Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Platform

  • computing platform
  • different platform
  • effective platform
  • excellent platform
  • force platform
  • genotyping platform
  • high-throughput platform
  • ideal platform
  • microarray platform
  • microfluidic platform
  • new platform
  • novel platform
  • powerful platform
  • product platform
  • production platform
  • promising platform
  • proteomic platform
  • robotic platform
  • sensing platform
  • sequencing platform
  • simulation platform
  • software platform
  • stent platform
  • stewart platform
  • technology platform
  • trading platform
  • versatile platform
  • yangtze platform

  • Terms modified by Platform

  • platform chemical

  • Selected Abstracts


    Douglas P. Nowacek


    S. N. Ehrenberg
    The important thing to understand about carbonate diagenesis is not how porosity is created, but how it is destroyed. Detailed core observations from two deeply-buried carbonate platform successions (the Finnmark platform, offshore north Norway; and the Khuff Formation, offshore Iran) show that in both cases most vertical porosity variation can be accounted for by only two or three factors, namely: (1) stylolite frequency, (2) proportion of argillaceous beds, and (3) anhydrite cement. The spatial distribution of these factors is determined by the depositional distribution of clay minerals (important for localizing chemical compaction) and the occurrence of hypersaline depositional conditions and associated brine reflux (important for localizing anhydrite precipitation and dolomitisation). However, the intensity of chemical compaction and consequent porosity loss in adjacent beds by carbonate cementation also depend upon thermal exposure (temperature as a function of time). Evidence from the Finnmark platform and other examples indicate that the stratigraphic distribution of early-formed dolomite is also important for porosity preservation during burial, but this factor is not apparent in the Khuff dataset. Insofar as the Finnmark and Khuff platforms can be regarded as representative of carbonate reservoirs in general, recognition of the above porosity-controlling factors may provide the basis for general models predicting carbonate reservoir potential both locally (reservoir-model scale) and regionally (exploration-scale). Distributions of clay, anhydrite, and dolomitization should be predictable from stratigraphic architecture, whereas variations in thermal exposure can be mapped from basin analysis. In the present examples at least, factors that do not need to be considered include eogenetic carbonate cementation and dissolution, depositional facies (other than aspects related to clay and anhydrite content), and mesogenetic leaching to create late secondary porosity. [source]

    Operative Platform Applied to Building Automation

    Joo Figueiredo
    This structure is composed by three interrelated levels: the Operational level,where the field equipment is controlled, the Inter-Active level,where inhabitants communicate the building their preferences regarding control variables (lights, temperature, etc.), and the higher-level control, the Overall Building Well-Being Model, which manages the global building, taking into account the optimization of the inhabitants preferences, constrained by the available resources. At this third level, the inter-building communication is available. Each building has the capability to communicate with its neighbors, informing about fires, floods, security problems, power consumption expectations, and so on. This article implements one of the three above-referred interrelated control levels: the Operational-level control. This operative platform is structured over a cascade hierarchical control architecture where inner loops are performed by local PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers), and the outer loop is managed by a centralized SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) that interacts with the entire PLC network. The lower-level control loop assures high processing velocity tasks, the upper-level control loop updates the local references, knowing the complete system state. This operative model is tested on two prototypes, where all instrumentation in place is controlled by the industrial PLC network. Both prototypes worked perfectly showing the huge potential of communication systems between distributed processes. These communication systems allow intelligent centralized algorithms to manage decision-making problems in real-time environments. The system presented in this article combines several technologies (local PLCs, SCADA systems, and network communications) to reach the goal of efficient management of intelligent buildings. [source]

    Hydrogels as a Platform for Stem Cell Delivery to the Heart

    Mazen Kurdi PhD
    Stem cell therapy offers great promise to repair the injured or failing heart. The outcomes of clinical trials to date, however, have shown that the actual benefit realized falls far short of the promise. A number of factors may explain why that is the case, but poor stem cell retention and engraftment in the hostile environment of the injured heart would seem to be a major factor. Improving stem cell retention and longevity once delivered would seem a logical means to enhance their reparative function. One way to accomplish this goal may be injectable hydrogels, which would serve to fix stem cells in place while providing a sheltering environment. Hydrogels also provide a means to allow for the paracrine factors produced by encapsulated stem cells to diffuse into the injured myocardium. Alternatively, hydrogels themselves can be used for the sustained delivery of reparative factors. Here the authors discuss chitosan-based hydrogels. Congest Heart Fail. 2010;16:132,135. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Reconceptualizing the Xbox Platform

    Jonathan Hayes Design Director
    First page of article [source]

    Beijing Plus Ten: An Ambivalent Record on Gender Justice

    Maxine Molyneux
    The 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (the ,Beijing Conference') was a landmark in policy terms, setting a global policy framework to advance gender equality. Ten years after Beijing, in March 2005, the UN's Commission on the Status of Women presided over an intergovernmental meeting in New York to review the progress achieved on the commitments made in the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. This ,Plus 10' event was decidedly low key. Its aim was not agenda setting but agenda confirming; not policy formulation but policy affirmation. Whether it proves to be part of an ongoing worldwide movement in support of gender equality, or whether it marks the decline of that process, is a question that many in international women's movements are asking. This article, drawing on research undertaken for the UNRISD report, Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World, reflects on the ambivalent record of progress achieved by women over the last decades and considers how the policy environment has changed over the period since the high point of global women's movements. It examines how the changing international policy and political climate over this period has given rise to new issues and challenges for those active in global women's movements. [source]

    Platform for Highly Sensitive Alkaline Phosphatase-Based Immunosensors Using 1-Naphthyl Phosphate and an Avidin-Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 19 2009
    Abdul Aziz
    Abstract We report a versatile platform for highly sensitive alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-based electrochemical biosensors that uses an avidin-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode as a sensing electrode and 1-naphthyl phosphate (NPP) as an ALP substrate. Almost no electrocatalytic activity of NPP and good electrocatalytic activity of 1-naphthol (ALP product) on the ITO electrodes allow a high signal-to-background ratio. The effective surface covering of avidin on the ITO electrodes allows very low levels of nonspecific binding of proteins to the sensing electrodes. The platform technology is used to detect mouse IgG with a detection limit of 1.0,pg/mL. [source]

    Silica-Coated Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles as a Platform for Targeted Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging of Cancer Cells

    Hong Yang
    Abstract Monodisperse silica-coated manganese oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter of ,35,nm are synthesized and are aminated through silanization. The amine-functionalized core,shell NPs enable the covalent conjugation of a fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC), and folate (FA) onto their surface. The formed Mn3O4@SiO2(RBITC),FA core,shell nanocomposites are water-dispersible, stable, and biocompatible when the Mn concentration is below 50,g mL,1 as confirmed by a cytotoxicity assay. Relaxivity measurements show that the core,shell NPs have a T1 relaxivity (r1) of 0.50,mM,1,s,1 on the 0.5 T scanner and 0.47,mM,1,s,1 on the 3.0 T scanner, suggesting the possibility of using the particles as a T1 contrast agent. Combined flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging studies show that the Mn3O4@SiO2(RBITC),FA nanocomposites can specifically target cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors (FARs). Findings from this study suggest that the silica-coated Mn3O4 core,shell NPs could be used as a platform for bimodal imaging (both magnetic resonance and fluorescence) in various biological systems. [source]

    Surface Plasmonics: Plasmonic Crystals: A Platform to Catalog Resonances from Ultraviolet to Near-Infrared Wavelengths in a Plasmonic Library (Adv. Funct.

    Research in the field of surface plasmonics is finding application in many areas; for example, in data storage, nano-electronics, and biosensing. In their feature article on page 529, H. Gao et al. describe recent progress in manipulating surface plasmons from the ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths using nanostructured plasmonic crystals (shown in the cover image), and build a comprehensive library of plasmonic resonances, bringing together for the first time the resonance characteristics of key plasmonic materials. [source]

    Plasmonic Crystals: A Platform to Catalog Resonances from Ultraviolet to Near-Infrared Wavelengths in a Plasmonic Library

    Hanwei Gao
    Abstract Surface plasmons are responsible for a variety of phenomena, including nanoscale optical focusing, negative refraction, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Their characteristic evanescent electromagnetic fields offer opportunities for sub-diffraction imaging, optical cloaking, and label-free molecular sensing. The selection of materials for such applications, however, has been traditionally limited to the noble metals Au and Ag because there has been no side-by-side comparison of other materials. This feature article describes recent progress on manipulating surface plasmons from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths using plasmonic crystals made from 2D nanopyramidal arrays. A library of plasmon resonances is constructed in the form of dispersion diagrams for a series of unconventional and new composite plasmonic materials. These resonances are tuned by controlling both intrinsic factors (unit cell shape, materials type) and extrinsic factors (excitation conditions, dielectric environment). Finally, plasmonic crystals with reduced lattice symmetries are fabricated as another means to tailor resonances for broadband coupling. [source]

    A Direct, Multiplex Biosensor Platform for Pathogen Detection Based on Cross-linked Polydiacetylene (PDA) Supramolecules

    Cheol Hee Park
    Abstract This study focuses on the development of a multiplex pathogen-detection platform based on polydiacetylene (PDA) using a novel immobilization procedure. PDA liposome-based solid sensors have a critical drawback as the PDA liposomes are not stably immobilized onto the solid substrate. Therefore, to overcome this problem, an interlinker, ethylenediamine, is introduced, which acts as a cross-linker between individual PDA liposomes. The quantity of ethylenediamine added was optimized to 1,mM, as measured by the fluorescence signal emitted by the stably immobilized PDA liposomes, a concentration at which the fluorescence signal is 10 times higher than for the resulting PDA chips made without the interlinker. This procedure is used to manufacture PDA liposome-based multiplex biosensor arrays for well-known water and food-borne pathogens. The fabricated biosensor was able to perform the simultaneous and quantitative detection of 6 species of pathogens. As such, the results demonstrated from this research can be exploited for the development of more advanced PDA-based biosensors and diagnostics. [source]

    ,-diversity fluctuations in Early,Mid Ordovician brachiopod communities of South China

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2006
    R.-B. Zhan
    Abstract Lower to Middle Ordovician transitional strata (Acrograptus filiformis Biozone to Exigraptus clavus Biozone) of the Upper Yangtze Platform contain rich and diverse brachiopods, particularly in the Daguanshan Formation of Sichuan Province, the Meitan Formation of Guizhou Province, and the Yingpan Formation of Houping, Chongqing City. On the basis of multivariate analyses of 207 samples (about 15,000 brachiopod specimens) and 61 species from these strata, 23 brachiopod-dominated communities and associations are delineated through six graptolitic biozones (Acrograptus filiformis to Exigraptus clavus biozones). The disparity of brachiopod associations or ,-diversity, as measured by the number of contemporaneous associations across variable ecological settings, was low in the A. filiformis Biozone and increased through the overlying graptolitic biozones to reach an acme in the Azygograptus suecisus and Expansograptus hirundo biozones, where as many as nine different brachiopod associations thrived in mid-shelf and also established in inner- and outer-shelf environments. Despite a sharp increase in ,-diversity within the Didymograptellus eobifidus Biozone, ,-diversity remained relatively low, with only three distinct brachiopod communities. The diversity of brachiopod associations suffered an abrupt drop in the E. clavus Biozone, as a result of a major faunal turnover event, with only a single Metorthis Community present in an upper mid-shelf setting. Temporally, brachiopod associations appear to be most stable in mid-shelf settings, with the Paralenorthis, Sinorthis, Desmorthis, and Euorthisina communities having a relatively high ,-diversity and lasting through two to five graptolitic biozones. In both species composition and temporal duration, the brachiopod associations at the shallow- (BA1 to upper BA2) and deep-shelf (BA4) settings are unstable, characterized by low ,-diversity and rapid vertical changes. This study implies that, during the Early and Mid Ordovician, brachiopod communities already attained a high level of organization in mid-shelf settings, but remained poorly established in high-stress environments of very shallow or very deep shelf settings. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The syn-collisional Danac,obas, biotite leucogranite derived from the crustal thickening in central Anatolia (K,r,kkale), Turkey

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
    bel Tatar
    Abstract The Behrekda, composite batholith, which crops out as a huge N,S-trending plutonic body in central Anatolia, Turkey, consists of five mappable granitoid units of Late Cretaceous age. They are (1) the S-type, peraluminous Danac,obas, biotite leucogranite, (2) the I-type, hybrid, metaluminous Konur K-feldspar megacrystic quartz monzonite, (3) the mafic A-type, alkaline Kizdede monzogabbro, (4) the felsic A-type, alkaline Hasandede quartz syenite/monzonite, and (5) the M-type, low-K tholeiitic Yeniky tonalite. The S-type Danac,obas, biotite leucogranite constitutes the oldest intrusive unit in the mapped area. It has coarse- to medium-crystalline texture and consists of quartz, orthoclase and plagioclase, with variable amounts of biotite and accessory minerals, including apatite, zircon and opaque phases. K-Ar age dating of biotite separates, yields cooling ages of 69.1,,1.42 and 71.5,,1.45,Ma for the Danac,obas, biotite leucogranite. Major-element, trace-element, and rare-earth element geochemical data suggest an exclusively peraluminous, S-type, high-K calc-alkaline, upper crustal genesis for the Danac,obas, biotite leucogranite. This petrogenetic interpretation is also supported by oxygen-isotope data from quartz separates, with a mean value of 10.58,,0.11 , of ,18OVSMOW value. The magma source of the Danac,obas, biotite leucogranite is proposed to have been a syn-collisional leucogranitic melt derived by anatexis of high-grade metasediments of the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex during peak conditions of regional metamorphism. This metamorphic event was induced by crustal thickening which was a result of Late Cretaceous collision between the Eurasia and Tauride,Anatolide Platform along the ,zmir,Ankara,Erzincan Suture Zone in central Anatolia. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Lower Carboniferous peritidal carbonates and associated evaporites adjacent to the Leinster Massif, southeast Irish Midlands

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2 2005
    Zsolt R. Nagy
    Abstract Analysis of a 275,m-thick section in the Milford Borehole, GSI-91-25, from County Carlow, Ireland, has revealed an unusual sequence of shallow subtidal, peritidal and sabkha facies in rocks of mid?-late Chadian to late Holkerian (Visan, Lower Carboniferous) age. Sedimentation occurred on an inner ramp setting, adjacent to the Leinster Massif. The lower part of the sequence (late Chadian age) above the basal subtidal bioclastic unit is dominated by oolite sand facies associations. These include a lower regressive dolomitized, oolitic peloidal mobile shoal, and an upper, probably transgressive, backshoal oolite sand. A 68,m-thick, well-developed peritidal sequence is present between the oolitic intervals. These rocks consist of alternating stromatolitic fenestral mudstone, dolomite and organic shale, with evaporite pseudomorphs and subaerial exposure horizons containing pedogenic features. In the succeeding Arundian,Holkerian strata, transgressive,regressive carbonate units are recognized. These comprise high-energy, backshoal subtidal cycles of argillaceous skeletal packstones, bioclastic grainstones with minor oolites and algal wackestones to grainstones and infrequent algal stromatolite horizons. The study recognizes for the first time the peritidal and sabkha deposits in Chadian rocks adjacent to the Leinster Massif in the eastern Irish Midlands. These strata appear to be coeval with similar evaporite-bearing rocks in County Wexford that are developed on the southern margin of this landmass, and similar depositional facies exist further to the east in the South Wales Platform, south of St. George's Land, and in Belgium, south of the Brabant Massif. The presence of evaporites in the peritidal facies suggests that dense brines may have formed adjacent to the Leinster Massif. These fluids may have been involved in regional dolomitization of Chadian and possibly underlying Courceyan strata. They may also have been a source of high salinity fluids associated with nearby base-metal sulphide deposits. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Palaeomagnetic evidence for the Gondwanian origin of the Taurides and rotation of the Isparta Angle, southern Turkey

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 4 2002
    John D. A. Piper
    Abstract The Taurides, the southernmost of the three major tectonic domains that constitute present-day Turkey, were emplaced following consumption of the Tethyan Ocean in Late Mesozoic to mid-Tertiary times. They are generally assigned an origin at the northern perimeter of Gondwana. To refine palaeogeographic control we have investigated the palaeomagnetism of a range of Jurassic rocks. Forty-nine samples of Upper Jurassic limestones preserve a dual polarity remanence (D/I=303/,9, ,95=6) interpreted as a primary magnetization acquired close to the equator and rotated during emplacement of the Taurides. Result from mid-Jurassic dolerites confirm a low palaeolatitude for the Tauride Platform during Jurassic times at the Afro,Arabian sector of Gondwana. Approximately 4000,km of Tethyan closure subsequently occurred between Late Jurassic and Eocene times. Although related Upper Jurassic limestones and Liassic redbeds preserve a sporadic record of similar remanence, the dominant signature in these latter rocks is an overprint of probable mid-Miocene age, probably acquired during a single polarity chron and imparted by migration of a fluid front during nappe loading. This is now rotated consistently anticlockwise by c. 30 and conforms to results of previous studies recording bulk Neogene rotation of the Isparta region following Lycian nappe emplacement. The regional distribution of this overprint implies that the Isparta Angle (IA) has been subject to only small additional closure (<10) since Late Miocene time. A smaller amount (c. 6) of clockwise rotation within the IA since Early Pliocene times is associated with an ongoing extensional regime and reflects an expanding curvature of the Tauride arc produced by southwestward extrusion of the Anatolian collage as a result of continuing northward motion of Afro,Arabia. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Functionalized, Swellable Hydrogel Layers as a Platform for Cell Studies

    Nria Mar-Buy
    Abstract This paper reports the design, synthesis and characterization of thin films as a platform for studying the separate influences of physical and chemical cues of a matrix on the adhesion, growth and final phenotype of cells. Independent control of the physical and chemical properties of functionalized, swellable hydrogel thin films is achieved using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). The systematic variation in crosslink density is demonstrated to control the swelling ability of the iCVD hydrogel films based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). At the same time, the incorporation of controllable concentrations of the active ester pentafluorophenyl methacrylate (PFM) allows easy immobilization of aminated bioactive motifs, such as bioactive peptides. Initial cell culture results with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) indicate that the strategy of using PFM to immobilize a cell-adhesion peptide motif onto the hydrogel layers promotes proper HUVEC growth and enhances their phenotype. [source]

    Microfluidics: Surface-Treatment-Induced Three-Dimensional Capillary Morphogenesis in a Microfluidic Platform (Adv. Mater.

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 47 2009
    The cover shows confocal images of 3D sprouting into matrix material in microfluidic channels. Roger Kamm and co-workers report on p. 4863 that robust induction of realistic angiogenesis into the 3D matrix material under simultaneous imaging and a stably controlled concentration gradient of chemoattractants can be achieved. The formation of a 3D vascular network is demonstrated to be a direct consequence of surface treatment of the region of the device-containing matrix material. [source]

    Surface-Treatment-Induced Three-Dimensional Capillary Morphogenesis in a Microfluidic Platform

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 47 2009
    Seok Chung
    Robust induction of realistic angiogenesis into a 3D matrix material under simultaneous imaging and a stably controlled concentration gradient of chemoattractants is presented. The formation of a 3D vascular network is demonstrated to be a direct consequence of surface treatment of the region of the device-containing matrix material. [source]

    Nerve Repair: A Conducting-Polymer Platform with Biodegradable Fibers for Stimulation and Guidance of Axonal Growth (Adv. Mater.

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 43 2009
    Effective functional innervation of medical bionic devices, as well as re-innervation of target tissue in nerve and spinal cord injuries, requires a platform that can stimulate and orientate neural growth. Gordon Wallace and co-workers report on p. 4393 that conducting and nonconducting biodegradable polymers show excellent potential as suitable hybrid substrata for neural regeneration and may form the basis of electrically active conduits designed to accelerate nerve repair. [source]

    A Conducting-Polymer Platform with Biodegradable Fibers for Stimulation and Guidance of Axonal Growth

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 43 2009
    Anita F. Quigley
    A biosynthetic platform composed of a conducting polypyrrole sheet embedded with unidirectional biodegradable polymer fibers is described (see image; scale bar,=,50 m). Such hybrid systems can promote rapid directional nerve growth for neuro-regenerative scaffolds and act as interfaces between the electronic circuitry of medical bionic devices and the nervous system. [source]

    One Prudential Exchange,The Insurance Giant's Business Literacy and Alignment Platform

    Richard McKnight
    This article describes how Prudential,in a dramatically changed marketplace,engaged its 55,000 employees as partners in transforming the company's many disparate businesses into one integrated company. Using a combination of large-and small-scale meetings, follow-up actions at the work unit level, and sophisticated performance enhancement processes, OPX (One Prudential Exchange) is helping transform Prudential from a staid insurance company to a modern financial services powerhouse. OPX has introduced the One Prudential vision to the company's 55,000 employees in nearly 300 large-scale meetings in 12 cities, and has institutionalized problem resolution and breakthrough dialogue processes in over 3,500 follow-up work unit meetings. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    SERS-Coded Gold Nanorods as a Multifunctional Platform for Densely Multiplexed Near-Infrared Imaging and Photothermal Heating

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 31 2009
    Geoffrey von Maltzahn
    Screening nanorods coated with a mixture of SERS active molecules and biocompatible polymer identifies three formulations that may be uniquely distinguished in vivo over a spectral bandwidth of only 6,nm in the near-infrared (a spectral multiplexing density over an order of magnitude greater than attainable with semiconductor quantum dots, organic fluorochromes, and Raleigh scattering nanoparticle imaging approaches), while providing intense photothermal heating for cancer therapy. [source]

    xBCI: A Generic Platform for Development of an Online BCI System

    I Putu Susila Non-member
    Abstract A generic platform for realizing an online brain,computer interface (BCI) named xBCI was developed. The platform consists of several functional modules (components), such as data acquisition, storage, mathematical operations, signal processing, network communication, data visualization, experiment control, and real-time feedback presentation. Users can easily build their own BCI systems by combining the components on a graphical-user-interface (GUI) based diagram editor. They can also extend the platform by adding components as plug-ins or by creating components using a scripting language. The platform works on multiple operating systems and supports parallel (multi-threaded) data processing and data transfer to other PCs through a network transmission control protocol/internet protocol or user datagram protocol (TCP/IP or UDP). A BCI system based on motor imagery and a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based BCI system were constructed and tested on the platform. The results show that the platform is able to process multichannel brain signals in real time. The platform provides users with an easy-to-use system development tool and reduces the time needed to develop a BCI system. Copyright 2010 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Ultrathin Te Nanowires: An Excellent Platform for Controlled Synthesis of Ultrathin Platinum and Palladium Nanowires/Nanotubes with Very High Aspect Ratio

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 18 2009
    Hai-Wei Liang
    Uniform ultrathin Pt nanotubes, Pt and Pd nanowires with diameters of only several nanometers and a very-high aspect ratio of ,10,000 can be fabricated using ultrathin Te nanowires as both reducing agent and sacrificial template in ethylene glycol. The valences of metal precursors have a crucial effect on the morphology of the nanostructures. [source]

    ESDP as a Transatlantic Issue: Problems of Mutual Ambiguity,

    Ingo Peters
    European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) has become a contentious subject in transatlantic security relations. This essay identifies the ambiguities that have occurred in the policymaking on both sides of the Atlantic that appear to have generated a basic lack of confidence and trust in the other side's good intentions and commitment to cooperation. It does so by sketching three historical time periods,1981,1986, 1988,1996, and 1998,2004,that convey the recurrent patterns and outcomes in the ESDP dispute. These three cases cover the periods (1) from the London Report on European Political Cooperation to the Single European Act and the Western European Union Security Platform, (2) the Maastricht Negotiations on a Common Foreign and Security Policy, and (3) the evolution of ESDP from St. Malo to Brussels. [source]

    Autonomous straightening and traversing of shipboard helicopters

    A. R. Feldman
    This paper describes an investigation into autonomous shipboard helicopter maneuvering and traversing operations using the Aircraft/Ship Integrated Secure and Traverse (ASIST) recovery and handling system developed by Indal Technologies, Inc. The ASIST system continuously monitors the aircraft's position and orientation and provides a means of actuation to maneuver the helicopter on deck. This allows the possibility for completely autonomous aircraft securing, maneuvering, and traversing capability. An autonomous maneuvering algorithm offers the potential for automatically selecting the optimal maneuvering sequence and executing it with greater efficiency and reliability than can be achieved by a human operator. The proposed method takes advantage of the position and orientation of the helicopter measured by the existing Helicopter Position Sensing Equipment thereby not requiring additional sensors on the actual helicopter. The paper presents the development and validation of the autonomous straightening and traversing algorithms using a nonlinear on-deck helicopter maneuvering simulation and the Carleton Experimental Shipboard Helicopter Interface Platform. [source]

    Toward an Implantable Wireless Cardiac Monitoring Platform Integrated with an FDA-Approved Cardiovascular Stent

    ERIC Y. CHOW Ph.D.
    Continuous monitoring of blood pressure from a minimally invasive device in the pulmonary artery can serve as a diagnostic and early warning system for cardiac health. The foremost challenge in such a device is the wireless transfer of data and power from within the blood vessel to an external device while maintaining unrestricted flow through the artery. We present a miniaturized system, which is attached to the outer surface of a regular or drug-eluting FDA-approved stent. When expanded, the stent maintains a patent vessel lumen while allowing contact between the electronic sensors and the blood supply. The stent-based antenna can be used for both wireless telemetry and power transfer for the implanted electronics. Using the stent platform as both a radiating antenna and a structural support allows us to take advantage of an FDA-approved device whose safety and surgical procedure are well established. The electronics package has been reduced to an area of less than 1 mm2, with a thickness under 300 ,m. A minimally invasive implantation procedure allows the delivery of the stent-based implant in nearly any major vessel of the body. This article describes an initial prototype with two stents configured as a single dipole, a 2.4-GHz transmitter microchip, and a battery, and validates transcutaneous transmission through ex vivo and in vivo porcine studies. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a stent-based wireless platform for continuous monitoring of blood pressure. [source]


    J.H. Van Koeverden
    In this study, we assess the oil generation potential of Lower Carboniferous, liptinite-rich coals in the Tettegras Formation on the Finnmark Platform, southern Norwegian Barents Sea. Oil from these coals has been expelled into intercalated sandstones. The coals may have contributed to petroleum recorded in well 7128/4,1 on the Finnmark Platform and may constitute a new Palaeozoic source rock in the Barents Sea. The Tettegras Formation coals contain up to 80 vol.% liptinite (mineral matter free base) and have low oxygen indices. Hydrogen indices up to 367 mg HC/g TOC indicate liquid hydrocarbon potential. In wells 7128/4,1 and 7128/6,1, the coals have vitrinite reflectance Ro= 0.75,0.85 %. Compared to shale and carbonate source rocks, expulsion from coal in general begins at higher maturities (Ro= 0.8,0.9% and Tmax= 444,453C). Thus, the coals in the wells are mostly immature with regard to oil expulsion. The oil in well 7128/4,1 most likely originates from a more mature part of the Tettegras Formation in the deeper northern part of the Finnmark Platform. Wide variations in biomarker facies parameters and ,13C isotope values indicate a heterogeneous paralic depositional setting. The preferential retention by coal strata of naphthenes (e.g. terpanes and steranes) and aromatic compounds, compared to n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids, results in a terrigenous and waxy oil. This oil however contains marine biomarkers derived from the intercalated shales and siltstones. It is therefore important to consider the entire coal-bearing sequence, including the intercalated shales, in terms of source rock potential. Coals of similar age occur on Svalbard and Bjrnya. The results of this study therefore suggest that a Lower Carboniferous coaly source rock may extend over large areas of the Norwegian Barents Sea. This source rock is mature in areas where the otherwise prolific Upper Jurassic marine shales are either immature or missing and may constitute a new Palaeozoic coal-sourced petroleum system in the Barents Sea. [source]


    I. H. Demirel
    The burial history and source-rock potential of Cretaceous carbonates in the Adiyaman region of SE Turkey have been investigated. The carbonates belong to the Aptian-Campanian Mardin Group and the overlying Karabogaz Formation. The stratigraphy of these carbonates at four well locations was recorded. At each well, the carbonate succession was found to be incomplete, and important unconformities were present indicating periods of non-deposition and/or erosion. These unconformities are of variable extent. When combined with the effects of rapid subsidence and sedimentation which took place in the SW of the Adiyaman region during end-Cretaceous foredeep development, they have resulted in variations in the carbonates' present-day burial depths, thereby influencing the regional pattern of source-rock maturation and the timing of oil generation. Burial history curves indicate that the carbonates' maturity increases from SW to NE, towards the Late Cretaceous thrust belt. Predicted levels of maturity for the Mardin Group are consistent with measured geochemical data from three of the wells in the study area (the exception being well Karadag-1). Three potential source-rock intervals of Cretaceous age have been identified. Two of these units , the Derdere and Karababa Formations of the Mardin Group , are composed of shallow-water carbonates which were deposited on the northern margin of the Arabian Platform. The third source-rock unit, the overlying Karabogaz Formation, is composed of pelagic carbonates which were deposited during a regional transgression. These potential source-rock intervals contain marine organic matter dominated by Type II kerogen. Total organic carbon contents range from 0.5 to 2.9 %. Time-temperature analyses indicate that the Mardin Group carbonates are immature to marginally mature at well locations in the SW of the study area, and are mature at western and NE well locations. The onset of oil generation in these Cretaceous source rocks took place between the middle Eocene (48 million yrs ago) and the Oligocene (28 million yrs ago). [source]

    Late Devensian and Holocene relative sea-level changes on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, UK,

    Katherine A. Selby
    Abstract Detailed litho- and biostratigraphical analyses from three coastal sites in contrasting coastal settings on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, UK, reveal evidence for several changes in relative sea level during the Late Devensian and Holocene. At the start of the record, relative sea level in the area was high at ca. 12,500 14C (ca. 14,800,cal.) yr,BP but then fell, reaching a low point during the Younger Dryas, at ca. 11,000,10,000 14C (ca. 13,000,11,600,cal.) yr,BP, when a rock platform, correlated with the Main Rock Platform, was formed. In the early,middle Holocene, relative sea level was rising by ca. 8000 14C (ca. 8800,cal.) yr,BP and in northeast Skye a lagoonal surface, correlated with the Main Postglacial Shoreline, was formed at ca. 6600 14C (ca. 7500,cal.) yr,BP. By the late Holocene, relative sea level was again falling, but a rise, registered at at least two sites, began probably before ca. 4000 14C (ca. 4500,cal.) yr,BP, and a second lagoonal surface in northeast Skye, correlated with the Blairdrummond Shoreline, was formed, although by ca. 3000 14C (ca. 3200,cal.) yr,BP relative sea level in the area had resumed its downward trend. The pattern of relative sea-level changes disclosed is compared with evidence elsewhere in Scotland. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]