,20 cm), the major phytoplankton components initially followed similar patterns of abundance in reference to the time and depth of sample collections then later differed in their abundance levels. The dominant algae were chlorophytes, cryptophytes, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. Mean concentrations of total phytoplankton, over the 24 hours for the surface, were 3.3 × 103 cells ml,1, compared to 36.9 × 103 cells ml,1 for depths 2,20 cm. The autotrophic picoplankton abundance was recorded separately from the phytoplankton with mean concentrations of 472.9 × 103 cells ml,1 in the surface layer and 623.0 × 103 cells ml,1 for the three sub-surface depths. Photos of representative species from these surface layers are presented. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Note on a Highly Diverse Rotifer Assemblage (Rotifera: Monogononta) in a Laotian Rice Paddy and Adjacent Pond

    Hendrik Segers
    Abstract During August 1999, the authors conducted a sampling campaign in the PDR Laos, in order to contribute to the chorology of rotifers in the region. Two samples, collected from a rice paddy and an adjacent pond near Vientiane, Laos, contained a total of 135 rotifer species including several that appear new to science or that warrant taxonomical or biogeographical comments. No new species can be named, but Cephalodella boettgeri Koste and Floscularia armataSegers are recorded for the second time ever after their description from South America, and Parencentrum lutetiae (Harring and Myers) and Polyarthra luminosaKutikova are new to Southeast Asia. This raises the number of rotifers recorded from Laos from 9 to 130. The diversity recorded is remarkable, especially when compared with that of similar habitats in the Thai part of the floodplain of River Mekong and its tributaries. Different agricultural practices may account for the difference in species richness. Similar highly diverse rotifer faunas are known to occur in natural, tropical and subtropical floodplain systems only. This accords with the view that rice paddies can be regarded as artificial wetlands or floodplain systems, which, if managed taking biodiversity concerns into account, may have a potential for the conservation of freshwater biodiversity. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Stratigraphy of the mid- to upper-Cretaceous System in the Aridagawa area, Wakayama, Southwest Japan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2010
    Akihiro Misaki
    Abstract The litho- and biostratigraphy of the mid- to upper-Cretaceous System around the Yagumaike Pond in the Aridagawa area, Wakayama, Southwest Japan, were investigated. Many Middle to Late Albian megafossils were found in the strata of a block bounded by faults. It was also revealed that the Upper Cretaceous System of other blocks ranges from the Middle Turonian to Santonian. The Albian megafossil assemblage contains few benthic organisms, in contrast with the abundance of nektons found (e.g. cephalopods). Sedimentological observations of the mudstone profiles also indicate that scarcely or weakly bioturbated, well-laminated mudstone is dominant among the Albian deposits. These results suggest deposition of the Albian mudstone under a dysaerobic to anoxic environment. It is comparable to the extended oceanic anoxia (OAEs) in mid-Cretaceous time. Albian deposits with similar characteristics are also known to exist in Shikoku, Southwest Japan. A wide sedimentary basin that was directly affected by global environmental events, such as OAEs, seemed to be formed on the Chichibu Belt in the Albian. The Upper Cretaceous strata in the study area are extremely thin, similar to the coeval deposits on the Chichibu Belt in Shikoku. It is suggested that the sedimentation rate in the sedimentary basin on the Chichibu Belt was extremely low during early Late Cretaceous time. [source]


    ABSTRACT A study on identification of critical control points in two export processing units indicated the contamination (cfu/g) of raw prawns with pathogenic fecal coliforms was <10,8 × 102 in Unit A, 1 × 101,1.3 × 102 in Unit B and 1 × 103,4 × 104 in pond to plate. The other microbial contaminants in Unit A and from Pond to Plate at different stages were Salmonella spp., 3 × 102,5.7 × 103 and 2 × 102,6 × 102; Staphylococcus aureus, 1.7 × 103,5.7 × 103 and 1 × 103 to 9 × 104; and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 3 × 102,2 × 104 and 3 × 104,5 × 104, respectively. However, microbial contamination was significantly reduced to <10 after subjecting to household cooking process. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Implementation of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCPs) in the food industry is the most important approach to maintaining food safety. Identification of the critical control points in the HACCPs process will help the aquaculture industry to improve its production processes by applying good aquaculture and good hygienic practices at the production level. The study further provides clear insights into identifying critical control points both at the farm level and at the processing units that are important from farm to fork. [source]

    Monazite geochronology in central New England: evidence for a fundamental terrane boundary

    F. S. SPEAR
    Abstract Monazite crystallization ages have been measured in situ using SIMS and EMP analysis of samples from the Bronson Hill anticlinorium in central New England. In west-central New Hampshire, each major tectonic unit (nappe) displays a distinctive P,T path and metamorphic history that requires significant post-metamorphic faulting to place them in their current juxtaposition, and monazite ages were determined to constrain the timing of metamorphism and nappe assembly. Monazite ages from the low-pressure, high-temperature Fall Mountain nappe range from c. 455 to 355 Ma, and Y zoning indicates that these ages comprise three to four distinct age domains, similar to that found in the overlying Chesham Pond nappe. The underlying Skitchewaug nappe contains monazite ages that range from c. 417 to 307 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate rapid cooling of the Chesham Pond and Fall Mountain nappes after 350 Ma, which is believed to represent the time of emplacement of the high-level Chesham Pond and Fall Mountain nappes onto rocks of the underlying Skitchewaug nappe. Garnet zone rocks from western New Hampshire contain monazite that display a range of ages (c. 430,340 Ma). Both the metamorphic style and monazite ages suggest that the low-grade belt in western New Hampshire is continuous with the Vermont sequence to the west. Rocks of the Big Staurolite nappe in western New Hampshire contain monazite that crystallized between c. 370 and 290 Ma and the same unit along strike in northern New Hampshire and central Connecticut records ages of c. 257,300 Ma. Conspicuously absent from this nappe are the older age populations that are found in both the overlying nappes and underlying garnet zone rocks. These monazite ages confirm that the metamorphism observed in the Big Staurolite nappe occurred significantly later than that in the units structurally above and below. These data support the hypothesis that the Big Staurolite nappe represents a major tectonic boundary, along which rocks of the New Hampshire metamorphic series were juxtaposed against rocks of the Vermont series during the Alleghanian. [source]

    Fire and vegetation history on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands, and long-term environmental change in southern California,

    R. Scott Anderson
    Abstract The long-term history of vegetation and fire was investigated at two locations , Soledad Pond (275,m; from ca. 12 000,cal. a BP) and Abalone Rocks Marsh (0,m; from ca. 7000,cal. a BP) , on Santa Rosa Island, situated off the coast of southern California. A coastal conifer forest covered highlands of Santa Rosa during the last glacial, but by ca. 11 800,cal. a BP Pinus stands, coastal sage scrub and grassland replaced the forest as the climate warmed. The early Holocene became increasingly drier, particularly after ca. 9150,cal. a BP, as the pond dried frequently, and coastal sage scrub covered the nearby hillslopes. By ca. 6900,cal. a BP grasslands recovered at both sites. Pollen of wetland plants became prominent at Soledad Pond after ca. 4500,cal. a BP, and at Abalone Rocks Marsh after ca. 3465,cal. a BP. Diatoms suggest freshening of the Abalone Rocks Marsh somewhat later, probably by additional runoff from the highlands. Introduction of non-native species by ranchers occurred subsequent to AD 1850. Charcoal influx is high early in the record, but declines during the early Holocene when minimal biomass suggests extended drought. A general increase occurs after ca. 7000,cal. a BP, and especially after ca. 4500,cal. a BP. The Holocene pattern closely resembles population levels constructed from the archaeological record, and suggests a potential influence by humans on the fire regime of the islands, particularly during the late Holocene. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Editorial: Equine Herpesvirus Neurologic Disease: Reflections from Across the Pond

    Julia H. Kydd BSc
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A Marine Dinoflagellate, Amphidinium eilatiensis n. sp., from the Benthos of a Mariculture Sedimentation Pond in Eilat, Israel

    ABSTRACT. A species of Amphidinium bloomed in a mariculture sedimentation pond that was used to grow bivalves near the Gulf of Eilat, Israel. Its overall length averaged 13 ,m, the hypocone was 11 ,m, and its width was 8,m. It has a ventral ridge. The sulcus begins at the longitudinal flagellar pore and does not project forward in the apex toward the transverse flagellar pore and left margin of the cingulum. The sulcus is a very shallow groove that projects variably about a third of the body length toward the antapex. The cingulum is a deep groove as it circles the cell from the left ventral side to the dorsal side and then becomes very shallow on the right ventral side as it arches posterior toward the longitudinal flagellar pore. Using a modified method for studying dinoflagellate chromosomes in the SEM, we observed 31 chromosomes. The plastid is dorsal and peripheral with 6 ventrally projecting peripheral digital lobes that wrap around the sides of the ventral and posterior nucleus. Amphidinium eilatiensis n. sp. is morphologically closest to Amphidinium carterae and Amphidinium rhynchocephalum, but it does not have the obvious thecal plates or polygonal units described for the former species. Instead, it has a series of spicules, bumps, and ridges on its surface. It differs from A. rhynchocephalum by two morphological characters: surface morphology and gross plastid architecture. The amplified fragments of the rDNA from A. eilatiensis n. sp. isolated from 2 separate sedimentation ponds in Eilat include the 3,-end of the SSU rDNA (about 100 nt), the whole ITS region (ITS1 + 5. 8S + ITS2) and the 5,-end of the LSU rDNA (about 900 nts). The total length of the sequences ranged from 1,460 nt. (A. eilatiensis isolate #1) to 1,461 nts. (A. eilatiensis isolate #2). The latter sequences are identical, the difference in length being due to three insertions. Amphidinium eilatiensis is genetically more closely related to A. carterae than to A. klebsii, with respectively 2. 36% and 6. 93% of sequence divergence. [source]

    Asian carp farming systems: towards a typology and increased resource use efficiency

    C G J Michielsens
    Abstract Resource use efficiency in Asian carp farming systems is analysed based on a survey of 2493 farms of nine countries. Multivariate classification of farms by intensity and diversity identified six farm types: four types of specialized aquaculture farms at different levels of intensity, and two types of integrated agriculture,aquaculture systems. Pond-based, specialized semi-extensive systems (using mainly inorganic fertilizers and feeds of off-farm origin), and integrated semi-intensive systems (using feeds and fertilizer of both on and off-farm origin) are by far the most common types, accounting for 59% and 27% of all farms respectively. Specialized semi-extensive systems also show the highest protein and nutrient (N and P) use efficiencies, and among the highest labour use efficiency. Super-intensive cage farms are less efficient in nutrient and labour use, but provide very high returns to land and capital investment. On average, the aquaculture components of integrated agriculture, aquaculture systems are less nutrient, land, and labour efficient than specialized semi-extensive systems. Integrated semi-extensive systems (using organic fertilizers of on-farm origin) are particularly inefficient across all indicators. Hence in practice, gains in overall resource use efficiency through on-farm integration with agricultural production are constrained by the relative inefficiency of the aquaculture subsystems on integrated farms. Although such systems can likely be improved, integration as such is not a panacea to increasing resource use efficiency. Wide variation in resource use efficiency within all systems indicates potential for substantial efficiency gains through improved management regardless of the fundamental choice of system. [source]

    Pond attributes influence competitive interactions between tadpoles and mosquito larvae

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    Allie Mokany
    Abstract Tadpoles and mosquito larvae often coexist in natural freshwater bodies. We studied competitive interactions between: (i) tadpoles of the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) and larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus; and (ii) tadpoles of the common eastern froglet (Crinia signifera) and larvae of the mosquito Aedes australis. These two sets of taxa occur in natural water bodies in the Sydney region. Laboratory trials revealed competition between mosquito larvae and tadpoles in both systems. For example, mosquitoes displayed reduced rates of survival, growth and development, and smaller size at metamorphosis, when they were raised with tadpoles. The intensity of competitive suppression was influenced by attributes such as pond size (and hence, larval density), the location of food (on the water surface vs the substrate), and the extent of opportunities for direct physical interactions between the two competing organisms. These effects differed between the two study systems, suggesting that the mechanisms of suppression also differed. Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles suppressed C. quinquefasciatus even when the two types of organisms were separated by a physical partition, suggesting that chemical or microbiological cues may be responsible. Pond attributes also affected the impact of C. signifera tadpoles on Aedes larvae, but (unlike the Limnodynastes,Culex system) these effects disappeared when densities were lowered or when the tadpoles and mosquito larvae were physically separated. Thus, direct physical interactions may suppress mosquitoes in the Crinia,Aedes system. Our results suggest that tadpoles suppress the viability of larval mosquitoes by multiple pathways. [source]

    Suitability of Golf Course Ponds for Amphibian Metamorphosis When Bullfrogs Are Removed

    charcas en campos de golf; competencia; depredación; metamorfosis de anfibios; Rana catesbeiana Abstract:,Managing areas designed for human recreation so that they are compatible with natural amphibian populations can reduce the negative impacts of habitat destruction. We examined the potential for amphibians to complete larval development in golf course ponds in the presence or absence of overwintered bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana), which are frequently found in permanent, human-made ponds. We reared larval American toads (Bufo americanus), southern leopard frogs (R. sphenocephala), and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) with 0 or 5 overwintered bullfrog tadpoles in field enclosures located in ponds on golf courses or in experimental wetlands at a reference site. Survival to metamorphosis of American toads, southern leopard frogs, and spotted salamanders was greater in ponds on golf courses than at reference sites. We attributed this increased survival to low abundance of insect predators in golf course ponds. The presence of overwintered bullfrogs, however, reduced the survival of American toads, southern leopard frogs, and spotted salamanders reared in golf course ponds, indicating that the suitability of the aquatic habitats for these species partly depended on the biotic community present. Our results suggest that ponds in human recreational areas should be managed by maintaining intermediate hydroperiods, which will reduce the presence of bullfrog tadpoles and predators, such as fish, and which may allow native amphibian assemblages to flourish. Resumen:,El manejo de áreas diseñadas para la recreación humana de manera que sean compatibles con las poblaciones naturales de anfibios puede reducir los impactos negativos de la destrucción del hábitat. Examinamos el potencial de anfibios para completar el desarrollo larvario en lagos en campos de golf en presencia o ausencia de renacuajos de Rana catesbeiana, que frecuentemente son encontrados en charcas artificiales permanentes. Criamos sapos (Bufo americanus), ranas (R. sphenocephala) y salamandras manchadas (Ambystoma maculatum) con cero o cinco renacuajos de R. catesbeiana en encierros localizados en charcas en campos de golf o en humedales experimentales en un sitio de referencia. La supervivencia hasta la metamorfosis de B. americanus, R. sphenocephala y A. maculatum fue mayor en los campos de golf que en los sitios de referencia. Atribuimos este incremento en la supervivencia a la baja abundancia de insectos depredadores en las charcas de los campos de golf. Sin embargo, la presencia de renacuajos de R. catesbeiana redujo la supervivencia de B. americanus, R. sphenocephala y A. maculatum en los campos de golf, indicando que el beneficio de los hábitats acuáticos para estas especies dependía parcialmente de la comunidad biótica presente. Nuestros resultados sugieren que las charcas en áreas recreativas deberían ser manejadas manteniendo hidroperíodos intermedios, que reducirían la presencia de renacuajos de R. catesbeiana y de depredadores, como peces, y que permitirían que florezcan ensambles de anfibios nativos. [source]

    Dispersal characteristics of three odonate species in a patchy habitat

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2003
    S. Angelibert
    Dispersal has a potentially profound effect on the dynamics of populations especially when a population occupies a patchy habitat. Ponds surrounded by terrestrial landscape are an example of patchy distribution of physical conditions and constitute "islands" for odonates. Few studies have focussed on dispersal in odonates. We have used the direct method of dispersal observing (capture-mark-recapture technique) in order to estimate the degree of linkage in three patchy populations of odonate localised on three ponds. We also examined the differences in dispersal ability within and among three species (Coenagrion puella, Coenagrion scitulum and Libellula depressa). The ponds were situated in southwest France on a limestone plateau. In this arid area, these ponds constitute the only surface water available and are relatively sparsely distributed. The size of the ponds ranged from 48 to 79 m2 and they were 200 and 775 m apart. We demonstrated that three factors influence the dispersal ability of these odonates. The first is represented by the abiotic factors and especially weather conditions. This determines the number of days that dispersal is possible. The second is interspecific differences. We showed that sensitivity to weather conditions, species size and species behaviour influence dispersal ability. The third factor is the intraspecific characteristics. We demonstrated that there are differences in dispersal ability according to sex and age. To conclude, we discuss the importance of pond management to maintain the existing odonate populations and to facilitate introduction of new populations in this region where little exchange occurs between ponds. [source]

    Heliodiaptomus phuthaiorum n. sp., a New Freshwater Copepod (Calanoida, Diaptomidae) from Temporary Ponds in Northeast Thailand

    La-orsri Sanoamuang
    Abstract An illustrated description of a new species, Heliodiaptomus phuthaiorum n. sp., from nine of the 456 sampled localities in northeast Thailand, is presented. Morphologically, it is closely related to the Indian H. pulcher (Gurney, 1907). The new species is characterized in the male by the prominent, spinulose knob on the inner margin of the right basis; the finely serrated inner margin of the right second exopodite-segment; and the extraordinary large, tongue-like projection on proximal inner margin of the left basis. In the female, the genital somite is unusually long, much longer than the other two urosomites combined. This new species is rare and has been found only in temporary ponds in Nakhon Pranom and Nong Khai Provinces. It usually co-occurs with 1,5 other diaptomids; the most frequently co-occurring species are Neodiaptomus blachei (Brehm, 1951), N. yangtsekiangensisMashiko, 1951 and Eodiaptomus phuphanensisSanoamuang, 2001. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Escape of farmed tilapiines into the wild and entry of wild forms in fishponds, and the possible interactions between wild and farmed tilapiines from a sample of smallholder farms in Central Uganda

    Matthew Tenywa Mwanja
    Abstract Seven smallholder fishponds in central Uganda were studied between 2000 and 2001 to investigate the interaction of farmed tilapiines with their wild conspecifics. Emphasis was on the features that facilitate escape of fish and/or entry of fish into the farms and interactions between the farmed and the wild. These included number of species, source of seed, connection between pond and natural watercourses, purpose of the farm, destination of cultured fish and interaction between farmed and wild fish. Fishponds had no screens against entry of wild fish into the farm or escape of farmed fish into the wild and occurred within wetlands close to natural watercourses. Ponds stocked with one fish species were found to have multispecies with some individuals that were apparently intermediate morphs between the species. Fry produced within the growout fishponds was shared with other farmers within and outside the watersheds. This study showed that smallholder farms with little or no control of escape or entry of fish out and into the fishponds, and little or no management present circumstances that facilitate continued movement of tilapiines within and across watersheds in Ugandan waters. The study also indicated possible genetic interaction between farmed and their wild conspecifics through interactions within fishponds. Résumé Sept viviers appartenant à de petits propriétaires ont étéétudiés entre 2000 et 2001 pour rechercher l'interaction entre les tilapiinés d'élevage et ceux qui vivent dans la nature. On insistait sur les caractéristiques qui facilitent la fuite et/ou l'entrée des poissons dans les fermes et les interactions entre les poissons d'élevage et les poissons sauvages. On a étudié le nombre d'espèces, la source de la progéniture, les connections entre les bassins et les cours d'eau naturels, la raison d'être des fermes, la destination des poissons d'élevage et l'interaction entre les poissons d'élevage et les poissons sauvages. Les réservoirs n'avaient pas de filtres pour empêcher l'entrée des poissons sauvages ou la fuite des poissons d'élevage et ils se trouvaient dans des zones humides proches de cours d'eau naturels. Les bassins qui avaient été stockés avec une seule espèce de poissons se sont avérés contenir plusieurs espèces, et certains individus semblaient avoir une morphologie intermédiaire entre différentes espèces. Le fretin produit dans les bassins de croissance était partagé avec d'autres éleveurs dans ou en dehors des bassins versants. Cette étude a montré que les petits élevages qui exercent peu de contrôles sur les entrées ou les sorties de poissons dans et hors des bassins et une gestion nulle ou très réduite, offrent des conditions qui facilitent le déplacement continu des tilapiinés au sein des bassins de rivières et entre eux, dans les eaux ougandaises. Cette étude indique aussi qu'il est possible qu'il existe des interactions génétiques entre les poissons d'élevage et les poissons sauvages de même espèce, au niveau des bassins d'élevage. [source]

    Adsorption of Magnesium by Bottom Soils in Inland Brackish Water Shrimp Ponds in Alabama

    Harvey J. Pine
    Low-salinity (2.0,9.0 g/L) well waters used for inland culture of marine shrimp in Alabama are imbalanced with respect to ionic composition. Inputs of potassium (muriate of potash) and potassium-magnesium sulfate (Kmag®) fertilizers are used to correct these imbalances. Potassium is lost in overflow and intentional discharge, seepage, and through adsorption by bottom soils by exchangeable and non-exchangeable processes. This study was initiated to determine if bottom soils removed magnesium in the same manner as potassium. Laboratory soil,water mesocosms revealed that soils strongly adsorbed magnesium. The rate of adsorption tended to decline over time, indicating establishment of the equilibrium. Magnesium losses for the three soils ranged from 1405 to 1713 mg/tank (average = 1568 mg/tank). The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soils varied from 10.4 to 44.0 cmolc/kg (average = 24.6cmolc/kg). The decline in magnesium increased with higher soil CEC. In another trial, repeated exposures of soils to solutions of 40 mg Mg2+/L failed to saturate exchange sites, but rather maintained equilibrium with other base cations on soil adsorption sites. Dissolved sulfate resulting from additions of magnesium with magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgSO4·7H2O) was also monitored. Although difficulties of analysis occurred, sulfate was not adsorbed appreciably by the soils. [source]

    Does Pond Water Reflectance Influence Double-crested Cormorant Selection of Aquaculture Ponds?

    Andrew A. Radomski
    Double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, are a frequent and major avian predator on channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and other aquaculture species throughout the southeastern USA. Although cormorant movements and occurrence within the aquaculture production region are understood, no studies have focused on the mechanisms utilized by these avian predators to select foraging sites within these high-density aquaculture systems. The objective of this study was to determine if cormorant abundance is associated with specific (ultraviolet to visible) light reflectance spectra within commercial catfish ponds. Three commercial farms were used in this study; each farm had four ponds classified as "preferred" and another four ponds classified as "avoided" based on observing cormorant numbers for 3 mo prior to reflectance measures (>100 h observation for each pond). Reflectance and pond turbidity were measured weekly for 7 wk during the period of maximal over-wintering cormorant numbers. Water samples were collected at the surface (1 cm depth) and secchi depth (10,41 cm) at two locations (upwind and downwind sides) within each pond to determine spectral reflectance and turbidity. Average pond reflectance values were not significantly different between ponds preferred and avoided by cormorants; however, upwind reflectance significantly differed from downwind reflectance between cormorant use groups. Using cross-validation discriminant analysis, the accuracy of separating upwind ponds preferred and avoided by cormorants was over 62%. Repeated measures ANOVA identified the reflectance at 370, 380, 460, 500, 510, and 620 nm as significantly different between ponds preferred and avoided by cormorants. The lower wavelengths (380,410 nm) correspond to known UV-A sensing compounds in cormorants and the other wavelengths share characteristics associated with algal biomass. Cormorants utilize ponds that have lower algal biomass when compared with avoided ponds. [source]

    Impact of Copper Sulfate on Plankton in Channel Catfish Nursery Ponds

    Charles C. Mischke
    Many fish culturists are interested in applying copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds as a prophylactic treatment for trematode infection and proliferative gill disease by killing snails and Dero sp., respectively, before stocking fry. However, copper is an algaecide and may adversely affect phytoplankton and zooplankton populations. We evaluated the effects of prophylactic use of copper sulfate in catfish nursery ponds on water quality and phytoplankton and zooplankton populations. In 2006, treatments of 0 mg/L CSP, 3 mg/L CSP (0.77 mg/L Cu), and 6 mg/L CSP (1.54 mg/L Cu) were randomly assigned to 0.04-ha ponds. In 2007, only treatments of 0 and 3 mg/L CSP were randomly assigned to the 16 ponds. Ponds treated with CSP had significantly higher pH and significantly lower total ammonia concentrations. Treatment of both CSP rates increased total algal concentrations but reduced desirable zooplankton groups for catfish culture. CSP has been shown to be effective in reducing snail populations at the rate used in this study. CSP treatment also appears to be beneficial to the algal bloom, shifting the algal population to green algae and increasing total algal biomass within 1 wk after CSP treatment. Although zooplankton populations were adversely affected, populations of important zooplankton to catfish fry began rebounding 6,12 d after CSP treatment. Therefore, if CSP is used to treat catfish fry ponds of similar water composition used in this study, fry should not be stocked for about 2 wk after CSP application to allow time for the desirable zooplankton densities to begin increasing. [source]

    Production and Processing Trait Comparisons of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and Their Hybrids Grown in Earthen Ponds

    Mingkang Jiang
    Fingerling HS-5 channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, NWAC 103 channel catfish, D&B blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, HS-5 female channel × D&B male blue catfish F1 hybrids, and NWAC 103 female channel × D&B male blue catfish F1 hybrids were stocked into twenty-five 0.04-ha earthen ponds at 12,500 fish/ha and grown for 277 d. Fish were fed daily at rates from 1.0 to 3.0% biomass based on feeding activity and temperature and adjusted weekly assuming a feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 1.8 and 100% survival. At harvest, 40 fish from each pond were sampled, and all other counted and weighed. Mean survival, growth rate indexes (a), FCR, and skin-on fillet percentages were not significantly different. Mean harvest weights and net production were higher for HS-5 channel and its hybrid than for the NWAC 103 channel, NWAC 103 hybrid, and D&B blue catfish, partially because of their larger mean stocking weights. D&B blue catfish was more uniform in size than NWAC 103 channel and NWAC 103 hybrid. D&B blue catfish was the easiest to seine. HS-5 hybrids and NWAC 103 hybrids had lower mean head percentage and a better processing yield than their parent channel catfish. [source]

    Effects of Two Densities of Caged Monosex Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, on Water Quality, Phytoplankton Populations, and Production When Polycultured with Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Temperate Ponds

    Jason J. Danaher
    The effects of different densities of caged Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, on water quality, phytoplankton populations, prawn, and total pond production were evaluated in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, production ponds. The experiment consisted of three treatments with three 0.04-ha replicates each. All ponds were stocked with graded, nursed juvenile prawn (0.9 ± 0.6 g) at 69,000/ha. Control (CTL) ponds contained only prawns. Low-density polyculture (LDP) ponds also contained two cages (1 m3; 100 fish/cage) of monosex male tilapia (115.6 ± 22 g), and high-density polyculture (HDP) ponds had four cages. Total culture period was 106 d for tilapia and 114 d for prawn. Overall mean afternoon pH level was significantly lower (P , 0.05) in polyculture ponds than in CTL ponds but did not differ (P > 0.05) between LDP and HDP. Phytoplankton biovolume was reduced in polyculture treatments. Tilapia in the LDP treatment had significantly higher (P , 0.05) harvest weights than in the HDP treatment. Prawn weights were higher (P , 0.05) in polyculture than prawn monoculture. These data indicate that a caged tilapia/freshwater prawn polyculture system may provide pH control while maximizing pond resources in temperate areas. [source]

    Production Characteristics, Water Quality, and Costs of Producing Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus at Different Stocking Densities in Single-batch Production

    Brent E. Southworth
    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus farming is the largest component of aquaculture in the USA. Culture technologies have evolved over time, and little recent work has been conducted on the effects of stocking density on production characteristics and water quality. Twelve 0.1-ha ponds were stocked with 13- to 15-cm fingerlings (16 g) at either 8600, 17,300, 26,000, or 34,600 fish/ha in single-batch culture with three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed daily to apparent satiation with a 32% floating commercial catfish feed. Nitrite-N, nitrate-N, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Secchi disk visibility, chlorophyll a, chloride, total alkalinity, total hardness, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were monitored. Ponds were harvested after a 201-d culture period (March 26, 2003 to October 13, 2003). Net yield increased significantly (P < 0.05) as stocking density increased, reaching an average of 9026 kg/ha at the highest density. Growth and marketable yield (>0.57 kg) decreased with increasing stocking density. Survival was not significantly different among densities. Mean and maximum daily feeding rates increased with density, but feed conversion ratios did not differ significantly among treatments (overall average of 1.42), despite the fact that at the higher stocking densities, the feeding rates sometimes exceeded 112 kg/ha per d (100 lb/ac per d). Morning DO concentrations fell below 3 mg/L only once in a 34,600 fish/ha pond. Concentrations of chlorophyll a, COD, nitrite-N, and TAN increased nominally with increasing feed quantities but did not reach levels considered problematic even at the highest stocking densities. Breakeven prices were lowest for the highest stocking density even after accounting for the additional time and growth required for submarketable fish to reach market size. While total costs were higher for the higher density treatments, the relatively higher yields more than compensated for higher costs. [source]

    Factors Affecting Sediment Oxygen Demand in Commercial Channel Catfish Ponds

    James A. Steeby
    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) measured in 45 commercial channel catfish ponds in northwest Mississippi using in situ respirometry (N = 167) ranged from 63 to 1,038 mg/m2 per h. Mean SOD in this study (359 mg/m2 per h) was greater than that reported previously for catfish ponds but was similar to SOD in semi-intensive marine shrimp ponds. Nine variables were selected and measured to assess their relative importance in accounting for variation in SOD. Six variables were included in multiple regression models that explained slightly more than half of the variation in SOD. These variables were: dissolved oxygen concentration at the beginning of respirometry incubation:, particulate organic matter concentration in water above the sediment surface: organic carbon concentration at the immediate sediment-water interface (flocculent or F-layer) combined with the upper 2 cm of sediment (S-layer); organic carbon concentration in the mature (M) underlying sediment layer: water temperature: and total depth of accumulated sediment. Sediment oxygen demand was most sensitive to changes in dissolved oxygen concentration in the overlying water, particulate organic matter concentration in the water, and the concentration of organic carbon in the combined flocculent and upper sediment (F+S) layer. Models for SOD in this research predict that the mass of sediment below the upper 2-cm surface layer on average contributes only ,20% of total SOD. Stratification and normal daily fluctuation of dissolved oxygen concentration in eutrophic culture ponds likely limit expression of sediment oxygen demand. Maintaining aerobic conditions at the sediment-water interface will minimize accumulation of organic matter in pond sediment. [source]

    Effect of Stocking Weight and Stocking Density on Production of Hybrid Striped Bass (Sunshine) in Earthen Ponds in the Second Phase of a 2-Phase System

    Louis R. D'Abramo
    Sunshine bass from Phase I or pond production were graded into two weight classes, 3 and 5 g, and stocked into experimental earthen ponds at a density of either 8,649/ha or 11,120/ ha in a 2 × 2 factorial design. After stocking, the fish were fed a commercially manufactured feed (43.0-45.5% crude protein) twice daily to satiation for 17 mo. At harvest, mean survival ranged from 67.4 to 84.8% but was highest for the fish stocked at 5g. Average production Tor ponds stocked at 8,649/ha and 11,120/ha, regardless of stocking weight, was 4,506 kg/ha and 5350 kg/ha, respectively. Production and percentages of assigned weight classes were not significantly different among treatments as a result of wide variation among replicates. Using size-dependent market prices assigned to the different harvest size groups, an economic analysis revealed gross receipts, variable costs, and total costs for the 11,120/ha 5-g treatment. Net returns were not significantly different among the four treatments due to large variation among replicates per treatment. These results confirm that the traditional phase II of pond production can be eliminated in favor of a direct stocking of phase I fish into a single production phase and economically competes very well with traditional three-phase growout management. The potential reduction in turnover time of production units achieved through the direct stock practice is an efficiency trait that should translate into significantly higher returns and a greater profit over the long term. Further reduction of stocking density combined with a stocking weight greater than 5 g should translate into greater proportion of larger, higher valued fish at harvest and a growout period of 18-20 mo, rather than the 24-30 mo traditionally needed for the combined phase II and phase III of production. [source]

    Effects of Added Shelter and Stocking Density on Growth of Sleepy Cod Oxyeleotris lineolatus in Ponds

    Brett W. Herbert
    Sleepy cod Oxyeleotris lineolatus is a species of freshwater goby in demand in Australian markets by consumers of Asian origin. It is related to marble goby Oxyeleotris marmoratus, the most expensive freshwater food fish in Asia, which is cultured throughout southeast Asia in ponds and cages. The performance of sleepy cod in culture conditions was investigated to assess the viability of farming them in northern Australia. Sleepy cod fingerlings (62.8 ± 0.8 mm total length and 2.56 ± 0.095 g) were stocked into experimental ponds at 32,857 fish/ha, and grown out for 8 mo. Shelter was provided in each of three replicate ponds and was absent in three control ponds. The provision of shelter in juvenile growout was found to be of no benefit, although fish in ponds provided with shelter weighed slightly more per unit length than fish in ponds without shelter. Cannibalism was not a problem in growout, and survival was close to 100%. After the shelter trial was completed, fish were graded into large and small classes (three replicates of each), and grown out without shelter at the same density for 158 d. Following that, fish were again graded, and the largest 30% retained from growout at a density of 8,857 fish/ha (large, 198 ± 6.44 g) or 10,000 fish/ha (small, 48.9 ± 1.27 g). These were grown out for 188 d. Growth of selected stock at low densities was slower than earlier growth rates, although smaller fish gained weight more rapidly than larger fish. Growth rates were better than the only published data for marble goby. Further investigation into high density culture and different genotypes of sleepy cod needs to be undertaken to determine the viability of pond culture. [source]

    Morphology and Infraciliature of Three Species of Metaurostylopsis (Ciliophora, Stichotrichia): M. songi n. sp., M. salina n. sp., and M. marina (Kahl 1932) from Sediments, Saline Ponds, and Coastal Waters

    Yanli Lei
    Abstract. Two new urostylid ciliates, Metaurostylopsis songi n. sp. and Metaurostylopsis salina n. sp. and Metaurostylopsis marina (Kahl 1932) are investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. These species were isolated in Korea from intertidal sediments, saline ponds, and coastal waters. Metaurostylopsis songi is in vivo about 120 ,m × 25 ,m, has a slenderly ellipsoidal body, colorless cortical granules in rows on ventral and dorsal body sides, about 54 macronuclear nodules, 28,47 adoral membranelles, five frontal, two or three frontoterminal and six or seven transverse cirri, and 9,12 midventral cirral pairs followed posteriorly by 1,3 single cirri. In vivo M. salina is about 60 ,m × 25 ,m, has a pyriform body, colorless cortical granules irregularly arranged, about 45 macronuclear nodules, 18,23 adoral membranelles, three frontal, three to five frontoterminal and two to five transverse cirri, and four or five midventral cirral pairs followed posteriorly by five to seven single cirri. Both species have three marginal cirral rows on each body side and 3 long dorsal kineties. The Korean specimens of M. marina match the Chinese population in all main features. Metaurostylopsis songi differs from M. marina by the more slender body, the number of frontal cirri (invariably five vs. four), and the arrangement of cortical granules (in rows on dorsal and ventral cortex vs. only along dorsal kineties and anterior body margin). Metaurostylopsis salina differs from its congeners by the distinctly smaller size, the pyriform body shape, the scattered cortical granules (vs. in rows), and number of frontal cirri. It differs from M. marina also by the number of midventral cirral pairs (four or five vs. seven to 11). [source]

    Effects of selective harvesting and claw ablation of all-male freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) on water quality, production and economics in polyculture ponds

    Sheikh Md.
    Abstract The effects of selective harvesting (SH) and claw ablation (CA) of blue-clawed (BC) prawns on an all-male freshwater prawn,finfish polyculture system were compared with control (Co) in quadruplicate. Ponds were stocked with all-male freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, catla Catla catla and mola Amblypharyngodon mola at 12 000, 2000, 500 and 20 000 ha,1 respectively. Prawns were fed with pelleted feed. Ponds were fertilized regularly with urea, triple super phosphate and cow-dung. SH of BC prawns in treatment SH and CA in treatment CA started on the 60th day during a 137-day culture and continued at 15-day intervals until the final harvest. Water quality parameters and plankton abundance did not vary significantly (P>0.05) among the treatments. Treatment SH resulted in a higher (P<0.05) net production of freshwater prawn (437 kg ha,1), with better survival and mean weight, followed by CA (354 kg ha,1) and Co (322 kg ha,1). The combined net production of prawn plus finfish was also higher in SH (1244 kg ha,1) as compared with CA (1161 kg ha,1) and Co (1137 kg ha,1), although the finfish production did not differ significantly. The periodic SH of BC prawns showed a better economic return with a BCR of 1.71. [source]

    The effect of the introduction of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.) on small indigenous fish species (mola, Amblypharyngodon mola, Hamilton; chela, Chela cachius, Hamilton; punti, Puntius sophore, Hamilton)

    Sultanul Arafin Shemeen Ahmad
    Abstract This is the first controlled experiment to quantify the effect of introduced tilapia on indigenous species. This experiment was conducted in small earthen ponds (100 m2) to assess the impact of mixed-sex or all-male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on small indigenous species (SIS) commonly found in south Asia, mola (Amblypharyngodon mola), chela (Chela cachius) and punti (Puntius sophore). Ponds were fertilized, then stocked with 0.56 fish m,2 of water surface area in the mixed-sex and all-male tilapia treatments and 0.42 fish m,2 in the treatment without tilapia. No additional nutritional inputs were applied after stocking. Treatments were: mixed-sex tilapia with SIS, mono-sex male tilapia with SIS and SIS without tilapia (control). All treatments were stocked with 14 fish per species. All species reproduced during the 21-month culture duration. The number of recruits varied by species, Tilapia reproduced in greater numbers than SIS. Tilapia numbers at harvest were the highest (451 ± 25/100 m2) in the mixed-sex treatment compared with mola (221 ± 22/100 m2), chela (94 ± 8/100 m2) and punti (100 ± 7/100 m2). The number of mola was higher (399 ± 33/100 m2) in the all-male tilapia treatment. There was reduction in the number of mola and chela in the treatment containing mixed-sex tilapia. Gut content analysis combined with water sampling revealed that all fish species fed selectively. Significant interspecies dietary overlap was found between Nile tilapia and SIS and among SIS. Thus, there is potential for tilapia to compete with indigenous fish species when space and other resources are limiting, but a longer duration study with varying level of management is needed to determine how successfully tilapia competes with locally adapted SIS. [source]

    Life-cycle phenology of some aquatic insects: implications for pond conservation

    Jérôme Cayrou
    Abstract 1.Life-cycles and growth patterns were determined for 21 dominant aquatic insect species in small permanent ponds in an arid, karstic region (SW France, site fr7300909 of the Natura 2000 conservation network). The species studied are widely distributed throughout Europe, but some life-cycle patterns are reported here for the first time. 2.The life-history patterns of the 21 species can be divided into five main types: (i) a semivoltine cycle spreading over 2 years; (ii) slow univoltine cycles; (iii) fast univoltine cycles; (iv) multivoltine life-cycles with a long winter generation and two or three summer generations per year; and (v) bivoltine life-cycles with two fast generations per year. Growth was either exponential over the whole developmental period for a given cohort, or divided into two or three successive periods during each of which the growth rate was fairly constant. 3.Biodiversity estimates strongly depend on the temporal and spatial scale over which observations are made. Ponds thus provide useful models to show how life-history patterns enable many temporally segregated populations to utilize small ecosystems. Conservation frameworks should therefore carefully consider the time-frame needed to survey ponds, as many species with fast cycles could be overlooked. The spatial scale needed to manage threatened habitats and thus preserve pond networks must be broadened, rather than attempting to target individual water bodies for particular management actions. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]