Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Physiology

  • acute physiology
  • animal physiology
  • anorectal physiology
  • av nodal physiology
  • bacterial physiology
  • bone physiology
  • brain physiology
  • cell physiology
  • cellular physiology
  • different physiology
  • digestive physiology
  • dual av nodal physiology
  • exercise physiology
  • female reproductive physiology
  • fish physiology
  • gut physiology
  • host physiology
  • human physiology
  • integrative physiology
  • leaf physiology
  • molecular physiology
  • muscle physiology
  • nodal physiology
  • normal physiology
  • ovarian physiology
  • photosynthetic physiology
  • plant physiology
  • reproductive physiology
  • respiratory physiology
  • single ventricle physiology
  • skin physiology
  • stress physiology
  • thermal physiology
  • ventricle physiology

  • Terms modified by Physiology

  • physiology score

  • Selected Abstracts

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY: Satisfaction (Sexual, Life, Relationship, and Mental Health) Is Associated Directly with Penile,Vaginal Intercourse, but Inversely with Other Sexual Behavior Frequencies

    Stuart Brody PhD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Some sex therapists and educators assume that many sexual behaviors provide comparable sexual satisfaction. Evidence is required to determine whether sexual behaviors differ in their associations with both sexual satisfaction and satisfaction with other aspects of life. Aims., To test the hypothesis that satisfaction with sex life, life in general, sexual partnership, and mental health correlates directly with frequency of penile,vaginal intercourse (PVI) and inversely with frequency of both masturbation and partnered sexual activity excluding PVI (noncoital sex). Methods., A representative sample of 2,810 Swedes reported frequency of PVI, noncoital sex, and masturbation during the past 30 days, and degree of satisfaction with their sex life, life in general, partnership, and mental health. Main Outcome Measures., Multivariate analyses (for the sexes separately and combined) considering the different satisfaction parameters as dependent variables, and the different types of sexual activities (and age) as putative predictors. Results., For both sexes, multivariate analyses revealed that PVI frequency was directly associated with all satisfaction measures (part correlation = 0.50 with sexual satisfaction), masturbation frequency was independently inversely associated with almost all satisfaction measures, and noncoital sex frequencies independently inversely associated with some satisfaction measures (and uncorrelated with the rest). Age did not confound the results. Conclusions., The results are consistent with evidence that specifically PVI frequency, rather than other sexual activities, is associated with sexual satisfaction, health, and well-being. Inverse associations between satisfaction and masturbation are not due simply to insufficient PVI. Brody S, and Costa RM. Satisfaction (sexual, life, relationship, and mental health) is associated directly with penile-vaginal intercourse, but inversely with other sexual behavior frequencies. J Sex Med 2009;6:1947,1954. [source]


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2003
    Jia He
    Abstract Five new compounds were tested on the growth and antifeeding activity compared with toosendanin against fifth instar larvae Ostrinia furnacalis. The activities of two proteases, a weak alkaline trypsine-like enzyme and a chymotrypsin-like enzyme, in the midgut of Ostrinia furnacalis larvae were also measured. Experimental results suggest that when incorporated into an artificial diet at the concentration of 500mg/kg, the antifeeding activities of toosendanin, C19, C23, C24, C26, C28 were 51.16%, 57.61%, 4.28%, 51.08%, 36.73% and 51.67%, respectively, C19, C24, C28 had no significant difference with toosendanin. At 20mg/kg, the larval growth were remarkably suppressed by C19, C26, C28, the inhibition of C28 was close to toosendanin in 48 h. The two proteases were activated by toosendanin and C28 while they were inhibited in 48 h but activated in 24 h by C19, C24 and C26. In this paper, the related functions and mechanisms were discussed. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Catriona L. Hurd
    Water motion is a key determinant of marine macroalgal production, influencing directly or indirectly physiological rates and community structure. Our understanding of how marine macroalgae interact with their hydrodynamic environment has increased substantially over the past 20 years, due to the application of tools such as flow visualization to aquatic vegetation, and in situ measurements of seawater velocity and turbulence. This review considers how the hydrodynamic environment in which macroalgae grow influences their ability to acquire essential resources and how macroalgae might respond physiologically to fluctuations in their hydrodynamic regime with a focus on: (1) the biochemical processes occurring within the diffusion boundary layer (DBL) that might reduce rates of macroalgal production; (2) time scales over which measurements of velocity and DBL processes should be made, discussing the likelihood of in situ mass transfer limitation; (3) if and how macroalgal morphology influences resource acquisition in slow flows; and (4) ecobiomechanics and how hydrodynamic drag might influence resource acquisition and allocation. Finally, the concept that macroalgal production is enhanced in wave-exposed versus sheltered habitats is discussed. [source]


    First page of article [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PHYSIOLOGY: Sensation and Sexual Arousal in Circumcised and Uncircumcised Men

    Kimberley Payne PhD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Research, theory, and popular belief all suggest that penile sensation is greater in the uncircumcised as compared with the circumcised man. However, research involving direct measurement of penile sensation has been undertaken only in sexually functional and dysfunctional groups, and as a correlate of sexual behavior. There are no reports of penile sensation in sexually aroused subjects, and it is not known how arousal affects sensation. In principle, this should be more closely related to actual sexual function. Aim., This study therefore compared genital and nongenital sensation as a function of sexual arousal in circumcised and uncircumcised men. Methods., Twenty uncircumcised men and an equal number of age-matched circumcised participants underwent genital and nongenital sensory testing at baseline and in response to erotic and control stimulus films. Touch and pain thresholds were assessed on the penile shaft, the glans penis, and the volar surface of the forearm. Sexual arousal was assessed via thermal imaging of the penis. Results., In response to the erotic stimulus, both groups evidenced a significant increase in penile temperature, which correlated highly with subjective reports of sexual arousal. Uncircumcised men had significantly lower penile temperature than circumcised men, and evidenced a larger increase in penile temperature with sexual arousal. No differences in genital sensitivity were found between the uncircumcised and circumcised groups. Uncircumcised men were less sensitive to touch on the forearm than circumcised men. A decrease in overall touch sensitivity was observed in both groups with exposure to the erotic film as compared with either baseline or control stimulus film conditions. No significant effect was found for pain sensitivity. Conclusion., These results do not support the hypothesized penile sensory differences associated with circumcision. However, group differences in penile temperature and sexual response were found. Payne K, Thaler L, Kukkonen T, Carrier S, and Binik Y. Sensation and sexual arousal in circumcised and uncircumcised men. J Sex Med 2007;4:667,674. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,PHYSIOLOGY: Thermography as a Physiological Measure of Sexual Arousal in Both Men and Women

    Tuuli M. Kukkonen BA
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Current physiological measures of sexual arousal are intrusive, hard to compare between genders, and quantitatively problematic. Aim., To investigate thermal imaging technology as a means of solving these problems. Methods., Twenty-eight healthy men and 30 healthy women viewed a neutral film clip, after which they were randomly assigned to view one of three other video conditions: (i) neutral (N = 19); (ii) humor (N = 19); and (iii) sexually explicit (N = 20). Main Outcome Measures., Genital and thigh temperatures were continuously recorded using a TSA ImagIR camera. Subjective measures of sexual arousal, humor, and relaxation were assessed using Likert-style questions prior to showing the baseline video and following each film. Results., Statistical (Tukey HSD) post-hoc comparisons (P < 0.05) demonstrated that both men and women viewing the sexually arousing video had significantly greater genital temperature (mean = 33.89°C, SD = 1.00) than those in the humor (mean = 32.09°C, SD = 0.93) or neutral (mean = 32.13°C, SD = 1.24) conditions. Men and women in the erotic condition did not differ from each other in time to peak genital temperature (men mean = 664.6 seconds, SD = 164.99; women mean = 743 seconds, SD = 137.87). Furthermore, genital temperature was significantly and highly correlated with subjective ratings of sexual arousal (range r = 0.51,0.68, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in thigh temperature between groups. Conclusion., Thermal imaging is a promising technology for the assessment of physiological sexual arousal in both men and women. Kukkonen TM, Binik YM, Amsel R, and Carrier S. Thermography as a physiological measure of sexual arousal in both men and women. J Sex Med 2007;4:93,105. [source]


    Roger G Evans
    SUMMARY 1An improved understanding of the regulation of kidney oxygenation has the potential to advance preventative, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for kidney disease. Here, we review the strengths and limitations of available and emerging methods for studying kidney oxygen status. 2To fully characterize kidney oxygen handling, we must quantify multiple parameters, including renal oxygen delivery (DO2) and consumption (VO2), as well as oxygen tension (Po2). Ideally, these parameters should be quantified both at the whole-organ level and within specific vascular, tubular and interstitial compartments. 3Much of our current knowledge of kidney oxygen physiology comes from established techniques that allow measurement of global kidney DO2 and VO2, or local tissue Po2. When used in tandem, these techniques can help us understand oxygen mass balance in the kidney. Po2 can be resolved to specific tissue compartments in the superficial cortex, but not deep below the kidney surface. We have limited ability to measure local kidney tissue DO2 and VO2. 4Mathematical modelling has the potential to provide new insights into the physiology of kidney oxygenation, but is limited by the quality of the information such models are based on. 5Various imaging techniques and other emerging technologies have the potential to allow Po2 mapping throughout the kidney and/or spatial resolution of Po2 in specific renal tissues, even in humans. All currently available methods have serious limitations, but with further refinement should provide a pathway through which data obtained from experimental animal models can be related to humans in the clinical setting. [source]

    Physiology and pathophysiology of hypocretins/orexins

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    K.-H. Herzig
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    International Symposium on Frontiers in Physiology

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    Peter Bie
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Teaching workshop on ,Implications of the Bologna Declaration for Teaching Physiology in Medical Education' at the joint meeting of the German Physiological Society and the Federation of European Physiological Societies, Cologne, 2,5 March 2008

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2008
    L. H. E. H. Snoeckx
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    5th International Symposium on Physiology, Behaviour and Conservation of Wildlife, Berlin 2004

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 2004
    Article first published online: 2 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]

    Heart Rate Variability in Emergency Department Patients with Sepsis

    Douglas Barnaby MD
    Abstract Objective: To test the hypothesis that heart rate variability (HRV) can provide an early indication of illness severity among patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with sepsis. Methods: The authors enrolled a convenience sample of 15 ED patients meeting the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine criteria for sepsis. Each patient had continuous Holter monitoring performed in the ED. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure (SOFA) scores were calculated for the day of presentation. Holter tapes obtained in the ED were analyzed off-line to calculate HRV variables for the 5-minute segment with the least artifact and non-sinus beats. These variables were correlated with APACHE II and SOFA scores. Results: LFnu (normalized low-frequency power), an assessment of the relative sympathetic contribution to overall HRV, was correlated with increased illness severity as calculated using APACHE II (r = -0.67, r2= 0.43) and SOFA (r = -0.80, r2= 0.64) scores. LF/HF ratio (low-frequency/high-frequency ratio), a measure of sympathovagal balance, was correlated with the SOFA score [r = -0.54 (95% CI = -0.83 to -0.01), r2= 0.29]. All five patients who required critical care monitoring or ventilatory support or who died during the first 5 days of their hospitalization had LFnu values below 0.5 and LF/HF ratios less than 1.0. None of the patients with measurements greater than these threshold values died or required these interventions during the five days following admission. Conclusions: A single variable, LFnu, which reflects sympathetic modulation of heart rate, accounted for 40-60% of the variance in illness severity scores among patients presenting to the ED with sepsis. HRV, as reflected in LFnu and the LF/HF ratio and measured with a single brief (5-minute) period of monitoring while in the ED, may provide the emergency physician with a readily available, noninvasive, early marker of illness severity. The threshold effect of LFnu and LF/HF in the prediction of early clinical deterioration was an unexpected finding and should be regarded as hypothesis-generating, pending further study. [source]

    Hematology and coagulation parameters predict outcome in Taiwanese patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    H.-Y. Fang
    Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, peripheral edema around the hematoma, and hydrocephalus are good predictors of mortality in patients with spontaneous ICH from western countries. However, the significance of hematologic and biochemical parameters associated with spontaneous ICH has not been extensively studied. This study was designed to determine prognostic factors for spontaneous ICH in Taiwanese patients. We prospectively studied 109 consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH admitted to Changhua Christian Medical Center. Clinical and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. Mean age was 62.3 years. There were 63 men (58%) and 46 women (42%). Differences in GCS score, ICH score, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score between the survival and non-survival groups were statistically significant. Laboratory data were statistically different using multivariate analysis for platelet count, prothrombin time, and white cell count. This is the first study providing information on predictors of spontaneous ICH mortality in Taiwanese patients. The prothrombin time and platelet count on the first day were good early predictors of mortality. This finding in ethnically Chinese patients appears to be different from the profile for patients from western countries. [source]

    Experimental Physiology ,Review Article: Tissue capillary supply , it's quality not quantity that counts!

    Stuart Egginton
    This article explores how common misunderstandings about the microcirculation , that capillary supply varies directly with O2 demand, that local capillary supply in muscle is determined by fibre type and that it is appropriate to model capillary distribution as either random or in a fixed geometric pattern , arise from quantifying capillarity by simple measures of quantitative extent, rather than the more functionally relevant qualitative distribution. We show that the latter approach reveals exquisite control of angiogenesis that determines the location of new vessels with astonishing accuracy, motivating a reappraisal of the physiological remodelling process and a new approach to computational investigations into peripheral O2 transport. [source]

    Effects of Direct Sympathetic and Vagus Nerve Stimulation on the Physiology of the Whole Heart , A Novel Model of Isolated Langendorff Perfused Rabbit Heart with Intact Dual Autonomic Innervation

    G. André Ng
    A novel isolated Langendorff perfused rabbit heart preparation with intact dual autonomic innervation is described. This preparation allows the study of the effects of direct sympathetic and vagus nerve stimulation on the physiology of the whole heart. These hearts (n= 10) had baseline heart rates of 146 ± 2 beats min,1 which could be increased to 240 ±11 beats min,1 by sympathetic stimulation (15 Hz) and decreased to 74 ± 11 beats min,1 by stimulation of the vagus nerve (right vagus, 7 Hz). This model has the advantage of isolated preparations, with the absence of influence from circulating hormones and haemodynamic reflexes, and also that of in vivo preparations where direct nerve stimulation is possible without the need to use pharmacological agents. Data are presented characterising the preparation with respect to the effects of autonomic nerve stimulation on intrinsic heart rate and atrioventricular conduction at different stimulation frequencies. We show that stimulation of the right and left vagus nerve have differential effects on heart rate and atrioventricular conduction. [source]

    Belgian Society of Fundamental and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, Abstracts of the Autumn Meeting 17 November 2001, Brussels (Université Libre de Bruxelles) (Abstracts for Physiology are published in Pflügers Arch.


    First page of article [source]

    Effects of Interspecific Interactions between Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa on Their Growth and Physiology

    Min Zhang
    Abstract Interactions between Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa were analyzed by flow cytometry and by phytoplankton pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorimetry (Phyto-PAM) in joint cultures as well as in cultures separated by dialysis membranes. Results showed that the growth of C. pyrenoidosa was greater than that of M. aeruginosa, and that the growth of M.aeruginosa but not the growth of C. pyrenoidosa was significantly inhibited by the interactions between M. aeruginosa and C. pyrenoidosa. Culture filtrates of these two algae showed no apparent effects on the growth of the competing species. For M. aeruginosa, decreases in esterase activity, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and maximum quantum yield were observed in joint cultures, indicating that the metabolic activity and photosynthetic capacity of M.aeruginosa were suppressed. Light limitation from the shading effect of C. pyrenoidosa may be the main reason for such inhibition. For C. pyrenoidosa, esterase activity was suppressed in membrane-separated and joint cultures, suggesting that C.pyrenoidosa was probably affected by allelopathic substances secreted by M.aeruginosa. However, no significant difference was observed in the chlorophyll a fluorescence and maximum quantum yield of C. pyrenoidosa in the two cultures. In addition, interspecific interactions induced a reduction in size in both M. aeruginosa and C.pyrenoidosa, which may contribute to the development of C. pyrenoidosa dominance in the present study. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    From JNK to Pay Dirt: Jun Kinases, their Biochemistry, Physiology and Clinical Importance

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 4-5 2005
    Michael Karin
    Abstract The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) were originally identified by their ability to phosphorylate c-Jun in response to UV-irradiation, but now are recognized as critical regulators of various aspects of mammalian physiology, including: cell proliferation, cell survival, cell death, DNA repair and metabolism. JNK-mediated phosphorylation enhances the ability of c-Jun, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, to activate transcription, in response to a plethora of extracellular stimuli. The JNK activation leads to induction of AP-1-dependent target genes involved in cell proliferation, cell death, inflammation, and DNA repair. The JNKs, which are encoded by three different Jnk loci, are now known to be regulated by many other stimuli, from pro-inflammatory cytokines to obesity, in addition to UV-irradiation. Targeted disruption of the Jnk loci in mice has proved to be a critical tool in better understanding their physiological functions. Such studies revealed that the JNKs play important roles in numerous cellular processes, including: programmed cell death, T cell differentiation, negative regulation of insulin signaling, control of fat deposition, and epithelial sheet migration. Importantly, the JNKs have become prime targets for drug development in several important clinical areas, including: inflammation, diabetes, and cancer. IUBMB Life, 57: 283-295, 2005 [source]

    Research Agenda for Frailty in Older Adults: Toward a Better Understanding of Physiology and Etiology: Summary from the American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging Research Conference on Frailty in Older Adults

    Jeremy Walston MD
    Evolving definitions of frailty, and improved understanding of molecular and physiological declines in multiple systems that may increase vulnerability in frail, older adults has encouraged investigators from many disciplines to contribute to this emerging field of research. This article reports on the results of the 2004 American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging conference on a Research Agenda on Frailty in Older Adults, which brought together a diverse group of clinical and basic scientists to encourage further investigation in this area. This conference was primarily focused on physical and physiological aspects of frailty. Although social and psychological aspects of frailty are critically important and merit future research, these topics were largely beyond the scope of this meeting. Included in this article are sections on the evolving conceptualization and definitions of frailty; physiological underpinnings of frailty, including the potential contributions of inflammatory, endocrine, skeletal muscle, and neurologic system changes; potential molecular and genetic contributors; proposed animal models; and integrative, system biology approaches that may help to facilitate future frailty research. In addition, several specific recommendations as to future directions were developed from suggestions put forth by participants, including recommendations on definition and phenotype development, methodological development to perform clinical studies of individual-system and multiple-system vulnerability to stressors, development of animal and cellular models, application of population-based studies to frailty research, and the development of large collaborative networks in which populations and resources can be shared. This meeting and subsequent article were not meant to be a comprehensive review of frailty research; instead, they were and are meant to provide a more-targeted research agenda-setting process. [source]

    Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome in Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus Species: Comparison of Elderly and Nonelderly Patients

    Alexandre R. Marra MD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), clinical course, and outcome of monomicrobial nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Enterococcus spp. is different in elderly patients than in younger patients. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: An 820-bed tertiary care facility. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-seven adults with P. aeruginosa or enterococcal BSI. MEASUREMENTS: SIRS scores were determined 2 days before the first positive blood culture through 14 days afterwards. Elderly patients (,65, n=37) were compared with nonelderly patients (<65, n=90). Variables significant for predicting mortality in univariate analysis were entered into a logistic regression model. RESULTS: No difference in SIRS was detected between the two groups. No significant difference was noted in the incidence of organ failure, 7-day mortality, or overall mortality between the two groups. Univariate analysis revealed that Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score of 15 or greater at BSI onset; adjusted APACHE II score (points for age excluded) of 15 or greater at BSI onset; and respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, hematological, and hepatic failure were predictors of mortality. Age, sex, use of empirical antimicrobial therapy, and infection with imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa or vancomycin-resistant enterococci did not predict mortality. Multivariate analysis revealed that hematological failure (odds ratio (OR)=8.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.78,23.47), cardiovascular failure (OR=4.7, 95% CI=1.69,13.10), and adjusted APACHE II , 15 at BSI onset (OR=3.1, 95% CI=1.12,8.81) independently predicted death. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients did not differ from nonelderly patients with respect to severity of illness before or at the time of BSI. Elderly patients with pseudomonal or enterococcal BSIs did not have a greater mortality than nonelderly patients. [source]

    Digitisation of the Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

    Article first published online: 5 JAN 200

    Physiology of sturgeon: effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia

    J. J. Cech
    First page of article [source]

    Anatomy and Physiology of the Right Interganglionic Nerve: Implications for the Pathophysiology of Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia

    Objective: To simulate inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) in experimental animals. Background: We recently found that epinephrine injected into the anterior right ganglionated plexi (ARGP) adjacent to the sinoatrial (SA) node induced an arrhythmia simulating IST. Methods: In 19 anesthetized dogs, via a right thoracotomy, the course of the interganglionic nerve (IGN) from the right stellate ganglion along the superior vena cava to the heart was delineated. High-frequency stimulation (HFS; 0.1 msec duration, 20 Hz, 4.5,9.3 V) was applied to IGN at the junction of innominate vein and SVC. Results: HFS of the IGN significantly increased the sinus rate (SR) (baseline: 156 ± 19 beats/minutes [bpm], 4.5 V: 191 ± 28 bpm*, 8.0 V: 207 ± 23 bpm*, 9.3 V: 216 ± 18 bpm*; *P < 0.01 compared to baseline) without significant changes in A-H interval or blood pressure. P-wave morphology, ice mapping, and noncontact mapping indicated that this tachycardia was sinus tachycardia. In 8 of 19 dogs, injecting hexamethonium (5 mg), a ganglionic blocker, into the ARGP attenuated the response elicited by IGN stimulation (baseline: 160 ± 21 bpm, 4.5 V: 172 ± 32 bpm, 8.0 V: 197 ± 32 bpm*, 9.3 V: 206 ± 26 bpm*; *P < 0.05 compared to baseline). In 19 of 19 animals, after formaldehyde injection into the ARGP, SR acceleration induced by IGN stimulation was markedly attenuated (baseline: 149 ± 17 bpm, 4.5 V: 151 ± 21 bpm, 8.0 V: 155 ± 23 bpm, 9.3 V: 167 ± 24 bpm*; *P < 0.05 compared to baseline). Conclusions: HFS of the IGN caused a selective and significant acceleration of the SR. A significant portion of IGN traverses the ARGP or synapses with the autonomic ganglia in the ARGP before en route to the SA node. Dysautonomia involving the IGN and/or ARGP may play an important role in IST. [source]

    Maturational Atrioventricular Nodal Physiology in the Mouse

    Mouse AV Nodal Maturation. Introduction: Dual AV nodal physiology is characterized by discontinuous conduction from the atrium to His bundle during programmed atrial extrastimulus testing (A2V2 conduction curves), AV nodal echo beats, and induction of AV nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT). The purpose of this study was to characterize in vivo murine maturational AV nodal conduction properties and determine the frequency of dual AV nodal physiology and inducible AVNRT. Methods and Results: A complete transvenous in vivo electrophysiologic study was performed on 30 immature and 19 mature mice. Assessment of AV nodal conduction included (1) surface ECG and intracardiac atrial and ventricular electrograms; (2) decremental atrial pacing to the point of Wenckebach block and 2:1 conduction; and (3) programmed premature atrial extrastimuli to determine AV effective refractory periods (AVERP), construct A2V2 conduction curves, and attempt arrhythmia induction. The mean Wenckebach block interval was 73 ± 12 msec, 2:1 block pacing cycle length was 61 ± 11 msec, and mean AVERP100 was 54 ± 11 msec. The frequency of dual AV nodal physiology increased with chronologic age, with discontinuous A2V2, conduction curves or AV nodal echo heats in 27% of young mice < 8 weeks and 58% in adult mice (P = 0.03). Conclusion: These data suggest that mice, similar to humans, have maturation of AV nodal physiology, hut they do not have inducible AVNRT. Characterization of murine electrophysiology may be of value in studying genetically modified animals with AV conduction abnormalities. Furthermore, extrapolation to humans may help explain the relative rarity of AVNRT in the younger pediatric population. [source]

    Journal of Cellular Physiology: Volume 225, Number 2, November 2010

    Article first published online: 29 SEP 2010
    Cover shows the differential expression of microRNAs (miRs) in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) vs. human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), revealing 10 highly expressed miRs in hiPSCs with greater than ten-fold difference, which have been shown to be cancer related. (Illustration by Vladimir Galat). Please see article by Collins et al, pages 454,465. [source]

    Journal of Cellular Physiology: Volume 225, Number 1, October 2010

    Article first published online: 5 AUG 2010
    Cover is a schematic of migration within the leukemic stem cell (LSC) niches of the bone marrow endosteal space in relationship with their different components. Please see mini-review in this issue by Sengupta and Cancelas, pages 7,14. [source]

    Journal of Cellular Physiology: Volume 224, Number 3, September 2010

    Article first published online: 5 AUG 2010
    Cover shows a diagram of the tripartite axes of stimuli which interact dynamically to characterize a stem cell symmetric environment. The schematic is superimposed on a background of cardiac progenitor cells. Please see Review Article in this issue by Di Nardo et al, pages 590,600. [source]

    Journal of Cellular Physiology: Volume 224, Number 2, August 2010

    Article first published online: 5 AUG 2010
    The cover shows acetylation sites, located on the histone tails and on the structured regions. See "Mini-Review" in this issue by Hansen et al, pages 289,299. [source]

    Journal of Cellular Physiology: Volume 224, Number 1, July 2010

    Article first published online: 21 MAY 2010
    Images showing dynamics of YFP-GSK-3, nuclear translocation. Please see article in this issue by Zhang et al, pages 218,228. [source]

    Microalbuminuria, Chronic Renal Disease, and the Effects of the Metabolic Syndrome on Cardiovascular Events

    Marvin Moser MD
    In March 2007, a panel discussion was held following a hypertension symposium in New York, New York. The panel was moderated by Marvin Moser, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine at the Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Serving on the panel were James R. Sowers, MD, Professor of Medicine and Physiology at the University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, and Henry R. Black, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine at the New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York. This expert panel discussion was supported by Novartis and each author received an honorarium from Novartis for time and effort spent participating in the discussion and reviewing the transcript for important intellectual content prior to publication. The authors maintained full control of the discussion and the resulting content of this article; Novartis had no input in the choice of topic, speakers, or content. [source]