Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Plasticity

  • activity-dependent synaptic plasticity
  • adaptive phenotypic plasticity
  • adaptive plasticity
  • behavioral plasticity
  • behavioural plasticity
  • brain plasticity
  • bulk plasticity
  • cell plasticity
  • cerebral plasticity
  • conformational plasticity
  • cortical plasticity
  • cyclic plasticity
  • developmental plasticity
  • dietary plasticity
  • ecological plasticity
  • finite strain plasticity
  • functional plasticity
  • genome plasticity
  • greater plasticity
  • growth plasticity
  • hippocampal plasticity
  • hippocampal synaptic plasticity
  • history plasticity
  • homeostatic plasticity
  • intrinsic plasticity
  • large strain plasticity
  • life history plasticity
  • long-term plasticity
  • long-term synaptic plasticity
  • morphological plasticity
  • neural plasticity
  • neuronal plasticity
  • phenotypic plasticity
  • physiological plasticity
  • short-term plasticity
  • stem cell plasticity
  • strain plasticity
  • structural plasticity
  • surface plasticity
  • synaptic plasticity

  • Terms modified by Plasticity

  • plasticity mechanism
  • plasticity model
  • plasticity models
  • plasticity theory

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2009
    J. Matthew Hoch
    Acorn barnacles are important model organisms for the study of sex allocation. They are sessile, nonselfing hermaphrodites that copulate with penises that have been suggested to be phenotypically plastic. On wave-exposed shores, Semibalanus balanoides develop penises with relatively greater diameter whereas in wave-protected sites they are thinner. A reciprocal transplant experiment between wave-exposed and protected sites tested whether these exposure-specific morphologies have adaptive value. Mating success was compared over a range of distances to compare the ability of barnacles to reach mates. Barnacles that grew in the wave-protected site and mated in the wave-protected site fertilized more broods at increasing distances than those transplanted to the wave-exposed site. For barnacles that developed in the wave-exposed site, there was no difference in the ability to fertilize neighbors between sites of differing exposure. This study demonstrates the adaptive value of plasticity in penis morphology. The results suggest a trade-off between development of a penis adapted to wave exposure and the ability to fertilize distant mates. Barnacles in different physical environments are limited by different factors, which may limit numbers of potential mates, constrain optimal sex allocation strategies and alter reproductive behavior. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2009
    Martin I. Lind
    Costs and limits are assumed to be the major constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. However, despite their expected importance, they have been surprisingly hard to find in natural populations. It has therefore been argued that natural selection might have removed high-cost genotypes in all populations. However, if costs of plasticity are linked to the degree of plasticity expressed, then high costs of plasticity would only be present in populations where increased plasticity is under selection. We tested this hypothesis by investigating costs and limits of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in development time in a common garden study of island populations of the common frog Rana temporaria, which have varying levels of development time and phenotypic plasticity. Costs of plasticity were only found in populations with high-plastic genotypes, whereas the populations with the most canalized genotypes instead had a cost of canalization. Moreover, individuals displaying the most extreme phenotypes also were the most plastic ones, which mean we found no limits of plasticity. This suggests that costs of plasticity increase with increased level of plasticity in the populations, and therefore costs of plasticity might be more commonly found in high-plastic populations. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2009
    Andrew R. Whiteley
    Anthropogenic-induced change is forcing organisms to shift their distributions and colonize novel habitats at an increasing rate, which leads to complex interactions among evolutionary processes. Coastrange sculpin (Cottus aleuticus) have colonized recently deglaciated streams of Glacier Bay in Alaska within the last 220 years. We examined divergence among populations in background matching coloration and tested the hypothesis that observed variation is due to morphological color plasticity. To examine how color-change plasticity has interacted with other evolutionary processes, we also determined the influence of colonization on neutral genetic diversity. We observed clinal variation in substrate-matching fish color along the chronological continuum of streams. Microsatellites provided little evidence of genetic subdivision among sculpin populations. Fish color was significantly correlated to substrate color, but was not correlated to neutral population genetic structure. Furthermore, a laboratory experiment revealed that morphological color plasticity could explain much, but not all, of the observed fish color divergence. Our study demonstrates that sculpin in Glacier Bay have colonized and adapted to recently deglaciated habitat and suggests that color change plasticity has aided in this process. This research, therefore, highlights the important role phenotypic plasticity may play in the adaptation of species to rapid climate change. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2008
    Charlie K. Cornwallis
    Reproductive success is determined by a complex interplay between multiple sexual traits that promote mate acquisition and, following copulation, provide control over paternity. The intensity of sexual competition that individuals experience often fluctuates, and here we investigate how this influences the expression of reproductive traits and their relationships. We show in the fowl, Gallus gallus, that males of different social status, which experience different intensities of sexual competition, before and after copulation, have different reproductive phenotypes. Dominant males are more vigilant, feed less, and have larger sexual ornaments than subordinate males. Experimentally manipulating social status revealed that these differences were phenotypically plastic, indicating multiple sexual traits were dependent on the social environment. We integrated these data with previous published findings on changes in sperm numbers and velocity to show that relationships between traits were different for males when they were dominant and when they were subordinate. Furthermore, when males switched status a complex array of negative and positive correlations between the degree traits changed was observed. Our results suggest that variation in the intensity of sexual competition generates reversible plasticity in reproductive phenotypes and that relationships between sexual traits may be variable and influence the evolution of reproductive strategies. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2008
    Marcel E. Dorken
    Separate sexes can evolve under nuclear inheritance when unisexuals have more than twice the reproductive fitness of hermaphrodites through one sex function (e.g., when females have more than twice the seed fertility of hermaphrodites). Because separate sexes are thought to evolve most commonly via a gynodioecious intermediate (i.e., populations in which females and hermaphrodites cooccur), the conditions under which females can become established in populations of hermaphrodites are of considerable interest. It has been proposed that resource-poor conditions could promote the establishment of females if hermaphrodites are plastic in their sex allocation and allocate fewer resources to seed production under these conditions. If this occurs, the seed fertility of females could exceed the doubling required for the evolution of unisexuality under low-, but not high-resource conditions (the sex-differential plasticity hypothesis). We tested this hypothesis using replicate experimental arrays of the aquatic herb Sagittaria latifolia grown under two fertilizer treatments. The results supported the sex-differential plasticity hypothesis, with females having more than twice the seed fertility of hermaphrodites under low-, but not high-fertilizer conditions. Our findings are consistent with the idea that separate sexes are more likely to evolve under unfavorable conditions. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2007
    Wade E. Winterhalter
    Phenotypic plasticity describes an organism's ability to produce multiple phenotypes in direct response to its environmental conditions. Over the past 15 years empiricists have found that this plasticity frequently exhibits geographic variation and often possesses a significant heritable genetic basis. However, few studies have examined both of these aspects of plasticity simultaneously. Here, we examined both the geographic and genetic variations of the plasticity for diapause incidence (the proportion of eggs that enter an arrested state of development capable of surviving over the winter) relative to temperatures and photoperiods associated with long and short season environments across six populations of the striped ground cricket, Allonemobius socius, using a half-sibling split brood quantitative genetic design. We found that plasticity, as measured by the slope of the reaction norm, was greater in the southern-low altitude region (where populations are bivoltine) relative to the southern-high and northern-low altitude regions (where populations are univoltine). However, the heritability of plasticity was only significantly different from zero in univoltine populations that experienced "intermediate" natal season lengths. These patterns suggest that selection may favor the plasticity of diapause incidence in bivoltine regions, but act against plasticity in regions in which populations are univoltine. Furthermore, our data suggest that under "intermediate" natal season length conditions, the interplay between local adaptation and gene flow may keep the plasticity of diapause incidence low (but still significant) while maintaining its genetic variation. As such, this study not only provides a novel observation into the geographic variation of phenotypic plasticity, but also provides much needed groundwork for tests of its adaptive significance. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2006
    Robert H. Kaplan
    Abstract Variation in fitness generated by differences in functional performance can often be traced to morphological variation among individuals within natural populations. However, morphological variation itself is strongly influenced by environmental factors (e.g., temperature) and maternal effects (e.g., variation in egg size). Understanding the full ecological context of individual variation and natural selection therefore requires an integrated view of how the interaction between the environment and development structures differences in morphology, performance, and fitness. Here we use naturally occurring environmental and maternal variation in the frog Bombina orientalis in South Korea to show that ovum size, average temperature, and variance in temperature during the early developmental period affect body sizes, shapes, locomotor performance, and ultimately the probability of an individual surviving interspecific predation in predictable but nonadditive ways. Specifically, environmental variability can significantly change the relationship between maternal investment in offspring and offspring fitness so that increased maternal investment can actually negatively affect offspring over a broad range of environments. Integrating environmental variation and developmental processes into traditional approaches of studying phenotypic variation and natural selection is likely to provide a more complete picture of the ecological context of evolutionary change. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2002
    Krista K. Ingram
    Abstract., In many polygynous social insect societies, ecological factors such as habitat saturation promote high queen numbers by increasing the cost of solitary breeding. If polygyny is associated with constrained environments, queen number in colonies of invasive social insects should increase as saturation of their new habitat increases. Here I describe the variation in queen number, nestmate relatedness, and nest size along a gradient of time since colonization in an invading population of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in Haleakala, Hawaii. Nest densities in this population increase with distance from the leading edge of the invasion, reaching a stable density plateau approximately 80 m from the edge (> 2 years after colonization). Although the number of queens per nest in Haleakala is generally lower than previously reported for Argentine ants, there is significant variation in queen number across this population. Both the observed and effective queen numbers increase across the density gradient, and nests in the center of the population contain queen numbers three to nine times higher than those on the edge of the invasion. The number of workers per nest is correlated with queen number, and nests in the center are six times larger than nests at the edge. Microsatellite analysis of relatedness among nestmates reveals that all nests in the Haleakala population are characterized by low relatedness and have evidence of multiple reproducing queens. Relatedness values are significantly lower in nests in the center of the population, indicating that the number of reproducing queens is greater in areas of high nest density. The variation in queen number and nestmate relatedness in this study is consistent with expectations based on changes in ecological constraints during the invasion of a new habitat, suggesting that the social structure of Argentine ant populations is strongly influenced by ecological factors. Flexibility in social structure may facilitate persistence in variable environments and may also confer significant advantages to a species when introduced into new areas. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2000
    Lisa A. Dorn
    Abstract Plants shaded by neighbors or overhead foliage experience both a reduction in the ratio of red to far red light (R:FR), a specific cue perceived by phytochrome, and reduced photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), an essential resource. We tested the adaptive value of plasticity to crowding and to the cue and resource components of foliage shade in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana by exposing 36 inbred families from four natural populations to four experimental treatments: (1) high density, full sun; (2) low density, full sun; (3) low density, neutral shade; and (4) low density, low R:FR-simulated foliage shade. Genotypic selection analysis within each treatment revealed strong environmental differences in selection on plastic life-history traits. We used specific contrasts to measure plasticity to density and foliage shade, to partition responses to foliage shade into phytochrome-mediated responses to the R:FR cue and responses to PAR, and to test whether plasticity was adaptive (i.e., in the same direction as selection in each environment). Contrary to expectation, we found no evidence for adaptive plasticity to density. However, we observed both adaptive and maladaptive responses to foliage shade. In general, phytochrome-mediated plasticity to the R:FR cue of foliage shade was adaptive and counteracted maladaptive growth responses to reduced PAR. These results support the prediction that active developmental responses to environmental cues are more likely to be adaptive than are passive resource-mediated responses. Multiple regression analysis detected a few costs of adaptive plasticity and adaptive homeostasis, but such costs were infrequent and their expression depended on the environment. Thus, costs of plasticity may occasionally constrain the evolution of adaptive responses to foliage shade in Arabidopsis, but this constraint may differ among environments and is far from ubiquitous. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2000
    Marie-France Ostrowski
    Abstract Sexual polymorphisms are model systems for analyzing the evolution of reproductive strategies. However, their plasticity and other binary traits have rarely been studied, with respect to environmental variables. A possible reason is that, although threshold models offer an adequate quantitative genetics framework for binary traits in a single environment, analyzing their plasticity requires more refined empirical and theoretical approaches. The statistical framework proposed here, based on the environmental threshold model (ETM), should partially fill this gap. This methodology is applied to an empirical dataset on a plastic sexual polymorphism, aphally, in the snail Bulinus truncatus. Aphally is characterized by the co-occurrence of regular hermaphrodites (euphallics) together with hermaphrodites deprived of the male copulatory organ (aphallics). Reaction norms were determined for 40 inbred lines, distributed at three temperatures, in a first experiment. A second experiment allowed us to rule out maternal effects. We confirmed the existence of high broad-sense heritabilities as well as a positive effect of high temperatures on aphally. However a significant genotype-by-environment interaction was detected for the first time, suggesting that sexual plasticity itself can respond to selection. A nested series of four ETM-like models was developed for estimating genetical effects on both mean aphally rate and plasticity. These models were tested using a maximum-likelihood procedure and fitted to aphally data. Although no perfect fit of models to data was observed, the refined versions of ETM models conveniently reduce the analysis of complex reaction norms of binary traits into standard quantitative genetics parameters, such as genetic values and environmental variances. [source]


    S. M. Edgar
    Several clones of Aulacoseira subarctica were isolated from Yellowstone, Lewis, and East Rosebud Lakes (Montana, Wyoming). Two to four clones from each lake were grown in batch cultures under three light intensities, 2, 11.4 and 115 ,E m,2 s,1. Clones were conditioned to their light environment for a three-week period. Inoculants from the conditioned clones taken during log phase of growth, were grown until in log phase, then samples were collected. Five randomly chosen valves for 2 replicates of each clone were examined using a scanning electron microscope and captured on film at a magnification of 20,000x. Each image was digitized and quantitative morphometric characters were measured. A preliminary quantitative genetic analysis was performed on selected characters within each light environment. Plasticity of characters within clones across the three light regimes were also examined. The amount of variability found within characters in A. subarctica will be discussed in terms of environmental, genetic, and microenvironmental sources. [source]


    Article first published online: 15 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Plasticity of the visual system after early brain damage

    The aim of this review is to discuss the existing evidence supporting different processes of visual brain plasticity after early damage, as opposed to damage that occurs during adulthood. There is initial evidence that some of the neuroplastic mechanisms adopted by the brain after early damage to the visual system are unavailable at a later stage. These are, for example, the ability to differentiate functional tissue within a larger dysplastic cortex during its formation, or to develop new thalamo-cortical connections able to bypass the lesion and reach their cortical destination in the occipital cortex. The young brain also uses the same mechanisms available at later stages of development but in a more efficient way. For example, in people with visual field defects of central origin, the anatomical expansion of the extrastriatal visual network is greater after an early lesion than after a later one, which results in more efficient mechanisms of visual exploration of the blind field. A similar mechanism is likely to support some of the differences found in people with blindsight, the phenomenon of unconscious visual perception in the blind field. In particular, compared with people with late lesions, those with early brain damage appear to have stronger subjective awareness of stimuli hitting the blind visual field, reported as a conscious feeling that something is present in the visual field. Expanding our knowledge of these mechanisms could help the development of early therapeutic interventions aimed at supporting and enhancing visual reorganization at a time of greatest potential brain plasticity. [source]

    Plasticity of ability to form cross-modal representations in infant Japanese macaques

    Ikuma Adachi
    In a previous study, Adachi, Kuwahata, Fujita, Tomonaga & Matsuzawa demonstrated that infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) form cross-modal representations of conspecifics but not of humans. However, because the subjects in the experiment were raised in a large social group and had considerably less exposure to humans than to conspecifics, it was an open question whether their lack of cross-modal representation of humans simply reflected their lower levels of exposure to humans or was caused by some innate restrictions on the ability. To answer the question, we used the same procedure but tested infant Japanese macaques with more extensive experience of humans in daily life. Briefly, we presented monkeys with a photograph of either a monkey or a human face on an LCD monitor after playing a vocalization of one of these two species. The subjects looked at the monitor longer when a voice and a face were mismatched than when they were matched, irrespective of whether the preceding vocalization was a monkey's or a human's. This suggests that once monkeys have extensive experience with humans, they will form a cross-modal representation of humans as well as of conspecifics. [source]

    Comparative growth in the postnatal skull of the extant North American turtle Pseudemys texana (Testudinoidea: Emydidae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2008
    Gabe S. Bever
    Abstract Bever, G.S. 2007. Comparative growth in the postnatal skull of the extant North American turtle Pseudemys texana (Testudinoidea: Emydidae). ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 88: 000,000 Postnatal growth is one of the many aspects of developmental morphology that remains distinctly understudied in reptiles. Variation and ontogenetic scaling within the skull of the extant emydid turtle, Pseudemys texana is described based on 25 continuous characters. Results indicate that skull shape in this species changes little during postnatal growth relative to the only cryptodire taxa for which comparable datasets are available (Apalone ferox and Sternotherus odoratus). This relative lack of change results in the paedomorphic retention of a largely juvenile appearance in the adult form of P. texana. The skulls of males and females, despite the presence of distinct sexual dimorphism in size, grow with similar scaling patterns, and the few observed differences appear to reflect alteration of the male growth trajectory. Comparisons with A. ferox and S. odoratus reveal a number of similarities and differences that are here interpreted within a phylogenetic context. These preliminary hypotheses constitute predictive statements that phylogenetically bracket the majority of extant cryptodire species and provide baseline comparative data that are necessary for the future recognition of apomorphic transformations. Plasticity of ontogenetic scaling as a response to the homeostatic needs and behaviour of individuals commonly is evoked as a limitation of ontogenetic scaling as a means to inform phylogenetic studies. These evocations are largely unfounded considering that variability itself can evolve and thus be phylogenetically informative. [source]

    Expanding field of purinergic signaling

    Geoffrey Burnstock
    Abstract This article attempts to paint a broad picture of the extraordinary explosive recent developments in the purinergic signaling field. After a brief historical review and update of purinoceptor subtypes, the focus is on the physiological roles of purines and pyrimidines. These are considered both in terms of short-term signaling in neurotransmission, secretion, and vasodilatation and in long-term (trophic) signaling in development, regeneration, proliferation, and cell death. Examples of trophic signaling include cartilage development in limb buds, glial cell proliferation, development of skeletal muscle, changes in receptor expression in smooth-muscle phenotypes, maturation of testicular spermatids, and bone remodeling. Plasticity of purinoceptor expression in pathological conditions is described, including the increase in the purinergic component of parasympathetic nervous control of the human bladder in interstitial cystitis and outflow obstruction and in sympathetic cotransmitter control of blood vessels in hypertensive rats, the appearance of P2X7 receptors in the glomeruli of the kidney from diabetic and transgenic hypertensive animal models, and up-regulation of P2X1 and P2Y2 receptor mRNA in hearts of rats with congestive heart failure. The role of P2X3 receptors in nociception is considered, and a new hypothesis about purinergic mechanosensory transduction in the gut is explored. A personal view of some of the areas ripe for future development concludes this article, including a discussion of different strategies that could lead to the development of purinergic therapeutic agents. Drug Dev. Res. 52:1,10, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Invasive aliens and sampling bias

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 4 2003
    Andrew M. Simons
    Abstract Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observation of increased vigour of invasive alien plants in their nonindigenous ranges: phenotypic plasticity, and the post-invasion evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA). Here I specify how a general pattern of increased vigour may result from sampling bias. Ignoring failed invasions can account for the illusion of increased vigour over a broad range of assumptions. Plasticity and EICA need not be viewed as explanations for a general pattern of increased vigour even if they are the mechanisms underlying every occurrence. [source]

    Display Plasticity in Response to a Robotic Lizard: Signal Matching or Song Sharing in Lizards?

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 10 2006
    C. Brian Smith
    Many territorial songbirds alter the structure of their songs after listening to and interacting repeatedly with the same neighbors. Here, we use a robotic lizard to test for similar learned changes in signal structure in male Sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus. Subjects were exposed to two types of headbob displays (species-typical and unusual) both in short-term tests and in repeated exposures for 10 d. We found no evidence for immediate changes in signal structure to match a particular opponent (signal matching) or long-term changes after repeated exposure (,song' sharing). If anything, the lizards' displays became less like that of the robotic stimulus over time. Further tests of other taxa are needed to identify the evolutionary forces that lead to these forms of behavioral plasticity and to determine whether song sharing and signal matching are unique characteristic of songbirds. Lizards also became more agitated and produced more highly aggressive displays of their own when confronted with headbob displays that violated the basic syntactic structure of their display system, confirming that they were paying attention to subtle differences in display structure despite the artificial nature of the treatments. Thus, our study also adds to the growing evidence supporting the use of robotic playbacks to study animal communication. [source]

    New vistas on macrophage differentiation and activation

    Alberto Mantovani Prof.
    Abstract Plasticity and heterogeneity are hallmarks of myelomonocytic differentiation and polarized activation. Evidence published in this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, together with other recent data, add new elements and perspectives to the current understanding of mononuclear phagocyte differentiation and activation and are discussed in this Commentary. See accompanying articles and [source]

    Plasticity and Grain Boundary Diffusion at Small Grain Sizes,

    Gerhard Wilde
    Bulk nanostructured,or ultrafine-grained materials are often fabricated by severe plastic deformation to break down the grain size by dislocation accumulation. Underlying the often spectacular property enhancement that forms the basis for a wide range of potential applications is a modification of the volume fraction of the grain boundaries. Yet, along with the property enhancements, several important questions arise concerning the accommodation of external stresses if dislocation-based processes are not longer dominant at small grain sizes. One question concerns so-called "non-equilibrium" grain boundaries that have been postulated to form during severe deformation and that might be of importance not only for the property enhancement known already today, but also for spectacular applications in the context of, e.g., gas permeation or fast matter transport for self-repairing structures. This contribution addresses the underlying issues by combining quantitative microstructure analysis at high resolution with grain boundary diffusion measurements. [source]

    Nanotribology , Fundamental Studies of Friction and Plasticity,

    Roland Bennewitz
    Nanotribology explores the mechanical properties of materials at small length scales, where deviations from the scaling laws of macroscopic descriptions are observed. Atomic force microscopy is introduced as an important instrument in nanotribology for imaging friction contrasts on heterogeneous surfaces, for quantitative friction studies, and for the observation of single dislocation processes in plastic deformation. Recent experimental results for the frictional properties of carbon-based materials are discussed. Friction studies using microstructured surfaces are presented as an attempt to bridge the gap between nanotribological and macroscopic friction studies. [source]

    High Strength (Ti58Ni28Cu8Si4Sn2)100,xMox Nanoeutectic Matrix,, -Ti Dendrite, BMG-Derived Composites with Enhanced Plasticity and Corrosion Resistance

    Hesham E. Khalifa
    Semi-solidly processed(Ti58Ni28Cu8Si4Sn2)100,xMox nanoeutectic matrix composites utilize a ductile dendritic , -Ti phase to achieve enhanced plasticity up to 15% total strain while maintaining fracture strengths up to 2300 MPa. The choice of Mo as the , -Ti stabilizer plays an important role in enhancing the work hardening exponent as well as the corrosion resistance in these alloys. [source]

    Fatigue Crack Propagation and History Effects Induced by Plasticity,

    Sylvie Pommier
    Abstract For security-relevant components, a fracture mechanics assessment has to be carried out. When complex loading conditions are encountered, various problems arise. Among them the prediction of history effects induced by plasticity remains a difficult task and is the object of this paper. After an overload, for instance, plasticity-induced crack closure is known to decelerate the crack growth. This effect is known to be related to residual stresses ahead of and behind the crack tip. Since residual stresses are related to the material stress,strain behavior, the overload effect may vary significantly from one material to another. Finite-element (FE) methods are commonly employed to model plasticity and were shown to give very satisfactory results. However, if millions of cycles need to be modeled to predict the fatigue behavior of an industrial component, the method becomes computationally too expensive. By employing a multiscale approach, very precise analyses computed by FE methods can be brought to a global scale. The data generated using the FE method enables the identification of a global cyclic elastic-plastic model for the crack tip region. Once this model is identified, it can be employed directly with no need of additional FE computations, resulting in fast computations. This method was employed so as to predict fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude fatigue in steels at room temperatures and correlates well with experimental data. It was also extended so as to model fatigue crack growth in a nickel base superalloy under non-isothermal fatigue-dwell conditions. At present, the method is being extended to mixed-mode variable-amplitude loading conditions. [source]

    Fatigue Design of Notched Components with Stress Gradients and Cyclic Plasticity

    Mahaman Habibou Maitournam
    This paper shows that the fatigue strength of notched specimens under cyclic loading can be simply and accurately estimated by using elastic-plastic computations and by averaging the stress over a critical volume obtained by an optimisation process, minimizing the dispersion between experiments and simulations. The Dang Van high-cycle fatigue criterion is considered. Fatigue tests (tension-compression, bending and torsion) carried out by CETIM, are used to calibrate the critical volume. [source]

    Designing Ultrahigh Strength Steels with Good Ductility by Combining Transformation Induced Plasticity and Martensite Aging

    Dierk Raabe
    We present results on precipitation hardened ductile high strength maraging-TRIP steels with up to 1.5 GPa strength and good ductility. The alloys have low carbon content (0.01 wt% C), 9,15 wt% Mn, and additions of Ni, Ti, and Mo (1,2 wt%) for precipitation. Martensite aging leads to a surprising simultaneous increase in strength and total elongation for samples with 9 wt% Mn and 12 wt% Mn. [source]

    On a Proper Account of First- and Second-Order Size Effects in Crystal Plasticity,

    Marc G. D. Geers
    This paper addresses engineering size effects in miniaturized metallic components. First, the critical role of processing induced size effects is emphasized. Next, the need for a rigorous strain gradient enrichment in crystal plasticity modelling is advocated, directly resulting from the coarse graining of discrete dislocation interactions. The physical origin of the energetic enrichment is discussed and its deterministic derivation is briefly confronted with analogous statistical mechanics results. [source]

    Conservation in Fragments, Behavioral Plasticity, and the Use of Tools in Neotropical Primates

    Martin M. Kowalewski
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Plasticity of hair follicle dermal cells in wound healing and induction

    A. Gharzi
    Abstract: The capacity of adult hair follicle dermal cells to participate in new follicle induction and regeneration, and to elicit responses from diverse epithelial partners, demonstrates a level of developmental promiscuity and influence far exceeding that of interfollicular fibroblasts. We have recently suggested that adult follicle dermal cells have extensive stem or progenitor cell activities, including an important role in skin dermal wound healing. Given that up to now tissue engineered skin equivalents have several deficiencies, including the absence of hair follicles, we investigated the capacity of follicle dermal cells to be incorporated into skin wounds; to form hair follicles in wound environments; and to create a hair follicle-derived skin equivalent. In our study, we implanted rat follicle dermal cells labelled with a vital dye into ear and body skin wounds. We found that they were incorporated into the new dermis in a manner similar to skin fibroblasts, but that lower follicle dermal sheath also assimilated into hair follicles. Using different combinations of follicle dermal cells and outer root sheath epithelial cells in punch biopsy wounds, we showed that new hair follicles were formed only with the inclusion of intact dermal papillae. Finally by combining follicle dermal sheath and outer root sheath cells in organotypic chambers, we created a skin equivalent with characteristic dermal and epidermal architecture and a normal basement membrane , the first skin to be produced entirely from hair follicle cells. These data support the hypothesis that follicle dermal cells may be important in wound healing and demonstrate their potential usefulness in human skin equivalents and skin substitutes. While we have made progress towards producing skin equivalents that contain follicles, we suggest that the failure of cultured dermal papilla cells to induce follicle formation in wounds illustrates the complex role the follicle dermis may play in skin. We believe that it demonstrates a genuine dichotomy of activity for follicle cells within skin. [source]

    Plasticity of human skeletal muscle: gene expression to in vivo function

    Stephen D. R. Harridge
    Human skeletal muscle is a highly heterogeneous tissue, able to adapt to the different challenges that may be placed upon it. When overloaded, a muscle adapts by increasing its size and strength through satellite-cell-mediated mechanisms, whereby protein synthesis is increased and new nuclei are added to maintain the myonuclear domain. This process is regulated by an array of mechanical, hormonal and nutritional signals. Growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and testosterone, are potent anabolic agents, whilst myostatin acts as a negative regulator of muscle mass. Insulin-like growth factor I is unique in being able to stimulate both the proliferation and the differentiation of satellite cells and works as part of an important local repair and adaptive mechanism. Speed of movement, as characterized by maximal velocity of shortening (Vmax), is regulated primarily by the isoform of myosin heavy chain (MHC) contained within a muscle fibre. Human fibres can express three MHCs: MHC-I, -IIa and -IIx, in order of increasing Vmax and maximal power output. Training studies suggest that there is a subtle interplay between the MHC-IIa and -IIx isoforms, with the latter being downregulated by activity and upregulated by inactivity. However, switching between the two main isoforms appears to require significant challenges to a muscle. Upregulation of fast gene programs is caused by prolonged disuse, whilst upregulation of slow gene programs appears to require significant and prolonged activity. The potential mechanisms by which alterations in muscle composition are mediated are discussed. The implications in terms of contractile function of altering muscle phenotype are discussed from the single fibre to the whole muscle level. [source]

    Plasticity in vertical behaviour of migrating juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) in relation to oceanography of the south Indian Ocean

    Abstract Electronic tagging provides unprecedented information on the habitat use and behaviour of highly migratory marine predators, but few analyses have developed quantitative links between animal behaviour and their oceanographic context. In this paper we use archival tag data from juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii, SBT) to (i) develop a novel approach characterising the oceanographic habitats used throughout an annual migration cycle on the basis of water column structure (i.e., temperature-at-depth data from tags), and (ii) model how the vertical behaviour of SBT altered in relation to habitat type and other factors. Using this approach, we identified eight habitat types occupied by juvenile SBT between the southern margin of the subtropical gyre and the northern edge of the Subantarctic Front in the south Indian Ocean. Although a high degree of variability was evident both within and between fish, mixed-effect models identified consistent behavioural responses to habitat, lunar phase, migration status and diel period. Our results indicate SBT do not act to maintain preferred depth or temperature ranges, but rather show highly plastic behaviours in response to changes in their environment. This plasticity is discussed in terms of the potential proximate causes (physiological, ecological) and with reference to the challenges posed for habitat-based standardisation of fishery data used in stock assessments. [source]