Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of PI

  • artery pi
  • different pi
  • gst pi
  • high pi
  • increased pi
  • ki-67 pi
  • lower pi
  • mean pi
  • uterine artery pi

  • Terms modified by PI

  • pi activity
  • pi concentration
  • pi control
  • pi controller
  • pi controllers
  • pi film
  • pi level
  • pi matrix
  • pi metabolism
  • pi range
  • pi score
  • pi series
  • pi value

  • Selected Abstracts

    In situ generated diphenylsiloxane-polyimide adduct-based nanocomposites

    Manisha G. Goswami
    Arylsiloxane was incorporated into polyimide (PI) via electronic interaction with polyamic acid (PAA)/PI, and a wide spectrum of properties were evaluated for different compositions. The samples prepared with relatively low concentrations (0.0001,0.1%) of oligomers showed unusual synergism, which is attributed to the generation of nanostructures dispersed in the continuous PI matrix. The incorporation of siloxane with bulky phenyl groups contributed to enhanced thermal stability as determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Water uptake and methanol absorption by these composites were evaluated and correlated with the underlying micro- and nanostructures. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to elucidate the probable reaction mechanism (including in situ polymerization of arylsilanol), and to study the synthetic aspects associated with the molecular composites and nanocomposites formation. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 45:142,152, 2005. © 2004 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Effect of the origin of ZnO nanoparticles dispersed in polyimide films on their photoluminescence and thermal stability

    Anongnat Somwangthanaroj
    Abstract Polyimide (PI) films containing dispersed ZnO nanoparticles were prepared from both zinc nitrate hexahydrate (designated as Zn(NO3)2/PI) and ZnO nanoparticles, 2-nm average primary size (ZnO/PI). This work shows how the origin of ZnO affects both the photoluminescence and thermal decomposition of the film. The presence of ZnO derived from Zn(NO3)2·6H2O was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique. The fluorescent intensities from Zn(NO3)2/PI and ZnO/PI were much higher than that from pure PI films. When the ZnO concentration exceeded a certain saturation level, the emission intensity decreased due to the undesirable aggregation of ZnO. At the same concentration, ZnO/PI exhibited higher emission intensity than Zn(NO3)2/PI. All samples prepared under nitrogen emitted higher intensity than their counterparts prepared under argon. The ZnO/PI film was thermally more stable than the Zn(NO3)2/PI one. From TEM images of 117.6 mol% ZnO/PI films, the ZnO aggregates, whose average size was 17,90 nm, were well distributed throughout the film but poorly dispersed in nanometer range. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Stress-induced responses of human skin fibroblasts in vitro reflect human longevity

    AGING CELL, Issue 5 2009
    Pim Dekker
    Summary Unlike various model organisms, cellular responses to stress have not been related to human longevity. We investigated cellular responses to stress in skin fibroblasts that were isolated from young and very old subjects, and from offspring of nonagenarian siblings and their partners, representatives of the general population. Fibroblasts were exposed to rotenone and hyperglycemia and assessed for senescence-associated ,-galactosidase (SA-,-gal) activity by flow cytometry. Apoptosis/cell death was measured with the Annexin-V/PI assay and cell-cycle analysis (Sub-G1 content) and growth potential was determined by the colony formation assay. Compared with fibroblasts from young subjects, baseline SA-,-gal activity was higher in fibroblasts from old subjects (P = 0.004) as were stress-induced increases (rotenone: P < 0.001, hyperglycemia: P = 0.027). For measures of apoptosis/cell death, fibroblasts from old subjects showed higher baseline levels (Annexin V+/PI+ cells: P = 0.040, Sub-G1: P = 0.014) and lower stress-induced increases (Sub-G1: P = 0.018) than fibroblasts from young subjects. Numbers and total size of colonies under nonstressed conditions were higher for fibroblasts from young subjects (P = 0.017 and 0.006, respectively). Baseline levels of SA-,-gal activity and apoptosis/cell death were not different between fibroblasts from offspring and partner. Stress-induced increases were lower for SA-,-gal activity (rotenone: P = 0.064, hyperglycemia: P < 0.001) and higher for apoptosis/cell death (Annexin V+/PI, cells: P = 0.041, Annexin V+/PI+ cells: P = 0.008). Numbers and total size of colonies under nonstressed conditions were higher for fibroblasts from offspring (P = 0.001 and 0.024, respectively) whereas rotenone-induced decreases were lower (P = 0.008 and 0.004, respectively). These data provide strong support for the hypothesis that in vitro cellular responses to stress reflect the propensity for human longevity. [source]

    Evaluation of Fertilizing Potential of Frozen-thawed dog Spermatozoa Diluted in ACP-106® using an In Vitro Sperm,Oocyte Interaction Assay

    RCS Cardoso
    Contents The aim of present study was to evaluate frozen canine semen with ACP-106® (Powder Coconut Water) using an in vitro sperm,oocyte interaction assay (SOIA). Ten ejaculates from five stud dogs were diluted in ACP-106® containing 20% egg yolk, submitted to cooling in a thermal box for 40 min and in a refrigerator for 30 min. After this period, a second dilution was performed using ACP-106® containing 20% egg yolk and 12% glycerol. Samples were thawed at 38°C for 1 min. Post-thaw motility was evaluated by light microscopy and by using a computer aided semen analysis (CASA). Plasma membrane integrity and sperm morphology/acrosomal status were evaluated by fluorescent probes (C-FDA/PI) and Bengal Rose respectively. Moreover, frozen-thawed semen was analysed by a SOIA. Subjective post-thaw motility was 52.0 ± 14.8% and it was significant higher than the total motility estimated by CASA (23.0 ± 14.8%) because this system considered the egg yolk debris as immotile spermatozoa. Although normal sperm rate and acrosomal integrity evaluated by Bengal Rose stain was 89.6 ± 3.1% and 94.3 ± 3.1%, respectively, post-thaw percentage of intact plasma membrane was only 35.1 ± 14.3%. Regarding SOIA, the percentage of interacted oocytes (bound, penetrated and bound and/or penetrated) was 75.3%. Using regression analysis, it was found significant relations between some CASA patterns and data for SOIA. In conclusion, the freezing-thawing procedure using ACP-106® was efficient for maintain the in vitro fertility potential of dog spermatozoa. [source]

    The Assembly and Remodeling of the Extracellular Matrix in the Growth Plate in Relationship to Mineral Deposition and Cellular Hypertrophy: An In Situ Study of Collagens II and IX and Proteoglycan,

    Fackson Mwale
    Abstract The recent development of new specific immunoassays has provided an opportunity to study the assembly and resorption of type II and IX collagens of the extracellular matrix in relationship to endochondral calcification in situ. Here, we describe how in the bovine fetal physis prehypertrophic chondrocytes deposit an extensive extracellular matrix that, initially, is rich in both type II and type IX collagens and proteoglycan (PG; principally, aggrecan). The majority of the ,1(IX)-chains lack the NC4 domain consistent with our previous studies with cultured chondrocytes. During assembly, the molar ratio of type II/COL2 domain of the ,1(IX)-chain varied from 8:1 to 25:1. An increase in the content of Ca2+ and inorganic phosphate (Pi) was initiated in the prehypertrophic zone when the NC4 domain was removed selectively from the ,1(IX)-chain. This was followed by the progressive loss of the ,1(IX) COL2 domain and type II collagen. In the hypertrophic zone, the Ca2+/Pi molar ratio ranged from 1.56 to a maximum of 1.74, closely corresponding to that of mature hydroxyapatite (1.67). The prehypertrophic zone had an average ratio Ca2+/Pi ranging from 0.25 to 1, suggesting a phase transformation. At hypertrophy, when mineral content was maximal, type II collagen was reduced maximally in content coincident with a peak of cleavage of this molecule by collagenase when matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) expression was maximal. In contrast, PG (principally aggrecan) was retained when hydroxyapatite was formed consistent with the view that this PG does not inhibit and might promote calcification in vivo. Taken together with earlier studies, these findings show that matrix remodeling after assembly is linked closely to initial changes in Ca2+ and Pi to subsequent cellular hypertrophy and mineralization. These changes involve a progressive and selective removal of types II and IX collagens with the retention of the PG aggrecan. [source]

    Laminin acts via focal adhesion kinase/phosphatidylinositol-3, kinase/protein kinase B to down-regulate ,1 -adrenergic receptor signalling in cat atrial myocytes

    Y. G. Wang
    We previously reported that short-term (2 h) plating of cat atrial myocytes on the extracellular matrix protein, laminin (LMN) decreases adenylate cyclase activity and ,1 -adrenergic receptor (,1 -AR) stimulation of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L). The present study sought to determine whether LMN-mediated down-regulation of ,1 signalling is due to down-regulation of adenylate cyclase and to gain insight into the signalling mechanisms responsible. ,1 -AR stimulation was achieved by 0.01 ,m isoproterenol (isoprenaline) plus 0.1 ,m ICI 118551, a selective ,2 -AR antagonist. Atrial myocytes were plated for at least 2 h on uncoated cover-slips (,LMN) or cover-slips coated with LMN (+LMN). As previously reported, ,1 -AR stimulation of ICa,L was significantly smaller in +LMN compared to ,LMN atrial myocytes. In ,LMN myocytes, 10 ,m LY294002 (LY), a specific inhibitor of PI-(3)K, had no effect on ,1 -AR stimulation of ICa,L. In +LMN myocytes, however, LY significantly increased ,1 -AR stimulation of ICa,L. Western blots revealed that compared with ,LMN myocytes, +LMN myocytes showed a significant increase in Akt phosphorylation at Ser-473, which was prevented by LY. In another approach, +LMN myocytes were infected (multiplicity of infection (MOI), 100; 24 h) with replication-defective adenoviruses (Adv) expressing dominant-negative inhibitors of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (Adv-FRNK or Adv-Y397F-FAK) or Akt (Adv-dnAkt). Compared with control cells infected with Adv-,-galactosidase, cells infected with Adv-FRNK, Adv-Y397F-FAK or Adv-dnAkt each exhibited a significantly greater ,1 -AR stimulation of ICa,L. In ,LMN myocytes LY had no effect on forskolin (FSK)-stimulated ICa,L. However, in +LMN myocytes LY significantly increased FSK-stimulated ICa,L. Similar results were obtained in +LMN atrial myocytes infected with Adv-FRNK. We conclude that LMN binding to ,1 -integrin receptors acts via FAK/PI-(3)K/Akt to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity and thereby down-regulates ,1 -AR-mediated stimulation of ICa,L. These findings provide new insight into the cellular mechanisms by which the extracellular matrix can modulate atrial ,-AR signalling. [source]

    Reduction of Oxidative Stress in Bovine Spermatozoa During Flow Cytometric Sorting

    P Klinc
    Contents The goal of the study was to investigate the effect of antioxidant supplementation on the quality of frozen-thawed flow cytometrically sorted bull spermatozoa. Twelve ejaculates from two Holstein Friesian bulls were sorted according to the Beltsville Sperm Sexing Technology. Each ejaculate was divided into three parts and processed as (i) unsorted controls, (ii) according to a standard sorting protocol and (iii) in the presence of different antioxidants (S-AO). Cooling and freezing of the samples were performed in the same way for all three groups, except that antioxidants were added to the TRIS-egg-yolk freezing extender for those semen samples that were already sorted in the presence of antioxidants. The semen quality in frozen-thawed samples was determined by morphology analysis immediately after thawing, motility estimation in a thermo-resistance test after 0, 6, 12 and 24 h incubation at 37°C and Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated PNA/propidium iodide (FITC-PNA/PI) staining after 0, 12 and 24 h of incubation at 37°C. There was a significantly higher (p < 0.05) percentage of motile spermatozoa in S-AO samples in comparison to unsorted frozen-thawed control at 0, 6 and 24 h after thawing and compared with normally sorted samples at all times after thawing. The percentage of damaged acrosomes was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in S-AO samples than in the unsorted controls (20.8 ± 6.9% vs 30.3 ± 12.0%). The percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa in this group was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the unsorted controls and normally sorted samples (25.8 ± 5.2%, 36.0 ± 12.5% and 35.1 ± 7.4%, respectively). Analysis of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with FITC/PI revealed no significant difference in membrane integrity at 0 and 12 h after sorting, but after 24 h of incubation the S-AO samples had a significantly higher (p < 0.001) percentage of spermatozoa with intact membranes in comparison to unsorted controls and normally sorted semen (40.7 ± 6.3%, 7.8 ± 4.7% and 7.4 ± 4.6%, respectively). The percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the S-AO samples than in the unsorted controls (14.1 ± 7.5%, 23.4 ± 5.4% and 28.8 ± 6.3% vs 25.9 ± 14.4%, 38.5 ± 16.7% and 79.8 ± 4.1%, for 0, 12 and 24 h after thawing, respectively) and in comparison to normally sorted semen 24 h after thawing (67.3 ± 10.0%). This study demonstrates the highly protective effects of antioxidants on the quality of flow cytometrically sorted frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa. [source]

    Morphological changes in mouse embryos cryopreserved by different techniques

    A.R.S. Coutinho
    Abstract Cryopreservation of mammalian embryos is an important tool for the application of reproductive biotechnologies. Subjective evaluation to determine embryo viability is often used. The determination of the best cryopreservation protocol depends on morphological and molecular analysis of cellular injuries. The main objective of this study was to compare two methods of cryopreservation by assessing morphological alterations of frozen embryos using light, fluorescence, and transmission electron microscope. Fresh (control), slow frozen, and vitrified mouse embryos were composed. To evaluate the viability of the embryos, the cell membrane integrity was assessed using Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide (H/PI) staining. Morphological analyses using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining were performed to test different techniques (in situ, paraffin, and historesin) by both light and fluorescence microscopy. Transmission electron microscope was used to detect ultrastructural alterations in Spurr- and Araldite-embedded samples. H/PI staining detected more membrane permeability in the vitrification (69.8%) than in the slow freezing (48.4%) or control (13.8%) groups (P < 0.001). Historesin-embedded samples showed to be more suitable for morphological analyses because cellular structures were better identified. Nuclear evaluation in historesin sections showed the induction of pycnosis in slow freezing and vitrification groups. Cytoplasm evaluation revealed a condensation and an increase in eosinophilic intensity (indicating apoptosis) in the slow freezing group, and weakly eosinophilic structures and degenerated cells (indicating oncosis) in the vitrification group (P < 0.05). Ultrastructural analyses confirmed HE morphological findings. It was concluded that both cryopreservation techniques resulted in oncosis and apoptosis injuries. However, vitrification caused more severe cellular alterations and reduced embryonic viability compared to slow freezing. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The regulation and function of phosphate in the human body

    BIOFACTORS, Issue 1-4 2004
    Eiji Takeda
    Abstract Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is required for cellular function and skeletal mineralization. Serum Pi level is maintained within a narrow range through a complex interplay between intestinal absorption, exchange with intracellular and bone storage pools, and renal tubular reabsorption. Pi is abundant in the diet, and intestinal absorption of Pi is efficient and minimally regulated. The kidney is a major regulator of Pi homeostasis and can increase or decrease its Pi reabsorptive capacity to accommodate Pi need. The crucial regulated step in Pi homeostasis is the transport of Pi across the renal proximal tubule. Type II sodium-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) cotransporter (NPT2) is the major molecule in the renal proximal tubule and is regulated by hormones and nonhormonal factors. Recent studies of inherited and acquired hypophosphatemia which exhibit similar biochemical and clinical features, have led to the identification of novel genes, phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (PHEX) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), that play a role in the regulation of Pi homeostasis. The PHEX gene encodes an endopeptidase, predominantly expressed in bone and teeth but not in kidney. FGF-23 may be a substrate of this endopeptidase and inhibit renal Pi reabsorption. In a survey in the United States and in Japan, the amount of phosphorus from food is gradually increasing. It is thought that excess amounts of phosphorus intake for long periods are a strong factor in bone impairment and ageing. The restriction of phosphorus intake seems to be important under low calcium intake to keep QOL on high level. [source]

    Lipid-induced conformational transition of the amyloid core fragment A,(28,35) and its A30G and A30I mutants

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 10 2008
    Sureshbabu Nagarajan
    The interaction of the ,-amyloid peptide (A,) with neuronal membranes could play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have focused on the interactions of A, oligomers to explain the neuronal toxicity accompanying Alzheimer's disease. In our study, we have investigated the role of lipid interactions with soluble A,(28,35) (wild-type) and its mutants A30G and A30I in their aggregation and conformational preferences. CD and Trp fluorescence spectroscopic studies indicated that, immediately on dissolution, these peptides adopted a random coil structure. Upon addition of negatively charged 1,2-dipalmitoyl- syn -glycero-3-phospho- rac -(glycerol) sodium salt (PG) lipid, the wild-type and A30I mutant underwent reorganization into a predominant ,-sheet structure. However, no conformational changes were observed in the A30G mutant on interaction with PG. In contrast, the presence of zwitterionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl- syn -glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid had no effect on the conformation of these three peptides. These observations were also confirmed with atomic force microscopy and the thioflavin-T assay. In the presence of PG vesicles, both the wild-type and A30I mutant formed fibrillar structures within 2 days of incubation in NaCl/Pi, but not in their absence. Again, no oligomerization was observed with PC vesicles. The Trp studies also revealed that both ends of the three peptides are not buried deep in the vesicle membrane. Furthermore, fluorescence spectroscopy using the environment-sensitive probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene showed an increase in the membrane fluidity upon exposure of the vesicles to the peptides. The latter effect may result from the lipid head group interactions with the peptides. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments revealed that these peptides undergo a random coil-to-sheet conversion in solution on aging and that this process is accelerated by negatively charged lipid vesicles. These results indicate that aggregation depends on hydrophobicity and propensity to form ,-sheets of the amyloid peptide, and thus offer new insights into the mechanism of amyloid neurodegenerative disease. [source]

    Thermal stability study of conductive polyaniline/polyimide blend films on their conductivity and ESR measurement,

    Moon Gyu Han
    Abstract Conductivity stability at thermal environment of conductive polyaniline-complexes/polyimide (PANI-complexes/PI) blends, which were doped by camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA), respectively, were investigated by conductivity measurements, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra, differential and scanning thermometer (DSC). In the conversion process of PANI/Polyamic acid (PAA) to PANI/PI, the blend endeavored some kinds of alteration such as decomplexation of moisture and solvent, dissociation of dopant, crosslinking of PANI chain, and the imidization of PAA chain. PANI-DBSA/PI showed higher thermal stability of conductivity than PANI-CSA/PI, and both samples showed nearly linear decay of conductivity with increasing temperature showing greatly enhancement of conductivity stability. When they were exposed at near or over glass transition temperature, the conductivity decay became faster. The conductivity stability at base environment was also higher for PANI-DBSA/PI due to difficulty in accessing of hydroxyl ion to PANI, which were resulted from dopant. DBSA-doped blends showed increased polaron mobility and concentration at relatively high temperature, which led to extremely higher conductivity and its stability at high temperature. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An educational tool for controlling of SRM

    Tuncay Yigit
    Abstract This article introduces an educational tool for a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive system. It is prepared for undergraduate and graduate level students. Classical PI and Genetic PI controllers are used in SRM drive system. The Genetic PI controller was applied to the speed loop, replacing the classical PI controller. The tool software was implemented using C++ Builder on a PC. It has flexible structure and graphical interface. The students can be easily establishing a thorough understanding of both classical PI and genetic PI controller for a SRM drive system. The education tool allowed the student to interact with the SRM drive system and it is using controllers. Then it is responses on a dynamic and instantaneous basis under different operating conditions. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 16: 268,279, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae20148 [source]

    Human skeletal muscle cell differentiation is associated with changes in myogenic markers and enhanced insulin-mediated MAPK and PKB phosphorylation

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2004
    L. Al-Khalili
    Abstract Aim:, We hypothesized that myogenic differentiation of HSMC would yield a more insulin responsive phenotype. Methods:, We assessed expression of several proteins involved in insulin action or myogenesis during differentiation of primary human skeletal muscle cultures (HSMC). Results:, Differentiation increased creatine kinase activity and expression of desmin and myocyte enhancer factor (MEF)2C. No change in expression was observed for big mitogen-activated protein kinase (BMK1/ERK5), MEF2A, insulin receptor (IR), hexokinase II, and IR substrates 1 and 2, while expression of glycogen synthase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 MAP kinase) and the insulin responsive aminopeptidase increased after differentiation. In contrast to protein kinase B (PKB)a, expression of (PKB)b increased, with differentiation. Both basal and insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity increased with differentiation. Insulin-mediated phosphorylation of PKB and ERK1/2 MAP kinase increased after differentiation. Conclusion:, Components of the insulin-signalling machinery are expressed in myoblast and myotube HSMC; however, insulin responsiveness to PKB and ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation increases with differentiation. [source]

    Heterogeneous modes of uptake for latex beads revealed through live cell imaging of phagocytes expressing a probe for phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol-(3,4)-bisphosphate

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 9 2008
    Jennifer Giorgione
    Abstract Latex beads are the preferred phagocytic substrate in biochemical studies of phagosome composition and maturation. Using living Dictyostelium cells and fluorescent probes, we compared the properties of phagosomes formed to ingest latex beads or digestible prey. Significant differences were found during the initial steps of phagocytosis. During uptake of bacteria or yeast, PHcrac-GFP, a probe that binds to membranes enriched in PI(3,4,5)P3 and PI(3,4)P2, always labeled the nascent phagosome and faded shortly after it sealed. However, labeling of bead-containing phagosomes was highly variable. Beads were engulfed by phagosomes either lacking or displaying the PHcrac-GFP label, and that label, if present, often persisted for many minutes, revealing that early trafficking steps for bead-containing phagosomes are quite heterogeneous. Later stages of the endocytic pathway appeared more similar for phagosomes containing prey and latex beads. Both types of phagosomes fused with acidic endosomes while undergoing transport along microtubules, both acquired the V-ATPase and lost it prior to exocytosis, and both bound the late endosome marker vacuolin B, which was transferred to the plasma membrane upon exocytosis. We conclude that caution is needed in extrapolating results from latex bead phagosomes to phagosomes containing physiological substances, especially in early stages of the endocytic pathway. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    CSF-1 and PI 3-kinase regulate podosome distribution and assembly in macrophages

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 3 2006
    Ann P. Wheeler
    Abstract Podosomes are actin-rich adhesive foci found in several cell types, including macrophages. They have a core containing actin and actin-binding proteins and a peripheral ring of integrins and associated proteins. We show that podosomes are abundant in polarized mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) and are found primarily in lamellae. We investigated the effects of CSF-1, which induces membrane ruffling, cell spreading, and subsequent polarization and migration, on podosome formation. CSF-1 induces a transient increase in podosome number and enhances the formation of circular arrays of podosomes. Conversely, CSF-1 withdrawal leads to a reduction in podosomes and a decrease in polarized cells. The PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 induces loss of podosomes together with rapid retraction of lamellae and loss of polarity. Our results indicate that CSF-1 acts via PI 3-kinase to enhance podosome assembly and that this is linked to macrophage polarization. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Antixenosis phloem-based resistance to aphids: is it the rule?

    1. The concept of plant defence syndrome states that plant species growing in similar biotic or abiotic constraints should have convergent defensive traits. This article is a first step to test the prediction of this concept, by conducting experiments on wild Solanum species (or accessions) that originated from the Andes. The nature and the tissue localisation of the resistance of five wild Solanum species known to be resistant against the aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae were determined by olfactometry and electrical penetration graph experiments. 2. Volatile organic compounds may contribute to wild Solanum resistance, depending on Solanum accessions and aphid species. Volatiles of S. bukasovii and S. stoloniferum PI 275248 were not attractive to M. persicae, whereas S. bukasovii was repulsive to M. euphorbiae. In contrast, volatiles of S. stoloniferum PI 275248 were attractive for M. euphorbiae. 3. Some wild Solanum species presented a generalised resistance in all plant tissues, so as for S. bukasovii and S. stoloniferum PI 275248 against M. persicae. However, except for S. bukasovii which was susceptible to M. euphorbiae, all tested Solanum species presented a phloem-based antixenosis resistance against the two aphid species. 4. A review of articles focused on the nature of resistance of wild Solanum species against aphids corroborated with our results, i.e. a phloem-based antixenosis resistance against aphids is the rule concerning the system aphids,wild Solanum species. [source]

    Viability study of HL60 cells in contact with commonly used microchip materials

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 24 2006
    Floor Wolbers
    Abstract This paper presents a study in which different commonly used microchip materials (silicon oxide, borosilicate glass, and PDMS) were analyzed for their effect on human promyelocytic leukemic (HL60) cells. Copper-coated silicon was analyzed for its toxicity and therefore served as a positive control. With quantitative PCR, the expression of the proliferation marker Cyclin D1 and the apoptosis marker tissue transglutaminase were measured. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the distribution through the different phases of the cell cycle (propidium iodide, PI) and the apoptotic cascade (Annexin V in combination with PI). All microchip materials, with the exception of Cu, appeared to be suitable for HL60 cells, showing a ratio apoptosis/proliferation (Rap) comparable to materials used in conventional cell culture (polystyrene). These results were confirmed with cell cycle analysis and apoptosis studies. Precoating the microchip material surfaces with serum favor the proliferation, as demonstrated by a lower Rap as compared to uncoated surfaces. The Cu-coated surface appeared to be toxic for HL60 cells, showing over 90% decreased viability within 24,h. From these results, it can be concluded that the chosen protocol is suitable for selection of the cell culture material, and that the most commonly used microchip materials are compatible with HL60 culturing. [source]

    In vitro evaluation of the clastogenicity of fumagillin

    Jevrosima Stevanovic
    Abstract Fumagillin, an antibiotic compound produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, is effective against microsporidia and various Amoeba species, but is also toxic when administered systemically to mammals. Furthermore, a recent in vivo study by Stanimirovic Z et al. 2007: (Mutat Res 628:1,10) indicated genotoxic effects of fumagillin. The aim of the present study was to investigate and explain the clastogenic effects of fumagillin (in the form of fumagillin dicyclohexylamine salt) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro by sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), chromosome aberrations (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests. The mitotic index (MI), proliferation index (PI), and nuclear division index (NDI) were calculated to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of fumagillin. Five concentrations of fumagillin (0.34, 0.68, 1.02, 3.07, and 9.20 ,g/ml) were applied to lymphocyte cultures. All the tested concentrations of fumagillin increased the frequency of SCE per cell significantly (P < 0.001 or P < 0.01) compared with the negative control. A significant (P < 0.001) increase in frequency of structural CA was observed at the three highest concentrations in comparison with the negative control. In addition, the three highest test concentrations increased MN formation and decreased MI, PI, and NDI significantly compared with the negative control. The present results indicate that fumagillin is clastogenic and cytotoxic to cultured human lymphocytes. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Characteristics of okadaic acid,induced cytotoxic effects in CHO K1 cells

    C. Huynh-Delerme
    Abstract This article reports the results of investigations into the process of cell death induced in the Chinese hamster ovary cell K1 subclone (CHO K1) by okadaic acid (OA), a hydrophobic polyether produced by marine dinoflagellates. The IC50 was about 13 nM OA after 24 h of treatment, as determined using neutral red. With the MTT assay, the IC50 was 25 nM, although in this case 25% of the initial staining was still observed at 100 nM. Hoechst staining showed that mitotic figures accumulated at 12 nM OA after a 24- or 48-h treatment. In experiments limited to a 3-day treatment without changing the medium, CHO K1 cells were engaged in the death process at 50 nM OA after about 20 h and at 10 nM OA after 48 h. In many cells nuclear fragmentation that resulted in the apparent appearance of vesicles correlated with increasing cellular volume. But additional cell fragmentation was not observed with any treatment, and the chromatin material seemed to progressively disappear inside the cells. DNA fragmentation was analyzed by electrophoresis and with the TUNEL technique. With both techniques, the DNA was fragmented by 48 h in both 25 and 50 nM OA. Electrophoresis showed that both adherent and nonadherent cells were affected. Annexin-positive/ propidium iodide (PI),negative cells were rarely observed after OA treatment. Some were seen under the scanning cytometer after 20 h at 50 nM OA or after 48 h at 10 nM OA, but they were never detected by flow cytometry. Most of the time scanning cytometry showed either unstained cells or PI-positive (annexin-positive or -negative) cells (48 h, 50 nM, or 72 h, 10 nM). Flow cytometry cytograms showed two cell subpopulations: one composed of a majority of smaller cells, the other of larger cells. The larger cells markedly decreased with time and OA treatment (50 and 100 nM). Stained-cell counting showed that all cells that stained were both annexin- and PI positive and that most PI-positive cells were smaller. Ki67 antigen labeling showed the proliferative activity of CHO K1 cultures but also demonstrated the loss of this activity in smaller cells treated with 50 nM OA for 48 h. We concluded that in our culture conditions the main OA target within CHO K1 cultures was dividing cells. Our results suggest that cells with disturbed metaphase,anaphase enter apoptosis, leading to necrotic daughter cells. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 18: 383,394, 2003 [source]

    Dynamic pharyngeal collapse in racehorses

    A. G. BOYLE
    Summary Reason for performing study: Dynamic pharyngeal collapse (PC) is a condition seen in racehorses that can be career-ending. Objectives: To characterise and grade PC and describe the effects of PC on athletic performance. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for 828 horses, of which 49 (6%) records were identified as horses with a primary diagnosis of PC. Tapes of video-endoscopy of the pharynx during exercise were reviewed. Each video recording was assigned a grade (0,4) reflecting the degree of PC and a classification for severity of upper airway obstruction. Earnings per race prior to diagnosis of PC were compared to earnings per race after diagnosis of PC for all horses, as well as performance index (PI). Available exercising arterial blood gases were reviewed for horses with PC. Results: There were 35 (80%) Thoroughbreds (TB), and 9 (20%) Standardbreds (STD). 32 (73%) had a history of making an upper respiratory noise. 4 (9%) grade 1 PC, 8 (18%) grade 2 PC, 26 (59%) grade 3 PC, and 6 (14%) grade 4 PC. Seven (16%) horses were classified as mild PC, 18 (41%) as low-moderate PC, 14 (32%) as high-moderate PC, and 5 (11%) as severe PC. Of 30 horses 11 had abnormally decreased PaO2 and 8 horses had abnormally elevated PaCO2. A significant decrease was found in earnings per race prediagnosis when compared to post diagnosis earnings per race in horses ?4 years of age (P = 0.003). A significant decrease was also observed for earnings per race prediagnosis when compared to post diagnosis earnings per race in horses with grade 3 PC (P = 0.03) No significant differences were observed in PI before or after diagnosis of PC. Conclusions: There was a trend for PC to be observed in more TB than STD, and more males than females compared to the general hospital population. Horses with PC significant had decreases in arterial oxygenation. Racing records after a diagnosis of PC in all horses ?4 years of age suggesting that older horses have a guarded prognosis for continued success. Potential relevance: This study provides a classification system for dynamic pharyngeal collapse and suggests that older racehorses (?4 years of age) diagnosed with PC and all horses with grade 3 PC have a poor prognosis for return to previous level of performance. [source]

    Expression of STAMP2 in monocytes associates with cardiovascular alterations

    Zhi-Hao Wang
    Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (6): 490,496 Abstract Background, Metabolic and inflammatory pathways crosstalk at many levels. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of six-transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2) in macrophages and tried to search for the association between the decreased STAMP2 expression, if any, and carotid atherosclerosis as well as cardiac adaptations. Materials and methods, A total of 97 unrelated Chinese subjects were recruited including 48 subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 49 controls. Clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected from subjects, with quantification of STAMP2 in monocyte/macrophages. All subjects underwent ultrasonography. Results, STAMP2 expression in macrophages was significantly decreased in MetS as compared with the control group (10·25 ± 9·20 vs. 15·20 ± 9·18, P = 0·009), especially in women patients. Partial correlation analysis showed that STAMP2 expression in macrophages correlated with BMI (r = ,0·375, P = 0·045), age (r = 0·414, P = 0·026) and HDL (r = 0·377, P = 0·044) after controlling for systolic blood pressure (SBP). Furthermore, STAMP2 expression was correlated with PI (r = ,0·454, P = 0·013), LVEF (r = ,0·503, P = 0·005), LA-ESR (r = ,0·424, P = 0·022), LA-S (r = 0·469, P = 0·010) and mitral E/A ratio (r = 0·492, P = 0·005) after controlling for SBP. Still, in multivariable analysis, STAMP2 expression was independently associated with IMTmean, PI and mitral E/A ratio. Conclusions, In MetS patients, especially women patients, STAMP2 expression was down-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cell, which was correlated with carotid atherosclerosis and cardiac adaptation. [source]

    Resveratrol modulates apoptosis and oxidation in human blood mononuclear cells

    G. A. Losa
    Abstract Background, We examined the effect of resveratrol (RS), a nonflavonoid polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes and red wine, and RS coincubated with the oxidant 2-deoxy-D-ribose (dR), on apoptosis and on the oxidative metabolic status of normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) isolated ex vivo from healthy donors. Material and methods, Apoptosis was measured by changes of membrane permeability to propidium iodide (PI), plasma membrane exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) and intracellular caspase activity. Oxidative status was assessed by recording the intracellular glutathione concentration (GSH), the activities of the enzymes y -glutamyltransferase (y- GT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and intracellular lipid peroxidation (MDA). Results, Neither apoptotic nor oxidative parameters were affected by culturing PBMNCs in medium containing RS up to 20 µM for 5 days, while the frequency of cells with intermediate permeability to PI (17% ± 5) increased at 50 µM of RS. Thus resveratrol was slightly toxic, but there was little apoptosis in these cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also grown first in medium plus RS for 24 h and then for 96 h in medium containing RS plus 10 mM of dR, an oxidant sugar that is apoptogenic for human lymphocytes. The apoptotic changes triggered by dR were counteracted by the phytoalexin in a dose-dependent manner, but RS activity was absent at the lowest concentration (5 µM) and significantly reduced at the highest concentration used (50 µM). In PBMNCs coincubated with 20 µM of RS and 10 mM of dR the antioxidant effect of RS manifested with a significant reduction of caspases-3, -8, y- GT, GST activities and MDA content. Conclusions, Peripheral blood mononuclear cells acquire antioxidant capacity when treated with RS. Grape resveratrol may make a useful dietary supplement for minimizing oxidative injury in immune-perturbed states and human chronic degenerative diseases. [source]

    Involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 HiF(1,) in IgE-mediated primary human basophil responses

    Vadim V. Sumbayev
    Abstract Basophils play a pivotal role in regulating chronic allergic inflammation as well as angiogenesis. Here, we show for the first time that IgE-mediated activation of primary human basophils results in protein accumulation of the ,-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, (HIF-1,), which is differentially regulated compared with signals controlling histamine release. HIF-1 facilitates cellular adaptation to hypoxic conditions such as inflammation and tumour growth by controlling glycolysis, angiogenesis and cell adhesion. ERK and p38 MAPK, but not reactive oxygen species (ROS), ASK1 or PI 3-kinase, were critical for IgE-mediated accumulation of HIF-1,, although the latter crucially affected degranulation. Abrogating HIF-1, expression in basophils using siRNA demonstrated that this protein is essential for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression and, consequently, release of VEGF protein. In addition, HIF-1, protein alters IgE-induced ATP depletion in basophils, thus also supporting the production of the pro-allergic cytokine IL-4. [source]

    Expression of PI(4,5)P2 -binding proteins lowers the PI(4,5)P2 level and inhibits Fc,RIIA-mediated cell spreading and phagocytosis

    Ewelina Szyma
    Abstract We found that Fc,RII-mediated cell spreading and phagocytosis were correlated with an increase of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] level in cells. During the spreading, a long-lasting elevation of PI(4,5)P2 and concomitant actin polymerization occurred. Filopodia and lamellae of spreading cells were enriched in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase I, (PIP5-kinase I,) that colocalized with PI(4,5)P2 and actin filaments. Both spreading and phagocytosis were inhibited by expression of the C374,440 fragment of PIP5-kinase I, or the pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C,1 (PLC,1 -PH), two probes binding PI(4,5)P2. These probes reduced the amount of PI(4,5)P2 in the cells, evoked reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and abolished PI(4,5)P2 elevation during phagocytosis. Simultaneously, PLC,1 -PH-GFP reduced the amount of PIP5-kinase I, associated with the plasma membrane. In vitro studies demonstrated that PIP5-kinase I,-GST bound PI(4,5)P2, phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate, and less efficiently, phosphatidic acid. The data suggest that the PLC,1 -PH domain, and possibly also the C374,440 fragment, when expressed in cells, can compete with endogenous PIP5-kinase I, for PI(4,5)P2 binding in the plasma membrane leading eventually to PI(4,5)P2 depletion. [source]

    Activation of Epstein-Barr virus/C3d receptor (gp140, CR2, CD21) on human cell surface triggers pp60src and Akt-GSK3 activities upstream and downstream to PI 3-kinase, respectively

    Monique Barel
    Abstract We previously demonstrated that CR2 activation on human B lymphocyte surface specifically triggered tyrosine phosphorylation of the 95-kDa nucleolin, this leading to its binding on SH2 domainsof p85 sub-unit of PI 3-kinase and to activation of this enzyme. The specificity of CR2 pathway was clearly demonstrated as neither CD19 nor BCR could induce tyrosine phosphorylation of nucleolin in normal B lymphocytes. These data led us to investigate herein additional molecular events, which were triggered by CR2 activation, upstream and downstream to PI 3-kinase activation. Upstream, we demonstrated that pp60src, a tyrosine kinase of the src family, was involved in tyrosine phosphorylation of nucleolin, while syk tyrosine kinase was not. We also demonstrated a direct protein-proteininteraction of pp60src with nucleolin in a CR2-dependent and CD19-independent pathway. Downstream, we demonstrated that CR2 activation also triggered Akt and GSK3 enzyme activation, this pathway being under the control of pp60src tyrosine kinase activation. These regulatory functions of activated CR2 were specific as independent of syk tyrosine kinase and of CD19 and BCR activation. Thus, CR2 activation recruits a specific mechanism to activate PI 3-kinase and its subsequent pathways, this mechanism being different to those recruited by CD19 and BCR. [source]

    Time course of cerebral hemodynamics in cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-negative adults

    W.-N. Chang
    To evaluate the cerebral hemodynamics in cryptococcal meningitis (CM) patients using non-invasive studies. Serial trans-cranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies were performed to measure the cerebral vasculopathy of 12 HIV-negative CM patients. With TCCS, 8 of the 22 middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) showed stenotic velocities, whereas the time-mean velocity (Vmean) of the 20 anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs), 22 posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs), and 12 basilar arteries (BAs) did not. In total, five patients had stenotic velocities, three of whom had bilateral M1 stenosis (<50%), whilst two had unilateral M1 stenosis (<50%). The Vmean of MCA increased from day 1 to day 35 and substantially decreased thereafter. The mean Pulsatility Index (PI) in the studied vessels was higher during the study period. A mismatch of the findings between TCCS and MRA studies were also demonstrated. There was a high incidence and a longer time-period of disturbed cerebral hemodynamics during the clinical course of CM. However, because of the limited case numbers for this study, further large-scale studies are needed to delineate the clinical characteristics and therapeutic influence of cerebrovascular insults in HIV-negative CM patients. [source]

    Sensory gating in primary insomnia

    Ilana S. Hairston
    Abstract Although previous research indicates that sleep architecture is largely intact in primary insomnia (PI), the spectral content of the sleeping electroencephalographic trace and measures of brain metabolism suggest that individuals with PI are physiologically more aroused than good sleepers. Such observations imply that individuals with PI may not experience the full deactivation of sensory and cognitive processing, resulting in reduced filtering of external sensory information during sleep. To test this hypothesis, gating of sensory information during sleep was tested in participants with primary insomnia (n = 18) and good sleepers (n = 20). Sensory gating was operationally defined as (i) the difference in magnitude of evoked response potentials elicited by pairs of clicks presented during Wake and Stage II sleep, and (ii) the number of K complexes evoked by the same auditory stimulus. During wake the groups did not differ in magnitude of sensory gating. During sleep, sensory gating of the N350 component was attenuated and completely diminished in participants with insomnia. P450, which occurred only during sleep, was strongly gated in good sleepers, and less so in participants with insomnia. Additionally, participants with insomnia showed no stimulus-related increase in K complexes. Thus, PI is potentially associated with impaired capacity to filter out external sensory information, especially during sleep. The potential of using stimulus-evoked K complexes as a biomarker for primary insomnia is discussed. [source]

    The Kölliker-Fuse nucleus gates the postinspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle to control inspiratory off-switch and upper airway resistance in rat

    Mathias Dutschmann
    Abstract Lesion or pharmacological manipulation of the dorsolateral pons can transform the breathing pattern to apneusis (pathological prolonged inspiration). Apneusis reflects a disturbed inspiratory off-switch mechanism (IOS) leading to a delayed phase transition from inspiration to expiration. Under intact conditions the IOS is irreversibly mediated via activation of postinspiratory (PI) neurons within the respiratory network. In parallel, populations of laryngeal premotoneurons manifest the IOS by a brief glottal constriction during the PI phase. We investigated effects of pontine excitation (glutamate injection) or temporary lesion after injection of a GABA-receptor agonist (isoguvacine) on the strength of PI-pool activity determined from respiratory motor outputs or kinesiological measurements of laryngeal resistance in a perfused brainstem preparation. Glutamate microinjections into distinct parts of the pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KF) evoked a tonic excitation of PI-motor activity or sustained laryngeal constriction accompanied by prolongation of the expiratory phase. Subsequent isoguvacine microinjections at the same loci abolished PI-motor or laryngeal constrictor activity, triggered apneusis and established a variable and decreased breathing frequency. In summary, we revealed that excitation or inhibition of defined areas within the KF activated and blocked PI activity and, consequently, IOS. Therefore, we conclude, first, that descending KF inputs are essential to gate PI activity required for a proper pattern formation and phase control within the respiratory network, at least during absence of pulmonary stretch receptor activity and, secondly, that the KF contains large numbers of laryngeal PI premotor neurons that might have a key role in the regulation of upper airway resistance during reflex control and vocalization. [source]

    Comparison of the aggregation properties, secondary structure and apoptotic effects of wild-type, Flemish and Dutch N-terminally truncated amyloid , peptides

    N. Demeester
    Abstract The Dutch (E22Q) and Flemish (A21G) mutations in the ,APP region of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) are associated with familial forms of Alzheimer dementia. However, patients with these mutations express substantially different clinical phenotypes. Therefore, secondary structure and cytotoxic effects of the three A,(12,42) variants [wild-type (WT), Dutch and Flemish] were tested. At a concentration of 5 µm the aggregation of these peptides followed the order: A,(1,42) WT > A,(12,42) WT > A,(12,42) Flemish >,A,(12,42) Dutch. The stability of the secondary structure of these peptides upon decreasing the trifluoroethanol (TFE) concentration in the buffer was followed by circular dichroism measurements. WT peptides progressively lost their ,-helical structure; this change occurred faster for both the Flemish and Dutch peptides, and at higher percentages of TFE in the buffer, and was accompanied by an increase in ,-sheet and random coil content. Apoptosis was induced in neuronal cells by the A,(12,42) WT and Flemish peptides at concentrations as low as 1,5 µm, as evidenced by propidium iodide (PI) staining, DNA laddering and caspase-3 activity measurements. Even when longer incubation times and higher peptide concentrations were applied the N-truncated Dutch peptide did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by the full length A,(1,42) peptide was weaker than that induced by its N-truncated variant. These data suggest that N-truncation enhanced the cytotoxic effects of A, WT and Flemish peptides, which may play a role in the accelerated progression of dementia. [source]

    Control of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance by Block-Copolymer-Directed TiO2 Synthesis

    Pablo Docampo
    Abstract Hybrid dye-sensitized solar cells are typically composed of mesoporous titania (TiO2), light-harvesting dyes, and organic molecular hole-transporters. Correctly matching the electronic properties of the materials is critical to ensure efficient device operation. In this study, TiO2 is synthesized in a well-defined morphological confinement that arises from the self-assembly of a diblock copolymer,poly(isoprene- b -ethylene oxide) (PI- b -PEO). The crystallization environment, tuned by the inorganic (TiO2 mass) to organic (polymer) ratio, is shown to be a decisive factor in determining the distribution of sub-bandgap electronic states and the associated electronic function in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Interestingly, the tuning of the sub-bandgap states does not appear to strongly influence the charge transport and recombination in the devices. However, increasing the depth and breadth of the density of sub-bandgap states correlates well with an increase in photocurrent generation, suggesting that a high density of these sub-bandgap states is critical for efficient photo-induced electron transfer and charge separation. [source]