Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Planus

  • cutaneous lichen planu
  • lichen planu
  • oral lichen planu

  • Selected Abstracts

    New millennium, new nail problems

    Robert Baran
    The major nail disorders in the new millennium may well be related to systemic drugs used for conditions other than nail problems. Conversely the new therapies for onychomycosis, a condition whose incidence is increasing, may result in drug interactions. We have chosen to report on the most common iatrogenic causes of nail disorders, such as toxic epidermal necrolysis, psoriasis or acral psoriasiform reaction, lichen planus or lichenoid reaction, antineoplastic therapy-induced palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, paronychia and pyogenic granuloma, drug-induced onycholysis and photo-onycholysis, and drug-induced scleroderma and sclerodermiform conditions. The adverse effects and drug interactions of the newer oral antifungal agents will be quoted and their management will be discussed. [source]

    Oral lichen planus has a high rate of TP53 mutations.

    A study of oral mucosa in Iceland
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a world-wide health problem. In addition to external exposure (smoking and alcohol), certain oral lesions may increase the risk of oral cancer (e.g. leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral lichen planus). TP53 has been implicated in OSCC, but there are limited studies of mutations in premalignant oral lesions. In this study, 55 samples from OSCC, 47 from hyperkeratotic (HK) oral mucosa, clinically diagnosed as white patches, 48 samples from oral lichen planus (OLP), and 12 biopsies from normal oral mucosa were studied immunohistochemically for expression of TP53 protein. From all the carcinoma samples and selected non-malignant samples showing moderate or strong TP53 protein expression, malignant cells or TP53-positive nuclei were microdissected and screened for mutations in exons 5,8 by constant denaturation gel electrophoresis. Moderate to strong TP53 protein staining was seen in 56% of OSCC, 32% of OLP but only in 13% of HK. All OLP samples showed a characteristic pattern of positive nuclei confined to the basal layer, whereas TP53 staining was seen in suprabasal nuclei in HK. Mutation rate was 11 out of 52 for OSCC, three out of 20 tested for HK and, remarkably, nine out 27 tested for OLP. There was no correlation between TP53 protein staining and TP53 mutations. No associations were found with anatomical sites or disease progression. The unexpectedly high mutation rate of OLP might explain the premalignant potential of this lesion. [source]

    Apoptosis in oral lichen planus

    Evelyn Neppelberg
    Apoptotic cell death may be a contributory cause of basal cell destruction in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis in OLP and the expression of two proteins (FasR and FasL) regulating this process. Biopsies from 18 patients with histologically diagnosed OLP were investigated, with comparison to normal oral mucosa of healthy persons. For visualisation of DNA fragmentation, the TUNEL method was used. In order to characterise the infiltrating cell population (CD3, CD4, CD8) and expression of FasR and FasL, we used an immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that T cells dominated in the subepithelial cell infiltrate. Within the epithelium the apoptotic cells were confined to the basal cell layer, and more apoptotic cells were seen in areas with basal cell degeneration and atrophic epithelium. There was a prominent expression of FasR/FasL in OLP, with a rather uniform distribution throughout the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In the epithelium, the FasR/FasL expression was more abundant in the basal cell area compared to the suprabasal cell layer. In conclusion, apoptosis within the epithelium is significantly increased in situ in OLP compared to normal oral mucosa, and seems to be related to the epithelial thickness. [source]

    Multilineage progression of genetically unstable tumor subclones in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    Albert Rübben
    Abstract:, Molecular analysis of solid malignant tumors has suggested multilineage progression of genetically unstable subclones during early stages of tumorigenesis as a common mechanism of tumor cell evolution. We have investigated whether multilineage progression is a feature of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). To identify individual tumor cell subclones, we determined the pattern of mutations within microsatellite DNA obtained from multiple histomorphologically confined tumor cell nests of mycosis fungoides (MF) and lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) lesions. Tumor cells were isolated by laser microdissection, and allelotypes were determined at microsatellite markers D6S260, D9S162, D9S171, D10S215, TP53.PCR15, and D18S65. Nine cases of MF and one patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) originating from LyP were analyzed at 277 different microdissected areas obtained from 31 individual lesions. Three specimens of cutaneous lichen planus microdissected at 26 areas served as the control tissue. Microsatellite instability in microdissected tissue [MSI(md-tissue)] was detected in tumor tissues of all CTCL patients. One hundred and fifty-seven of 469 analyzed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications contained mutated microsatellite alleles (34%). In lichen planus, MSI(md-tissue) was seen in only four of 76 PCR products (5%) (P < 0.0001). The distribution of allelotypes in tumor cells from different disease stages was consistent with multilineage progression in five MF cases, as well as in the LyP/ALCL patient. Our results suggest that CTCL may evolve by multilineage progression and that tumor subclones in MF can be detected in early disease stages by mutation analysis of microsatellite DNA obtained from multiple microdissected areas. [source]

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a marker for dysregulated keratinocyte differentiation in human skin

    Lotus Mallbris
    Abstract: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a 25-kDa protein initially isolated from the specific granules of human neutrophils. It is a member of the highly heterogeneous lipocalin protein family, which shares a common tertiary structure. Its synthesis is induced in gastrointestinal epithelium in association with inflammation and malignancy. To gain insight into its potential role in other epithelia we have investigated the expression of NGAL in human skin embryonic development, in normal adult skin, and in skin associated with inflammation and neoplastic transformation. In the present study we report that the embryonic expression of NGAL appears to be regulated in a spatio-temporal pattern. It was induced in the interfollicular epidermis at 20,24 weeks of gestational age but thereafter progressively receded towards the hair follicles. In normal adult skin, NGAL was detected solely in association with hair follicles. However, strong induction of NGAL in the epidermis was seen in a variety of skin disorders characterized by dysregulated epithelial differentiation such as psoriasis, pityriasis rubra and squamous cell carcinoma. In these tissues production of NGAL was confined to spatially distinct subpopulations of keratinocytes underlying areas of parakeratosis, whereas skin samples lacking parakeratotic epithelium such as lichen ruber planus, acute contact eczema and basal cell carcinoma were negative for NGAL. Consistent with being a marker for disturbed terminal differentiation, NGAL immunoreactivity showed an inverse pattern when compared with that of the differentiation marker filaggrin. The biologic functions of NGAL in epithelia are not fully known, although an immunomodulatory role in host defense has been proposed. In addition, the transient interfollicular NGAL expression during skin embryogenesis along with the induction of NGAL in adult parakeratotic epidermis suggests it play a role in epithelial differentiation pathways. [source]

    ,Activation-induced cell death': a special program able to preserve the homeostasis of the skin?

    Giuseppe De Panfilis
    Abstract: The ,activation-induced cell death' (AICD) is a molecular system leading to death of antigen-activated T lymphocytes, in order to avoid accumulation of harmful cytokine-releasing cells. This article reviews both the molecular mechanisms working in AICD and the role played by such mechanisms in preventing a number of skin diseases. Specifically, because AICD removes activated and autoreactive T cells through a CD95-/CD95-L-mediated suicide, skin diseases were scrutinized in which such valuable machinery could be lacking. Indeed, at least some inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, can be sustained by an increased survival of activated T lymphocytes associated with deficient CD95-/CD95-L-mediated AICD of such strong pro-inflammatory cells. In addition, autoreactive skin diseases, including, e.g. alopecia areata, lichen planus and other lichenoid tissue reactions, can be related to autoreactive T lymphocytes which could be unable to undergo CD95-/CD95-L-mediated AICD. Finally, a lack of AICD may be executive even in favoring cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Thus, because inflammatory, autoreactive and neoplastic skin diseases can be associated with a deficient CD95-/CD95-L-mediated suicide of activated T cells, AICD is likely to represent a fundamental program to preserve the homeostasis of the skin. Therapeutic approaches able to restore the AICD machinery promise to successfully treat such relevant skin diseases. [source]

    Pimecrolimus in dermatology: atopic dermatitis and beyond

    Paolo Gisondi
    Summary Pimecrolimus is a calcineurin inhibitor developed for the topical therapy of inflammatory skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis (AD). Pimecrolimus selectively targets T cells and mast cells. Pimecrolimus inhibits T-cell proliferation, as well as production and release of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, interferon-, and tumour necrosis factor-,. Moreover, pimecrolimus inhibits mast cell degranulation. In contrast to tacrolimus, pimecrolimus has no effects on the differentiation, maturation and functions of dendritic cells. In contrast to corticosteroids, pimecrolimus does not affect endothelial cells and fibroblasts and does not induce skin atrophy. Given the low capacity of pimecrolimus to permeate through the skin, it has a very low risk of systemic exposure and subsequent systemic side-effects. In different randomised controlled trials, topical pimecrolimus as cream 1% (Elidel®) has been shown to be effective, well tolerated and safe in both adults and children with mild to moderate AD. In addition, pimecrolimus has been successfully used in inflammatory skin diseases other than AD, including seborrheic dermatitis, intertriginous psoriasis, lichen planus and cutaneous lupus erythematosus. [source]

    Paraneoplastic pemphigus/paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome

    FNASC, FRAS(LOND.), Virendra N. Sehgal MD
    Paraneoplastic pemphigus is the term used for an exclusive subset of pemphigus. The clinical lesions may resemble pemphigus, pemphigoid, erythema multiforme, graft-vs.-host disease, or lichen planus. A common denominator in all patients is the concomitant occurrence of either occult or confirmed systemic neoplasm. It is imperative to confirm the diagnosis through microscopy, where intraepidermal suprabasal cleavage, epidermal acantholysis, dyskeratotic keratinocytes and vacuolar changes in the basal epidermis, interfacial dermatitis, and epidermal exocytosis can be seen. Furthermore, the deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complement in the epidermal intercellular spaces, detected by direct and/or indirect immunofluorescence, is equally crucial for confirming the diagnosis. [source]

    Annular atrophic lichen planus

    Rosa María Ponce-Olivera MD
    A 30-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of a pruritic eruption on the extremities, characterized by several annular plaques. The patient had been treated unsuccessfully with medium-potency topical steroids. The lesions had an erythematous papular border with an atrophic center (width, 1,4 cm) (Fig. 1). No oral, genital, or nail lesions were observed. Figure 1. Annular lesion with an infiltrated border and atrophic center A skin biopsy from one of the plaques was performed. Histopathologic examination of the raised border showed hyperkeratosis of the stratum corneum, focal thickening of the granular layer, basal liquefaction degeneration of the epidermis, and a band-like subepidermal infiltration with numerous Civatte bodies. In the center of the lesion, the epidermis became thinner (Fig. 2). Elastic fibers were reduced or absent in the papillary dermis. Figure 2. (a) Biopsy of the border of a plaque with the typical changes of lichen planus (hematoxylin and eosin, ×10), with flattened epidermis in the center of the plaque; (b) medium power of the border of the plaque with details of the changes of lichen planus (hematoxylin and eosin, ×40) The patient was treated with high-potency topical steroids for 2 months with clinical improvement. [source]

    Effective treatment of erosive lichen planus with thalidomide and topical tacrolimus

    Haritini Petropoulou MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    An interesting case of colocalization of segmental lichen planus and vitiligo in a 14-year-old boy

    Kabir Sardana MD
    A 14-year-old boy had segmental vitiligo (L3,4) on the right thigh and leg for 4 years, and was advised to apply topical clobetasol propionate, 0.05%, in the night, with daily sun exposure for 10 min, as he refused to comply with topical psoralens. As there was no response to therapy even after 3 months, the patient stopped the steroid cream but continued with the sun exposure. Subsequently, the patient noticed gradual-onset, itchy, violaceous, pigmented, raised lesions superimposed on the vitiligo macules. Cutaneous examination revealed violaceous, polygonal papules, 0.5 × 0.5 cm in size, some of which coalesced to form discrete violaceous plaques, confined to areas of vitiligo, with a clear-cut demarcation from normal skin (Fig. 1). The scalp, palms, soles, nails, and mucosa were normal. Histopathology of the polygonal papules revealed hyperkeratosis, wedge-shaped hypergranulosis, irregular acanthosis with saw toothing of the rete ridges, basal cell liquefaction, and a band-like lymphocytic infiltrate (Fig. 2), consistent with lichen planus. The patient was subsequently prescribed fluticasone propionate (0.05%) ointment once daily for the lesions of lichen planus. There was a marked improvement in the lesions of lichen planus after 1 month. Figure 1. Violaceous papules of lichen planus colocalized on vitiligo macules with associated leukotrichia seen on the right leg Figure 2. Histopathology reveals hyperkeratosis, wedge-shaped hypergranulosis, irregular acanthosis with saw toothing of the rete ridges, basal cell liquefaction, and a band-like lymphocytic infiltrate (hematoxylin and eosin, × 40) [source]

    Lichen planopilaris [cicatricial (scarring) alopecia] in a child

    FNASC, FRAS (Lond.), Virendra N. Sehgal MD
    A mother of a 12-year-old boy, 2 years ago, noticed that he showed patchy loss of hair on the vertex of the scalp. It was asymptomatic and progressive. Subsequently, similar patches appeared elsewhere on the scalp. Some of these patches joined to form a large bald patch. This was accompanied by dusky blue eruptions over the left upper lip and eyebrows. Later, there was localized loss of hair. A family history of a similar ailment was absent. Examination of the scalp revealed plaques of alopecia with mild to moderate erythema. The skin was smooth, shiny, and atrophic (Fig. 1). Atrophy was apparent by the presence of wrinkles in places, and by holding the skin between the thumb and the index finger. The periphery of the lesions was well demarcated and was occupied by erythematous, scaly, follicular papules. Lesions were also located on the patches of alopecia. In addition, flat-topped, dusky blue, papules/plaques were present over the upper lip. Figure 1. Lichen planopilaris: plaques of alopecia showing smooth, shiny, atrophic skin with erythema A study of hematoxylin and eosin-stained microsections prepared from the upper lip and vertex of the scalp was undertaken. The former revealed hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, sawtooth irregular acanthosis, and destruction of the basal cell layer which, in turn, was embraced by a lymphohistiocytic infiltrate disposed in a band-like fashion. A few cells were seen invading the epidermis. Pigment-laden histiocytes were found intermingled with the infiltrate. In the scalp skin, on the other hand, atrophy of the epidermis with punctuation of keratin plugs, together with fibrosis of the dermis, was prominent. The walls of the hair follicles were hyperkeratotic, while their lumina were conspicuous by their dilatation and contained keratotic plugs (Fig. 2a,b). Sebaceous and sweat glands were absent. Figure 2. Lichen planopilaris showing atrophy of the epidermis, fibrosis of the dermis, dilatation of the hair follicle lumina containing keratotic plug(s), and hyperkeratosis of the wall of the follicle (hematoxylin and eosin: a , ×,40; b , ×,100) Response to treatment, comprising ultramicronized griseofulvin (Gris O.D.) 375 mg/day (Sehgal VN, Abraham GJS, Malik GB. Griseofulvin therapy in lichen planus ,- a double blind controlled trial. Br J Dermatol 1972; 86: 383,385; Sehgal VN, Bikhchandani R, Koranne RV et al. Histopathological evaluation of griseofulvin therapy in lichen planus. A double blind controlled study. Dermatologica 1980; 161: 22,27) and prednisolone 20 mg/day for 6 months, was excellent (Fig. 3). Topical betamethasone dipropionate (Diprovate) lotion was used as a supplement. Figure 3. Perceptible decline in band-like lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrate (hematoxylin and eosin, a, × 40; b, ×,100) [source]

    Mucous membrane pemphigoid, thymoma, and myasthenia gravis

    Haideh Yazdani Sabet
    In November 1997, approximately 1 year before being evaluated at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, a 63-year-old woman presented with erosive tongue lesions that were diagnosed by her physician as oral lichen planus. The lesions responded well to 3 months of treatment with systemic and topical corticosteroids and topical antiyeast medication. She stopped taking the medications and had a relapse. A few months after the oral lesions developed, her left eyelid became ptotic. Results of magnetic resonance imaging of her brain were normal, and the ptosis resolved spontaneously after 2 weeks. One year later, her right eyelid began to droop, and the results of edrophonium testing were positive. She was prescribed prednisone, 30 mg daily, and pyridostigmine, as needed. The ptosis improved, but never fully resolved. Radiography revealed a left ,,thyroid nodule,'' but computed tomography did not show a mediastinal mass. She was advised to have the ,,nodule'' removed surgically and came to the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, for a second opinion. Her medical history was significant for the following: tinnitus, glaucoma, early bilateral cataracts, and long-standing hypertension, for which she took losartan, 50 mg twice daily. Other medications included: prednisone, 30 mg daily; pyridostigmine as needed; famotidine, 40 mg daily; and eyedrops for glaucoma. She denied any history of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, head and neck irradiation, family history of thyroid disease, or diplopia. Hepatitis serologic studies revealed hepatitis B exposure and recovery, hepatitis C immunity, and a previous hepatitis A viral infection. On examination at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, an erosive hypertrophic plaque was noted on the posterior dorsal half of the tongue, and vesicles and erythematous erosions on the hard and soft palates ( Fig. 1a). A lace-like white pattern was seen on the buccal mucosa bilaterally, and a small erosive patch on the left buccal mucosa ( Fig. 1b). Ocular and nasal mucous membranes were normal in appearance, and there were no pertinent skin findings. Dermatopathologic examination of an excisional biopsy specimen from the left dorsum of the tongue demonstrated an ulcer with epitheliomatous hyperplasia and a granulomatous reaction, presumably due to yeast infection. Silver staining showed hyphae and yeast at the base of the tongue ulcer. The results of the direct immunofluorescence study were negative and revealed no lichenoid changes on hematoxylin and eosin staining. Indirect immunofluorescence testing of the serum revealed a 1 : 80 titer of basement membrane zone antibodies, reflecting pemphigoid. This test was positive on repeat study. Salt-split skin on monkey esophagus revealed an epidermal pattern of basement membrane zone antibodies. Treatment included fluocinonide gel applied to the involved areas four times daily and oral antiyeast therapy (fluconazole, 200 mg once daily by mouth) while the rest of the evaluation was being completed. Figure 1(a). Erosive hypertrophic tongue plaque. Figure (b) ,. Erosive patch on the buccal mucosa. As part of the evaluation of the ptosis, a myasthenia gravis antibody panel was performed. It revealed the following abnormalities: striated muscle antibody at 1 : 480 (reference range, <1 : 60), acetylcholine receptor binding antibody at 6.33 nmol/L (reference range, ,,0.02 nmol/L), acetylcholine receptor blocking antibody at 31% (reference range, 0,25%), and acetylcholine receptor modulating antibody at 100% (reference range, 0,20%), suggesting thymoma. Treatment included pyridostigmine, 30,45 mg 3,4 times daily, to control the myasthenia symptoms, while the ill-defined neck mass was being evaluated. A mildly enlarged thyroid was noted on physical examination. Hematology panel revealed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the low normal range; the thyroid microsomal antibody was normal. Chest radiography showed minor tracheal deviation, and a previous computed tomogram showed what appeared to be a 3-cm enlarged mass in the thyroid. Ultrasonographically guided thyroid biopsy did not show malignancy, but a benign mesenchymal-type tumor was found and surgical excision was planned. Intraoperatively, a thymoma of the left cervical thymic tongue was found. At 6 months' follow-up, the ptosis and oral mucosal lesions had improved significantly, although she continued topical corticosteroid therapy intermittently for minor erosive oral disease. [source]

    Comparative effect of tacrolimus 0.1% ointment and clobetasol 0.05% ointment in patients with oral lichen planus

    Giovanni Corrocher
    Abstract Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is considered to be an autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology that affects the mucosae, especially the oral cavity. Objective: We compared tacrolimus 0.1% ointment and clobetasol 0.05% ointment for the treatment of OLP. Patients and Methods: A total of 32 patients (20 females and 12 males; all white, Italian origin, mean age of 43.6±18.4 years; 16 patients per treatment group) were treated with tacrolimus or clobetasol ointment for 4 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Pain severity, burning sensation, and mucosal lesion extension were assessed using a four-point scale. Results: At the end of the treatment period, symptom scores were significantly lower in the tacrolimus group than in the clobetasol group. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that tacrolimus 0.1% ointment is more effective than clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment in the treatment of OLP. However, other studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this treatment before it can be recommended for use in clinical practice. [source]

    Gingival involvement of oral lichen planus in a series of 700 patients

    Michele D. Mignogna
    Abstract Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the most common oral mucosa disorders. OLP gingival involvement is very frequently observed, and it is characterized by wide variations in clinical appearance and symptoms, leading, in many cases, to misdiagnosis or undiagnosis. This can be potentially harmful since OLP patients require appropriate management in oral and periodontal care, together with an adequate systemic evaluation. Objective: In this paper, we have analysed the prevalence and clinical aspects of gingival lesions in our series of 700 patients affected by OLP. Furthermore, we have discussed the possible periodontal implications on the basis of the available literature. Patients and Methods: Data from 700 patients affected by OLP, clinically and histologically assessed, have been studied; the location and morphology of lesions, the symptoms and the progression of the disease have been considered, with particular attention given to gingival involvement. Results: Gingival lesions have been diagnosed in 48% of cases, usually associated with diffuse oral involvement. Only 7.4% of patients had OLP lesions confined to the gingiva. The morphology of lesions included all the forms originally described for OLP (reticular, papular, plaque, atrophic, erosive and bullous). The symptoms, if present, varied from mild discomfort to severe oral pain, with the general trend increasing from the keratotic to the erosive forms. The gingiva was involved in four out of 21 of our oral cancer cases, which developed from pre-existing OLP lesions. Conclusion: OLP is a very proteiform disorder; considering the high frequency of gingival involvement and its influence on oral health, it is our opinion that periodontologists should be involved in OLP management and should become familiar with its clinical aspects and related themes. [source]

    Psychological profile in oral lichen planus

    Kiro Ivanovski
    Abstract Aim: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an oral lesion with an enigmatic etiology. To explore the possibility of psycho-somatization, we evaluated the psychological personality profiles of OLP patients. Methods: Twenty patients with reticular; 20 with erosive form of OLP, and 25 controls were tested with the psychological Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-202 test. Eight clinical scales (hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathic deviate, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, and hypomania) as well as cortisol level, CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD16 markers by group were compared. Psychosomatization was evaluated by the use of internalization ratio (IR) Index. Results: A characteristic MMPI profile was noted in the OLP groups with high IR index value. Significant differences among the groups were detected for cortisol, CD4, CD8, and CD16 counts. Mean values for hypochondriasis, depression, and hysteria were all significantly different with significantly higher mean scores for both reticular and erosive OLP subjects compared with controls. Conclusions: Prolonged emotive stress in many OLP patients may lead to psychosomatization and may contribute to the initiation and clinical expression of this oral disorder. Clinical significance: If additional research involving a larger and more diverse sample of patients confirms these findings, clinical trials will be needed to determine whether adjunctive psychological intervention provides a benefit in treating patients with OLP. [source]

    Histopathologic Differential Diagnosis of Subepidermal Cutaneous Blisters and Erosions at Autopsy

    C. Kovarik
    The histopathologic differential diagnosis of subepidermal blisters is broad and most commonly includes primary dermatologic diseases (i.e. bullous pemphigoid), secondary blistering conditions (i.e. bullous lichen planus), and drug reactions (i.e. toxic epidermal necrolysis); however, when examining blister specimens taken during autopsy, several other entities need to be added to the differential diagnosis. For one year, we biopsied cutaneous blisters and erosions found during autopsies performed at the Dallas County Medical Examiner's Office and examined them histologically. The objective of this study was to determine the primary cause of blisters and erosions seen at autopsy, characterize them histologically in order to allow differentiation from other blistering conditions, and emphasize causes of subepidermal blisters that are often not considered in the differential diagnosis. We present eight representative cases in order to illustrate the following points. The majority of blisters and erosions examined were subepidermal and secondary to physical causes, such as burns, defibrillation, submersion, fetal maceration, and decomposition. Although primary skin conditions need to be considered when examining blisters and erosions at autopsy, the most common entities are secondary to physical causes, and these need to be included in the differential diagnosis in order to obtain an accurate diagnosis. [source]

    The value of molecular analysis by PCR in the diagnosis of cutaneous lymphocytic infiltrates

    Niels Holm
    The diagnosis and classification of cutaneous lymphomas remain a challenge for the clinician and dermatopathologist. This diagnostic dilemma is mainly encountered in the distinction between an early malignant lymphoma and a benign reactive lymphocytic infiltrate (pseudolymphoma). Until the beginning of the 1980s, our diagnostic tools were limited to the clinical presentation, course, and histopathology in diagnosis and classification of lymphocytic infiltrates. Advances in immunology and, in particular, in molecular genetics with the introduction of the Southern blot technique and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have revolutionized the diagnosis of lymphocytic infiltrates by determination of clonality. In some series, more than 90% of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas have a clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor ,-chain gene, as opposed to very low percentages of rearrangement in T-cell pseudolymphomas. However, the presence of clonality does not necessarily imply malignancy. Cases of pseudolymphomas, lichen planus and pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta were reported with clonal lymphocytic proliferations. Therefore, care should be exercised in the evaluation of the results of molecular analysis, and these should always be correlated with the clinical, histological and immunophenotypic picture to arrive at the correct diagnosis. It may be expected that the molecular methods for diagnosis of lymphocytic infiltrates will be improved and refined in future, and that sensitivity and specificity will increase. [source]

    The quality of patient-orientated Internet information on oral lichen planus: a pilot study

    Pía López-Jornet PhD MD DDS
    Abstract Objective, This study examines the accessibility and quality Web pages related with oral lichen planus. Methods, Sites were identified using two search engines (Google and Yahoo!) and the search terms ,oral lichen planus' and ,oral lesion lichenoid'. The first 100 sites in each search were visited and classified. The web sites were evaluated for content quality by using the validated DISCERN rating instrument. JAMA benchmarks and ,Health on the Net' seal (HON). Results, A total of 109 000 sites were recorded in Google using the search terms and 520 000 in Yahoo! A total of 19 Web pages considered relevant were examined on Google and 20 on Yahoo! As regards the JAMA benchmarks, only two pages satisfied the four criteria in Google (10%), and only three (15%) in Yahoo! As regards DISCERN, the overall quality of web site information was poor, no site reaching the maximum score. In Google 78.94% of sites had important deficiencies, and 50% in Yahoo!, the difference between the two search engines being statistically significant (P = 0.031). Only five pages (17.2%) on Google and eight (40%) on Yahoo! showed the HON code. Conclusion, Based on our review, doctors must assume primary responsibility for educating and counselling their patients. [source]

    Hepatitis C virus and lichen planus

    Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important factor in the development of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. In recent years it has become known that HCV induces various extrahepatic manifestations including mixed cryoglobulinemia, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, Sjögren's syndrome, autoimmune thyroiditis, malignant lymphoma, porphyria cutanea tarda and lichen planus. Although the mechanisms of extrahepatic manifestations remain unclear, it is known that interferon (IFN) therapy and coadministration of IFN with ribavirin are effective in promoting the disappearance or alleviation of such extrahepatic lesions, which have tended to be overlooked. The present review focuses on lichen planus, one of the major extrahepatic manifestations. © 2004 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd [source]

    Incidence of Sjögren's syndrome in Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus infection

    Abstract Background and Aim: Hepatitis viruses induce not only chronic liver diseases but also the impairment of other organs and tissues as extrahepatic manifestations. In particular, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is involved in various extrahepatic manifestations. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and lichen planus (LP) involvement, which are various extrahepatic manifestations in patients with liver diseases related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) or HCV. Methods: We examined a total of 110 Japanese patients with chronic liver disease: 29 with HBV infections and 81 HCV infections. Results: The prevalence of SS according to European and Japanese criteria in patients with chronic HCV infection was significantly higher than in patients with chronic HBV infection (European criteria: 25.9 vs 3.4%; P < 0.05, Japanese criteria: 21.0 vs 3.4%; P = 0.05). Lichen planus was observed in one (3.4%) of 29 patients with chronic HBV infection, and in 11 (13.6%) of 81 patients with chronic HCV infection. Simultaneously combined LP and SS occurred in 8.6% (seven of 81) of patients with HCV infection, but in none with HBV infection. Conclusions: Clinicians should routinely follow the HCV-infected patients, paying sufficient attention to the presence of SS and LP, and they should also carefully monitor their prognosis. [source]

    DNA ploidy in oral lichen planus, determined by image cytometry

    Elaini Sickert Hosni
    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) 39: 206,211 Background:, The objective of this study was to use image cytometry to determine the degree and frequency of DNA ploidy in biopsies of reticular and atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus and to analyze 14 karyometric measurements of the nuclei of epithelial cells from each specimen. Methods:, A total of 40 slides were analyzed, each of them representing one biopsy of one oral lichen planus (OLP) lesion from each one of the 40 patients (cases) studied. Specimens were embedded in paraffin and comprised 20 slides of reticular oral lichen planus (group R) and 20 slides of atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus (group AE). Results:, Group R, the reticular lichen samples, had 18 diploid cases and two aneuploid cases. Group AE, the atrophic-erosive lichen samples, had 10 diploid cases, one tetraploid case, and nine aneuploid cases. Of the 14 karyometric measurements of the nuclei of OLP epithelial cells analyzed, the group R mean values for mean density and minimum density were significantly greater than the group AE mean values, and mean roundness in group AE was significantly greater than in group R (t- test: P < 0.05). Conclusions:, The most common degree of DNA ploidy in OLP lesions was diploidy. Comparing the two groups (chi-square test of association P = 0.021) demonstrated that diploidy was associated with the reticular clinical form of OLP, while aneuploidy was associated with the atrophic-erosive clinical form of oral lichen planus. [source]

    Expression of IFN-, before and after treatment of oral lichen planus with 0.1% fluocinolone acetonide in orabase

    Pornpan Youngnak-Piboonratanakit
    Background:, Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic inflammatory mucosal disease in which T-cell-mediated immune responses are implicated in the pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 0.1% fluocinolone acetonide in orabase (FAO) on the in situ expression of IFN-, in patients with OLP. Methods:, Twenty OLP patients were enrolled in this study. Biopsy specimens and serum samples were obtained before and 1-month after the treatment with 0.1% FAO. In situ expression and serum levels of IFN-, were determined using immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively. Results:, The number of IFN-,-positive mononuclear cells in OLP lesions before the treatment was significantly higher as compared with that after the treatment. Similarly, the mean number of total mononuclear cells was clearly decreased after the treatment. However, the serum levels of IFN-, were not detectable. Conclusions:, Our results suggest that IFN-, expression in OLP tissue may involve in the immunopathogenesis and the treatment with 0.1% FAO had an immunomodulating effect on the decrease of IFN-,. [source]

    The efficacy of topical intralesional BCG-PSN injection in the treatment of erosive oral lichen planus: a randomized controlled trial

    C. Xiong
    Background:, Nowadays, it has been widely accepted that the local cell-mediated immunologic disorders may play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore, we sieved out polysaccharide nucleic acid fraction of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG-PSN) from various immunomodulators to evaluate the short-term therapeutic efficacy and clinical safety of intralesional BCG-PSN injection for erosive OLP. Methods:, A total of 56 OLP patients were randomly assigned to receive either intralesional injection of 0.5 ml BCG-PSN every other day (31 of 56) or 10 mg triamcinolone acetonide (TA, a positive-controlled group, 25 of 56) every week for 2 weeks. After the cessation of treatment, those cured from erosion were followed up for 3 months. Another two researchers measured erosive areas and recorded visual analog scale (VAS) scores both at the start and the end of the treatment. We also registered adverse reactions and the recurrence intervals. Results:, After 2-week treatment, 27 of 31 BCG-PSN-treated patients (87.1%) and 22 of 25 TA-treated patients (88.0%) healed. There were no statistical differences between the two groups in erosive areas (27.86 ± 27.97 vs. 25.68 ± 34.65, P = 0.801) and VAS scores (2.45 ± 1.64 vs. 2.40 ± 1.38, P = 0.946). Three of 31 BCG-PSN-treated patients (9.7%) vs. 2 of 25 TA-treated patients (8.0%) experienced the swelling or burning sensation (P = 0.827). A total of 49 of 56 patients were followed up. There were no statistical differences in the recurrence rates (33.3% vs. 45.5%, P = 0.386) and intervals (80.89 ± 26.83 vs. 73.48 ± 28.11, P = 0.419). Conclusions:, Topical intralesional BCG-PSN injection is as effective as TA for erosive OLP, which suggests that topical intralesional BCG-PSN injection can be a promising therapeutic alternative for erosive OLP, especially for those insensitive, or even resistant, to glucocorticoids. [source]

    Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B correlates with tumor necrosis factor-alpha in oral lichen planus: a clinicopathologic study in atrophic-erosive and reticular form

    Gang Zhou
    Backgroud:, Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-,B) is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, including oral lichen planus (OLP). The objective of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between NF-,B activation and expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,) in OLP and their expression pattern in relation to several clinical features. Methods:, Thirty OLP cases were divided into atrophic-erosive form (14 cases) and reticular form (16 cases) according to their clinical manifestations. The expression of NF-,B p65 and TNF-, of both two groups were investigated by immunohistochemical staining, and the percentage of positive cells was calculated in each case. Biopsies of 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) also underwent the same procedure as controls. Results:, Nuclear factor-kappa B p65 nuclear staining was found in nuclei of basal and suprabasal epithelial keratinocytes in OLP, however, no positive staining was found in NOM. Positive TNF-, staining was detected in cytoplasm of basal epithelial keratinocytes in OLP, and only scattered staining was detected in NOM. Expression of NF-,B p65 and TNF-, were significantly different with respect to clinical forms and lesion sites (P < 0.05), except for genders (P > 0.05) in 30 OLP cases. NF-,B nuclear staining positively correlated (r = 0.676, P < 0.01) with TNF-, overexpression in OLP. Conclusions:, Nuclear factor-kappa B activation and its correlation with overexpression of TNF-, may play an important role in pathogenesis of OLP. There might be a positive regulatory loop between NF-,B and TNF-,, which may contribute to inflammation in OLP; NF-,B may also protect epithelial keratinocytes from excessive apoptosis. [source]

    Detection of fascin and CCR-7 positive mature dendritic cells in oral lichen planus

    Shotaro Mukae
    Background:, Dendritic cells (DC) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP) with respect to antigens presented to T cells. We performed immunohistochemical analysis to elucidate the process of activation of DC in OLP. Methods:, Thirty biopsy specimens were obtained from the patients with OLP. The expressions of CD1a, Langerin, S-100, fascin, chemokine receptor-7 (CCR-7), D2-40, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in DC from OLP and disease free control were investigated using specific antibodies. The distribution and number (1 mm2) of DC were assessed in the intra-epithelium and the submucosa specimens. Correlation between the number of DC and epithelium thickness was also determined. Result:, Immature DC (Langerin+, CD1a+, and S-100+) were identified in the epithelia from OLP patients and control, though the numbers of Langerin+ and CD1a+ positive cells were decreased in the OLP samples as compared to the control. Mature DC (fascin+) were identified in the submucosa specimens, not found in the epithelium from OLP or control. Double immunostaining revealed DC positive for fascin and CCR-7 in the submucosa, which had migrated into D2-40+ lymph vessels. Furthermore, keratinocytes expressed both Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) converting enzymes, COX-2, and mPGES-1, indicating PGE2 synthesis in the epithelial layer of the OLP specimens. Conclusion:, Our results indicate that DC change from immature to mature in the epithelium and are then drawn out to the submucosa. We demonstrate that mature DC localized in the submucosa, it consequently migrates into lymph vessels. This maturation process of DC is an important immunopathological feature of OLP. [source]

    Oral lichen planus: a condition with more persistence and extra-oral involvement than suspected?

    Marta Bidarra
    Background:, Lichen planus is a relatively common and often studied chronic mucocutaneous condition. Reports detailing certain aspects relevant to patients affected have been lacking or inconsistent. Methods:, A questionnaire-based survey was employed to assess the duration of oral lesions and the prevalence of self-reported potential extra-oral manifestations associated with oral lichen planus in 87 patients. All patients had recognized clinical features of oral lichen planus, and most had had histopathological confirmation following oral biopsy. Results:, We report the findings of a preliminary survey which assessed the duration of oral lesions and the prevalence of extra-oral lesions consistent with lichen planus in patients presenting with oral lesions. The study confirmed the chronic nature of oral lichen planus and the rarity of spontaneous resolution. Most subjects had experienced symptoms for one to ten years (66 patients; 75.8%). Approximately 40% (36 patients) of the sample reported clinical features suggestive of extra-oral manifestations of lichen planus by the time that their oral lesions were apparent. The most commonly reported extra-oral manifestations involved the nails (27.6%, 24 patients). 25.3% (22 patients) reported a persistently sore throat suggestive of oesophageal or pharyngeal involvement. Skin (17.2%, 11 patients), and genital (10.3%, 9 patients) involvement was relatively infrequently reported. Most patients reported extra-oral lesions at only one site. Conclusions:, The survey results suggest that in patients with oral lichen planus oral lesions persist for a prolonged period, and that extra-oral lesions may be more common than suspected. However, further studies involving specialists to examine extra-oral sites are required. [source]

    Short-term clinical evaluation of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection for ulcerative oral lichen planus

    Juan Xia
    Background:, Efforts are made in a continued searching for novel therapies for symptomatic oral lichen planus (OLP). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injection for ulcerative OLP. Methods:, Forty-five patients with clinical and histologically confirmed ulcerative OLP on bilateral buccal mucosa, one for treatment and the other for control, were studied. All participants received 0.5 ml TA (40 mg/ml) on experimental sites. Visual analogue scale score and lesion areas were recorded at the time of injection and 1-week interval. After 2 weeks, if the treated ulceration reduced <81% in size, a second injection was given. Results:, The treated group gave rapid relief of signs and symptoms, while the control group showed minimal decrease. 38 (84.4%) patients demonstrated complete response in ulceration size. No complications were noted with TA injections. Conclusions:, Intralesional TA injection in ulcerative OLP is effective and safe in achieving lesion and pain regression. [source]

    Elevated serum levels of the apoptosis related molecules TNF- ,, Fas/Apo-1 and Bcl-2 in oral lichen planus

    A. Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou
    Background:, The serum circulatory levels of apoptosis related molecules measured in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and healthy individuals in order to investigate possible alterations associated with the clinical forms of OLP. Methods:, Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- ,, soluble Fas (sFas) and Bcl-2 studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in whole blood samples in 13 OLP reticular, 13 OLP atrophic-erosive form patients and 26 healthy subjects. Results:, Significantly elevated levels of TNF- , and sFas detected in OLP patients as compared with controls. Serum concentrations of Bcl-2 although increased in 17/26 patients, they were not statistically significant. Reticular OLP exhibited slightly elevated TNF- , and significantly elevated Bcl-2 serum levels, compared with erosive OLP. Conclusions:, These data suggest that a putative dysfunction in the Fas/FasL mediated apoptosis might be involved in the OLP pathogenesis. A downregulation of Bcl-2 serum levels in the atrophic-erosive OLP may be associated with promotion of the disease activity. [source]

    Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in elderly people in Santiago, Chile

    I. Espinoza
    Abstract Background:, Oral prevalence studies are important to know the state of health and the needs of treatment. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and associated factors among aging Chileans. Methods:, A random sample by age, gender, and socioeconomic status was obtained, comprising 889 individuals older than 65 years. Individuals were interviewed and examined in Santiago, the capital of Chile, according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Results:, The prevalence of one or more oral mucosal lesions in the sample was 53%. Logistic regression model revealed that denture use increased the probability of one or more oral mucosal lesions by threefold, while age, gender, smoking, medication use, xerostomia, and social or cultural factors had no effect. The most common lesion was denture stomatitis (22.3%), followed by irritative hyperplasia (9.4%), oral mucosal varicosities (9%), solitary pigmented lesions (4%), traumatic ulcer (3.5%), angular cheilitis (2.9%), multiple pigmented lesions (2.8%), hemangioma (2.3%), lichen planus (2.1%), leukoplakia (1.7%), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (1.4%), nicotine stomatitis (1.3%), median rhomboid glossitis (0.9%), actinic cheilitis (0.9%), pyogenic granuloma (0.7%), oral squamous papiloma (0.6%), and mucocele (0.2%). One case of oral cancer was observed. Different factors increased the probability of specific oral mucosal pathologies. Conclusions:, We can conclude that oral mucosal lesions are common in elderly people in Santiago, suggesting the necessity for improved standards of prevention, and diagnostic and opportune treatment of these lesions. [source]