Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Photosynthesis

  • c3 photosynthesi
  • c4 photosynthesi
  • canopy photosynthesi
  • gross photosynthesi
  • leaf photosynthesi
  • maximum photosynthesi
  • net photosynthesi
  • oxygenic photosynthesi
  • plant photosynthesi

  • Terms modified by Photosynthesis

  • photosynthesi model
  • photosynthesi rate

  • Selected Abstracts

    Moisture controls on carbon dioxide dynamics of peat- Sphagnum monoliths

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    M. Strack
    Abstract Sphagnum moss is the major peat-forming vegetation component in boreal peatlands. The relationship between Sphagnum productivity and moss moisture content has been documented; however, the link between moss moisture content and conditions in the underlying peat column is less clear. We conducted a pilot study in which we monitored volumetric moisture content with depth and gravimetric water content of Sphagnum capitula and CO2 exchange for two peat monoliths with intact moss layer dominated by Sphagnum fuscum and S. magellanicum. Measurements were made under drying conditions and rewetting from below and following simulated precipitation events. Capitulum moisture content was related to water table position but varied between species. Both capitulum moisture content and water table position could be used to explain net CO2 exchange and respiration during drying and rewetting from below, although hysteresis was apparent where respiration was lower on rewetting than drying for the same water table position. Precipitation complicated these relationships because small events (<5 mm) rewetted the upper few centimeters of moss resulting in a change in capitulum moisture content equivalent to a rise in water table position of ,20 cm. This change in capitulum moisture content resulted in substantial shifts in both photosynthesis and respiration rates without affecting water table position or subsurface volumetric water contents as shallow as 5 cm below the surface. While these small events will be difficult to measure in the field, this study suggests they are essential to effectively track or model Sphagnum productivity because they may contribute significantly to seasonal carbon balance. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Separating host-tree and environmental determinants of honeydew production by Ultracoelostoma scale insects in a Nothofagus forest

    Abstract 1.,Sugar-rich honeydew excreted (,produced') by insects feeding on phloem sap is a key energy flow in a range of temperate and tropical ecosystems. The present study measured honeydew produced by Ultracoelostoma sp. (Homoptera: Coelostomidiidae) scale insects feeding on Nothofagus solandri var. solandri (Hook f.) Oerst. trees in a temperate evergreen forest in New Zealand. Simultaneous measurements of environmental variables and canopy photosynthesis were conducted to allow separation of host-tree and environmental determinants of honeydew production. These relationships were further examined in experiments where canopy photosynthesis was manipulated by shading or plant nitrogen levels increased by foliar spray. 2.,Rates of honeydew production varied nine-fold from a maximum ( 1 SE) of 64.4 15.2 mg dry mass m,2 bark h,1 in early summer (December) to a minimum of 7.4 4.2 mg m,2 h,1 in winter (August). Rates of production measured 1.4 m from the base of the trees' stems varied significantly with stem diameter, and were higher on medium-sized (18 cm diameter) than small or large stems. 3.,Rates of production were significantly related to environmental conditions over the hours preceding measurement (air temperature and air saturation deficit averaged over the preceding 24 and 12 h respectively). There was no evidence that rates of production were directly related to short-term changes in the supply of carbohydrates from the canopy (either when compared with measurements of unmanipulated photosynthetic rate, or after sugar levels were manipulated by shading 80% of host-trees' leaf area), or to changes in phloem nitrogen content. 4.,The results show that there is no clear effect of host-tree carbon supply on honeydew production; if production is related to photosynthesis, the effect of this is much less important that the large and significant direct effect of environmental conditions on honeydew production. [source]

    Atmospheric CO2 enrichment facilitates cation release from soil

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 3 2010
    L. Cheng
    Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 284,291 Abstract Atmospheric CO2 enrichment generally stimulates plant photosynthesis and nutrient uptake, modifying the local and global cycling of bioactive elements. Although nutrient cations affect the long-term productivity and carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems, little is known about the effect of CO2 enrichment on cation availability in soil. In this study, we present evidence for a novel mechanism of CO2 -enhancement of cation release from soil in rice agricultural systems. Elevated CO2 increased organic C allocation belowground and net H+ excretion from roots, and stimulated root and microbial respiration, reducing soil redox potential and increasing Fe2+ and Mn2+ in soil solutions. Increased H+, Fe2+, and Mn2+ promoted Ca2+ and Mg2+ release from soil cation exchange sites. These results indicate that over the short term, elevated CO2 may stimulate cation release from soil and enhance plant growth. Over the long-term, however, CO2 -induced cation release may facilitate cation losses and soil acidification, negatively feeding back to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. [source]

    Fire and the Miocene expansion of C4 grasslands

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 7 2005
    Jon E. Keeley
    Abstract C4 photosynthesis had a mid-Tertiary origin that was tied to declining atmospheric CO2, but C4 -dominated grasslands did not appear until late Tertiary. According to the ,CO2 -threshold' model, these C4 grasslands owe their origin to a further late Miocene decline in CO2 that gave C4 grasses a photosynthetic advantage. This model is most appropriate for explaining replacement of C3 grasslands by C4 grasslands, however, fossil evidence shows C4 grasslands replaced woodlands. An additional weakness in the threshold model is that recent estimates do not support a late Miocene drop in pCO2. We hypothesize that late Miocene climate changes created a fire climate capable of replacing woodlands with C4 grasslands. Critical elements were seasonality that sustained high biomass production part of year, followed by a dry season that greatly reduced fuel moisture, coupled with a monsoon climate that generated abundant lightning-igniting fires. As woodlands became more open from burning, the high light conditions favoured C4 grasses over C3 grasses, and in a feedback process, the elevated productivity of C4 grasses increased highly combustible fuel loads that further increased fire activity. This hypothesis is supported by paleosol data that indicate the late Miocene expansion of C4 grasslands was the result of grassland expansion into more mesic environments and by charcoal sediment profiles that parallel the late Miocene expansion of C4 grasslands. Many contemporary C4 grasslands are fire dependent and are invaded by woodlands upon cessation of burning. Thus, we maintain that the factors driving the late Miocene expansion of C4 were the same as those responsible for maintenance of C4 grasslands today. [source]

    Fathers, fruits and photosynthesis: pollen donor effects on fruit photosynthesis in wild parsnip

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 11 2003
    Arthur R. Zangerl
    Abstract Chlorophyll is frequently present in plant reproductive tissues and indicates that photosynthesis is occurring in these parts. Photosynthesis by a reproductive organ can contribute as much as 65% to its own growth. Given the advantages that increased photosynthetic rates might have on development of individual seeds competing for resources, selection can be expected to favour the ability of offspring to influence photosynthetic rates of the tissues surrounding them. We report in this study the first evidence that the pollen genotype can influence the rate of photosynthesis in the fruit tissues surrounding the developing offspring. Using a novel chlorophyll fluorescence imaging instrument to quantify quantum efficiency of photosystem II, we found significant differences in photosynthetic rates among fruits in wild parsnip, Pastinaca sativa L, associated with different pollen genotypes. [source]

    Photo-Induced Electron Transfer Between Photosystem 2 via Cross-linked Redox Hydrogels

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 10 2008
    Adrian Badura
    Abstract Photosystem 2 (PS2) that catalyses light driven water splitting in photosynthesis was ,wired' to electrode surfaces via osmium-containing redox polymers based on poly(vinyl)imidazol. The redox polymer hydrogel worked as both immobilization matrix and electron acceptor for the enzyme. Upon illumination, the enzymatic reaction could be switched on and a catalytic current was observed at the electrode. The catalytic current is directly dependent on the intensity of light used for the excitation of PS2. A typical current density of 45,,A cm,2 at a light intensity of 2.65,mW cm,2 could be demonstrated with a significantly improved operational stability. [source]

    Large-scale distribution and activity patterns of an extremely low-light-adapted population of green sulfur bacteria in the Black Sea

    Evelyn Marschall
    Summary The Black Sea chemocline represents the largest extant habitat of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and harbours a monospecific population of Chlorobium phylotype BS-1. High-sensitivity measurements of underwater irradiance and sulfide revealed that the optical properties of the overlying water column were similar across the Black Sea basin, whereas the vertical profiles of sulfide varied strongly between sampling sites and caused a dome-shaped three-dimensional distribution of the green sulfur bacteria. In the centres of the western and eastern basins the population of BS-1 reached upward to depths of 80 and 95 m, respectively, but were detected only at 145 m depth close to the shelf. Using highly concentrated chemocline samples from the centres of the western and eastern basins, the cells were found to be capable of anoxygenic photosynthesis under in situ light conditions and exhibited a photosynthesis,irradiance curve similar to low-light-adapted laboratory cultures of Chlorobium BS-1. Application of a highly specific RT-qPCR method which targets the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rrn operon of BS-1 demonstrated that only cells at the central station are physiologically active in contrast to those at the Black Sea periphery. Based on the detection of ITS-DNA sequences in the flocculent surface layer of deep-sea sediments across the Black Sea, the population of BS-1 has occupied the major part of the basin for the last decade. The continued presence of intact but non-growing BS-1 cells at the periphery of the Black Sea indicates that the cells can survive long-distant transport and exhibit unusually low maintenance energy requirements. According to laboratory measurements, Chlorobium BS-1 has a maintenance energy requirement of ,1.6,4.910,15 kJ cell,1 day,1 which is the lowest value determined for any bacterial culture so far. Chlorobium BS-1 thus is particularly well adapted to survival under the extreme low-light conditions of the Black Sea, and can be used as a laboratory model to elucidate general cellular mechanisms of long-term starvation survival. Because of its adaptation to extreme low-light marine environments, Chlorobium BS-1 also represents a suitable indicator for palaeoceanography studies of deep photic zone anoxia in ancient oceans. [source]

    Diel rhythm of nitrogen and carbon metabolism in the unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501

    Wiebke Mohr
    Summary We examined the diel variation in nitrogen and carbon metabolism in Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 at the physiological and gene expression level in order to determine the temporal constraints for N2 fixation and photosynthesis. N2 fixation and photosynthesis were restricted to the dark and light periods, respectively, during a 24 h light,dark cycle. All genes studied here except one (psbA2) showed diel variations in their expression levels. The highest variation was seen in nifH and nifX relative transcript abundance with a factor of 3,5 103 between light and dark periods. Photosynthesis genes showed less variation with a maximum factor of about 500 and always had high relative transcript abundances relative to other genes. At the protein level, the photosystems appeared more stable than the nitrogenase complex over a 24 h light,dark cycle, suggesting that C. watsonii retains the ability to photosynthesize during the dark period of the diel cycle. In contrast, nitrogenase is synthesized daily and exhibits peak abundance during the dark period. Our results have implications for field studies with respect to the interpretation of environmental gene expression data. [source]

    Autoinducers extracted from microbial mats reveal a surprising diversity of N -acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and abundance changes that may relate to diel pH

    Alan W. Decho
    Summary Microbial mats are highly structured and diverse communities, and one of the earliest-known life assemblages. Mat bacteria interact within an environment marked by strong geochemical gradients and fluctuations. We examined natural mat systems for the presence of autoinducers involved in quorum sensing, a form of cell,cell communication. Our results revealed that a diverse array of N -acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) including C4 - to C14 -AHLs, were identified from mat extracts using mass spectrometry (MS), with further confirmation by MS/MS-collision-induced dissociation (CID), and additions of external standards. Microelectrode measurements showed that mats exhibited diel pH fluctuations, ranging from alkaline (pH 9.4) during daytime (net photosynthesis) to acidic (pH 6.8) during darkness (net respiration/fermentation). Under laboratory conditions, AHLs having shorter acyl-chains were degraded within the time frame that daily alkaline pH (> 8.2) conditions exist in mats. Intensive sampling of mats after full day- or night-time incubations revealed that accumulations of extractable shorter-chain AHLs (e.g. C8 - and C10 -AHLs) were significantly (P < 0.001) diminished during daytime. Our study offers evidence that stabilities of AHLs under natural conditions may be influenced by the proximal extracellular environment. We further propose that the ancient periodicity of photosynthesis/respiration in mats may potentially drive a mechanism for diel differences in activities of certain autoinducers, and hence bacterial activities mediated through quorum sensing. [source]

    Contribution of Chloroflexus respiration to oxygen cycling in a hypersaline microbial mat from Lake Chiprana, Spain

    Lubos Polerecky
    Summary In dense stratified systems such as microbial mats, photosynthesis and respiration are coupled due to a tight spatial overlap between oxygen-producing and -consuming microorganisms. We combined microsensors and a membrane inlet mass spectrometer with two independent light sources emitting in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) regions to study this coupling in more detail. Using this novel approach, we separately quantified the activity of the major players in the oxygen cycle in a hypersaline microbial mat: gross photosynthesis of cyanobacteria, NIR light-dependent respiration of Chloroflexus -like bacteria (CLB) and respiration of aerobic heterotrophs. Illumination by VIS light induced oxygen production in the top ,1 mm of the mat. In this zone CLB were found responsible for all respiration, while the contribution of the aerobic heterotrophs was negligible. Additional illumination of the mat with saturating NIR light completely switched off CLB respiration, resulting in zero respiration in the photosynthetically active zone. We demonstrate that microsensor-based quantification of gross and net photosyntheses in dense stratified systems should carefully consider the NIR light-dependent behaviour of CLB and other anoxygenic phototrophic groups. [source]

    Polyphyletic photosynthetic reaction centre genes in oligotrophic marine Gammaproteobacteria

    Jang-Cheon Cho
    Summary Ecological studies indicate that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) that use bacteriochlorophyll to support phototrophic electron transport are widely distributed in the oceans. All cultivated marine AAP are alpha-3 and alpha-4 Proteobacteria, but metagenomic evidence indicates that uncultured AAP Gammaproteobacteria are important members of ocean surface microbial communities. Here we report the description of obligately oligotrophic, marine Gammaproteobacteria that have genes for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Three strains belonging to the OM60 clade were isolated in autoclaved seawater media. Polymerase chain reaction assays for the pufM gene show that these strains contain photosynthetic reaction centre genes. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicate that the pufM genes are polyphyletic, suggesting multiple instances of lateral gene transfer. Peptide sequences from six photosynthesis genes (pufL, pufM, pufC, pufB, pufA and puhA) were detected by proteomic analyses of strain HTCC2080 cells grown aerobically in seawater. They closely match predicted peptides from an environmental seawater bacterial artificial chromosome clone of gammaproteobacterial origin, thus identifying the OM60 clade as a significant source of gammaproteobacterial AAP genes in marine systems. The cell yield and rate of growth of HTCC2080 in autoclaved, aerobic seawater increased in the light. These findings identify the OM60 clade as a source of Gammaproteobacteria AAP genes in coastal oceans, and demonstrate that aerobic, anoxygenic photosynthetic metabolism can enhance the productivity of marine oligotrophic bacteria that also grow heterotrophically in darkness. [source]

    Disturbance and recovery of microbial community structure and function following Hurricane Frances

    Anthony C. Yannarell
    Summary Disturbance and recovery influence microbial community structure and ecosystem functions in most natural environments. This study from a hypersaline Bahamian lagoon details the response of a benthic cyanobacterial mat to disturbance by Hurricane Frances, a category-4 storm. Clone libraries of cyanobacterial small subunit r-RNA genes and nitrogenase genes revealed significant shifts in cyanobacterial and diazotroph community composition following the hurricane. Post-hurricane clone libraries were dominated by sequences that had been rare in pre-hurricane communities. In spite of this dominance shift, re-colonizing mat communities performed nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis at rates within the normal range of variation measured in the mat at similar salinities. There was a tendency for nitrogen fixation rates from mats re-colonizing sites with hurricane-related sand deposition to be higher than those from mats re-colonizing sites without significant sand deposition. This suggests that the altered communities responded to a carbon : nitrogen imbalance that was particularly pronounced in areas subjected to disturbance by sand burial. The post-hurricane dominance of organisms that had been previously rare suggests that pre-hurricane diversity and functional redundancy contributed to the rapid recovery of ecosystem function in the post-disturbance environment. [source]

    Diversity of the cadmium-containing carbonic anhydrase in marine diatoms and natural waters

    Haewon Park
    Summary A recent report of a novel carbonic anhydrase (CDCA1) with Cd as its metal centre in the coastal diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii has led us to search for the occurrence of this Cd enzyme (CDCA) in other marine phytoplankton and in the environment. Using degenerate primers designed from the published sequences from T. weissflogii and a putative sequence in the genome of Thalassiosira pseudonana, we show that CDCA is widespread in diatom species and ubiquitous in the environment. All detected genes share more than 64% amino acid identity with the CDCA of T. pseudonana. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of CDCA shows that the putative Cd binding site resembles that of beta-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs). The prevalence of CAs in diatoms that presumably contain Cd at their active site probably reflects the very low concentration of Zn in the marine environment and the difficulty in acquiring inorganic carbon for photosynthesis. The cdca primers developed in this study should be useful for detecting cdca genes in the field, and studying the conditions under which they are expressed. [source]

    Potential photosynthesis gene recombination between Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus via viral intermediates

    Gil Zeidner
    Summary Genes (psbA and psbD) encoding for photosynthetically important proteins were recently found in a number of cultured cyanophage genomes. This phenomenon may be a beneficial trait to the viruses or their photosynthetic cyanobacterial hosts, or may represent an untapped pool of genes involved in the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus that are prone to lateral gene transfer. Here we show analyses of psbA genes from uncultured environmental viruses and prophage populations. We observe a statistically significant separation between viral genes and their potential Synechococcus hosts' genes, and statistical analyses under models of codon evolution indicate that the psbA genes of viruses are evolving under levels of purifying selection that are virtually indistinguishable from their hosts. Furthermore, our data also indicate the possible exchange and reshuffling of psbA genes between Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus via phage intermediates. Overall, these observations raise the possibility that marine viruses serve as a potential genetic pool in shaping the evolution of cyanobacterial photosynthesis. [source]

    Bacterial photosynthesis: An annotated selection of World Wide Web sites relevant to the topics in Environmental Microbiology

    Lawrence P. Wackett
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The responses of photosynthesis and oxygen consumption to short-term changes in temperature and irradiance in a cyanobacterial mat (Ebro Delta, Spain)

    Eric Epping
    We have evaluated the effects of short-term changes in incident irradiance and temperature on oxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in a hypersaline cyanobacterial mat from the Ebro Delta, Spain, in which Microcoleus chthonoplastes was the dominant phototrophic organism. The mat was incubated in the laboratory at 15, 20, 25 and 30C at incident irradiances ranging from 0 to 1000 mol photons m,2 s,1. Oxygen microsensors were used to measure steady-state oxygen profiles and the rates of gross photosynthesis, which allowed the calculation of areal gross photosynthesis, areal net oxygen production, and oxygen consumption in the aphotic layer of the mat. The lowest surface irradiance that resulted in detectable rates of gross photosynthesis increased with increasing temperature from 50 mol photons m,2 s,1 at 15C to 500 mol photons m,2 s,1 at 30C. These threshold irradiances were also apparent from the areal rates of net oxygen production and point to the shift of M. chthonoplastes from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis and stimulation of sulphide production and oxidation rates at elevated temperatures. The rate of net oxygen production per unit area of mat at maximum irradiance, J0, did not change with temperature, whereas, JZphot, the flux of oxygen across the lower boundary of the euphotic zone increased linearly with temperature. The rate of oxygen consumption per volume of aphotic mat increased with temperature. This increase occurred in darkness, but was strongly enhanced at high irradiances, probably as a consequence of increased rates of photosynthate exudation, stimulating respiratory processes in the mat. The compensation irradiance (Ec) marking the change of the mat from a heterotrophic to an autotrophic community, increased exponentially in this range of temperatures. [source]

    Combined effects of the fungicide propiconazole and agricultural runoff sediments on the aquatic bryophyte Vesicularia dubyana

    Qinglan Wu
    Abstract Pesticides, firmly attached to the topsoil, might enter nearby watercourses at periods with high erosive loss of sediments. Therefore, exposure of aquatic organisms to these low mobility pesticides, in many cases, will coincide with a high sediment concentration. In this study, both individual and combined effects of propiconazole and runoff sediment on the aquatic model bryophyte Vesicularia dubyana are studied. Individual exposure to propiconazole induced responses in V. dubyana at rather low concentration levels (,1 ,g/L), showing that harmful effects of propiconazole potentially may occur in watercourses draining propiconazole-treated fields. Individual exposure to the sediment size fractions S1 (0.16,2 ,m) and S2 (0.03,0.16 ,m) caused plant stress at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The coarser fraction S1 showed strong inhibition effects on photosynthesis, probably due to light attenuation. Compared to S1, the suspension with the finer fraction S2 showed lower turbidity, higher nutrient content, and a higher proportion of sediment-bound propiconazole. The combined effects of propiconazole and suspended sediment are dependent on concentrations of sediment and propiconazole. At low sediment concentration (e.g., 100 mg/L), neither S1 nor S2 reduce the toxicity of propiconazole, as only 2% of propiconazole are bound to particles. An increase in sediment concentration decreases the bioavailable concentration of propiconazole; however, at the same time, this increases the turbidity, thereby inhibiting plant photosynthesis. [source]

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and environment on root development in soil

    D. Atkinson
    Summary The production of fine roots is one of the principal means by which carbon, fixed during photosynthesis, enters the soil, and quantifying the production for particular combinations of environmental and biotic factors is important for predicting the sequestration of carbon in the soils of grassland ecosystems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can have a major effect on the production of roots, and we studied how colonization by AMF affects the lifespan of roots. Twenty per cent of control roots of Trifolium repens survived for longer than 42 days whereas 37% survived that long in AMF-colonized plants. The overall survival of the roots of Lolium perenne was less than in T. repens: around 10% of roots survived beyond 42 days and this was not affected by AMF colonization. Previous studies have shown that lifespans of roots can be affected by temperature. We tested the hypothesis that these observations are linked to a change in the morphology of the root system caused by temperature and also by AMF. We found that inoculation with AMF in a microcosm study using Plantago lanceolata grown at various temperatures, with and without AMF, showed no clear effect of AMF on branching patterns. Temperature had a significant effect on total lengths, numbers and branching rates of some higher orders of roots. Total lengths of both secondary and tertiary roots grown at 27C were about double those of plants grown at 15C. Colonization by AMF tended to reduce this effect. Evidently the effect of colonization by AMF on root lifespan depends on the species. Increased branching, and thus a greater proportion of ephemeral roots, was responsible for shortening the lives of the roots at increased temperature, which suggests a strong link between lifespan and morphology. [source]

    Influence of narrowband UVB phototherapy on vitamin D and folate status

    Emanuela Cicarma
    Please cite this paper as: Influence of narrowband UVB phototherapy on vitamin D and folate status. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: e67,e72. Abstract Background:, A variety of studies have shown beneficial effects of different types of phototherapy in skin disorders. Such therapy leads to enhanced cutaneous vitamin D synthesis, which may be one of the mechanisms of action. Furthermore, another nutrient, folate, can probably also be influenced by UV radiation. Objective:, The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of low-dose narrowband UVB (nUVB) phototherapy of patients with psoriasis, atopic eczema and other skin disorders on serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D (the serum marker for vitamin D status) and on serum and erythrocyte-folate. Methods:, 25(OH) vitamin D (25(OH)D), serum and erythrocyte-folate levels were measured before and after low-dose nUVB (TL-01 tubes) phototherapy of these patients. The spectrum of the TL-01 tube was compared with the solar spectrum, and the efficiency spectra of vitamin D photosynthesis were calculated. Results:, For patients with a high initial 25(OH)D serum level (> 80 nmol/l), no significant (P = 0.36) increase in 25(OH)D levels was seen, in contrast to patients with a low initial level (< 80 nmol/l) where a significant increase (P < 0.001) was observed. The increase was 30,60%, depending on the UVB dose (2.35,13.4 J/cm2). No significant nUVB-effect was found on the erythrocyte and serum-folate level. Conclusion:, Low-dose nUVB treatment gives a significant increase (P < 0.001) of the vitamin D status in persons with low initial levels of 25(OH)D, but no effect on the folate level. [source]

    Heterointegration of Pt/Si/Ag Nanowire Photodiodes and Their Photocatalytic Properties

    Yongquan Qu
    Abstract Photocatalyst mediated photoelectrochemical processes can make use of the photogenerated electrons and holes onsite for photocatalytic redox reactions, and enable the harness and conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, in analogy to natural photosynthesis. However, the photocatalysts available to date are limited by either poor efficiency in the visible light range or insufficient photoelectrochemical stability. Here, it is shown that a Pt/Si/Ag nanowire heterostructure can be rationally synthesized to integrate a nanoscale metal-semiconductor Schottky diode encased in a protective insulating shell with two exposed metal catalysts. The synthesis of Pt/Si/Ag nanowire diodes involves a scalable process including the formation of silicon nanowire array through wet chemical etching, electrodeposition of platinum and photoreduction of silver. The Pt/Si/Ag diodes exhibit highly efficient photocatalytic activity for a wide range of applications including environmental remediation and solar fuel production in the visible range. In this article, photodegradation of indigo carmine and 4-nitrophenol are used to evaluate the photoactivity of Pt/Si/Ag diodes. The Pt/Si/Ag diodes also show high activity for photoconversion of formic acid into carbon dioxide and hydrogen. [source]

    Heterointegration of Pt/Si/Ag Nanowire Photodiodes and Their Photocatalytic Properties

    Yongquan Qu
    Abstract Photocatalyst mediated photoelectrochemical processes can make use of the photogenerated electrons and holes onsite for photocatalytic redox reactions, and enable the harness and conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, in analogy to natural photosynthesis. However, the photocatalysts available to date are limited by either poor efficiency in the visible light range or insufficient photoelectrochemical stability. Here, it is shown that a Pt/Si/Ag nanowire heterostructure can be rationally synthesized to integrate a nanoscale metal-semiconductor Schottky diode encased in a protective insulating shell with two exposed metal catalysts. The synthesis of Pt/Si/Ag nanowire diodes involves a scalable process including the formation of silicon nanowire array through wet chemical etching, electrodeposition of platinum and photoreduction of silver. The Pt/Si/Ag diodes exhibit highly efficient photocatalytic activity for a wide range of applications including environmental remediation and solar fuel production in the visible range. In this article, photodegradation of indigo carmine and 4-nitrophenol are used to evaluate the photoactivity of Pt/Si/Ag diodes. The Pt/Si/Ag diodes also show high activity for photoconversion of formic acid into carbon dioxide and hydrogen. [source]

    Expression of the recombinant bacterial outer surface protein A in tobacco chloroplasts leads to thylakoid localization and loss of photosynthesis

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 21 2007
    Anna Hennig
    Bacterial lipoproteins play crucial roles in host,pathogen interactions and pathogenesis and are important targets for the immune system. A prominent example is the outer surface protein A (OspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi, which has been efficiently used as a vaccine for the prevention of Lyme disease. In a previous study, OspA could be produced in tobacco chloroplasts in a lipidated and immunogenic form. To further explore the potential of chloroplasts for the production of bacterial lipoproteins, the role of the N-terminal leader sequence was investigated. The amount of recombinant OspA could be increased up to ten-fold by the variation of the insertion site in the chloroplast genome. Analysis of OspA mutants revealed that replacement of the invariant cysteine residue as well as deletion of the leader sequence abolishes palmitolyation of OspA. Also, decoration of OspA with an N-terminal eukaryotic lipidation motif does not lead to palmitoylation in chloroplasts. Strikingly, the bacterial signal peptide of OspA efficiently targets the protein to thylakoids, and causes a mutant phenotype. Plants accumulating OspA at 10% total soluble protein could not grow without exogenously supplied sugars and rapidly died after transfer to soil under greenhouse conditions. The plants were found to be strongly affected in photosystem II, as revealed by the analyses of temporal and spatial dynamics of photosynthetic activity by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Thus, overexpression of OspA in chloroplasts is limited by its concentration-dependent interference with essential functions of chloroplastic membranes required for primary metabolism. [source]

    Dominance of a clonal green sulfur bacterial population in a stratified lake

    Lea H. Gregersen
    Abstract For many years, the chemocline of the meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, was dominated by purple sulfur bacteria. However, following a major community shift in recent years, green sulfur bacteria (GSB) have come to dominate. We investigated this community by performing microbial diversity surveys using FISH cell counting and population multilocus sequence typing [clone library sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA locus and two loci involved in photosynthesis in GSB: fmoA and csmCA]. All bacterial populations clearly stratified according to water column chemistry. The GSB population peaked in the chemocline (c. 8 106 GSB cells mL,1) and constituted about 50% of all cells in the anoxic zones of the water column. At least 99.5% of these GSB cells had SSU rRNA, fmoA, and csmCA sequences essentially identical to that of the previously isolated and genome-sequenced GSB Chlorobium clathratiforme strain BU-1 (DSM 5477). This ribotype was not detected in Lake Cadagno before the bloom of GSB. These observations suggest that the C. clathratiforme population that has stabilized in Lake Cadagno is clonal. We speculate that such a clonal bloom could be caused by environmental disturbance, mutational adaptation, or invasion. [source]

    Limitation of oxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen consumption by phosphate and organic nitrogen in a hypersaline microbial mat: a microsensor study

    Rebecca Ludwig
    Abstract Microbial mats are characterized by high primary production but low growth rates, pointing to a limitation of growth by the lack of nutrients or substrates. We identified compounds that instantaneously stimulated photosynthesis rates and oxygen consumption rates in a hypersaline microbial mat by following the short-term response (c. 6 h) of these processes to addition of nutrients, organic and inorganic carbon compounds, using microsensors. Net photosynthesis rates were not stimulated by compound additions. However, both gross photosynthesis and oxygen consumption were substantially stimulated (by a minimum of 25%) by alanine (1 mM) and glutamate (3.5 mM) as well as by phosphate (0.1 mM). A low concentration of ammonium (0.1 mM) did not affect photosynthesis and oxygen consumption, whereas a higher concentration (3.5 mM) decreased both process rates. High concentrations of glycolate (5 mM) and phosphate (1 mM) inhibited gross photosynthesis but not oxygen consumption, leading to a decrease of net photosynthesis. Photosynthesis was not stimulated by addition of inorganic carbon, nor was oxygen consumption stimulated by organic compounds like glycolate (5 mM) or glucose (5 mM), indicating that carbon was efficiently cycled within the mat. Photosynthesis and oxygen consumption were apparently tightly coupled, because stimulations always affected both processes to the same extent, which resulted in unchanged net photosynthesis rates. These findings illustrate that microsensor techniques, due to their ability to quantify all three processes, can clarify community responses to nutrient enrichment studies much better than techniques that solely monitor net fluxes. [source]

    Allocation of plant carbon to foraging and storage in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Mayra E Gavito
    Abstract Foraging strategies, the cost,benefit associated with the search for new resources, have only begun to be explored in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We show the use of 13C-labelling, via shoot photosynthesis, of the 16:1,5 fatty acid biomarker (the dominant and rather specific fatty acid in AMF storage lipids) to study the immediate patterns of carbon allocation to fungal lipids in response to inorganic and organic nutrient amendments. Signature fatty acid measurements, the incorporation of the label and complementary hyphal length density measurements showed that the extraradical mycelium of AMF proliferated in response to all the amendments provided whereas its development into unamended sand was minor in all treatments. We demonstrate the foraging capacity of AMF, linked to plant carbon, through their hyphal proliferation and accumulation of energy reserves. [source]

    Physiological responses of cork oak and holm oak to infection by fungal pathogens involved in oak decline

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    B. T. Linaldeddu
    Summary The aim of this research was to study the changes in net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance values in 3-year-old cork oak and holm oak seedlings growing in natural conditions and inoculated with Apiognomonia quercina, Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Botryosphaeria corticola and Pleurophoma cava. Throughout the 4-month experimental period, the evolution of visual external symptoms and the values of physiological variables were periodically recorded. All pathogens caused stem lesions around the infection point; however, the lesions caused by B. corticola were longer in both oak species. On cork oak seedlings, all pathogens induced a significant and gradual reduction in net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance values, whereas other physiological disturbances were induced only by B. corticola infections on holm oak seedlings. [source]

    UV-B radiation constrains the photosynthesis of Quercus robur through impacts on the abundance of Microsphaera alphitoides

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
    By K. K. Newsham
    Summary Quercus robur saplings were exposed at an outdoor facility in the UK to supplemental levels of UV-B radiation (280,315 nm) under arrays of cellulose diacetate-filtered fluorescent lamps which also produced UV-A radiation (315,400 nm). Saplings were also exposed to supplemental UV-A radiation under arrays of polyester-filtered lamps and to ambient levels of solar radiation under arrays of unenergized lamps. The UV-B treatment was modulated to maintain a 30% elevation above the ambient level of erythemally weighted UV-B radiation. Naturally occurring infections by oak powdery mildew (Microsphaera alphitoides) were more abundant, and developed more rapidly, on lammas leaves of saplings which were exposed to treatment levels of UV-B radiation than on leaves of saplings exposed to supplemental UV-A or to ambient levels of solar radiation over 12 weeks in summer and autumn 1996. An analysis of leaf photosynthetic capacities revealed that M. alphitoides infection reduced the quantum efficiency of photosystem (PS) II by 14% at moderate irradiance. Although there was no direct effect of UV-B radiation on PSII photochemistry, exposure of saplings to supplemental UV-A radiation under polyester-filtered lamps resulted in a 17.5% decrease in PSII quantum efficiency, compared with saplings exposed to ambient solar radiation. The results from our study suggest that photosynthesis of Q. robur may be constrained by exposure to UV-B radiation in the natural environment through impacts on the abundance of M. alphitoides. [source]

    Assessing the sources and magnitude of diurnal nitrate variability in the San Joaquin River (California) with an in situ optical nitrate sensor and dual nitrate isotopes

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Summary 1.,We investigated diurnal nitrate (NO3,) concentration variability in the San Joaquin River using an in situ optical NO3, sensor and discrete sampling during a 5-day summer period characterized by high algal productivity. Dual NO3, isotopes (,15NNO3 and ,18ONO3) and dissolved oxygen isotopes (,18ODO) were measured over 2 days to assess NO3, sources and biogeochemical controls over diurnal time-scales. 2.,Concerted temporal patterns of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and ,18ODO were consistent with photosynthesis, respiration and atmospheric O2 exchange, providing evidence of diurnal biological processes independent of river discharge. 3.,Surface water NO3, concentrations varied by up to 22% over a single diurnal cycle and up to 31% over the 5-day study, but did not reveal concerted diurnal patterns at a frequency comparable to DO concentrations. The decoupling of ,15NNO3 and ,18ONO3 isotopes suggests that algal assimilation and denitrification are not major processes controlling diurnal NO3, variability in the San Joaquin River during the study. The lack of a clear explanation for NO3, variability likely reflects a combination of riverine biological processes and time-varying physical transport of NO3, from upstream agricultural drains to the mainstem San Joaquin River. 4.,The application of an in situ optical NO3, sensor along with discrete samples provides a view into the fine temporal structure of hydrochemical data and may allow for greater accuracy in pollution assessment. [source]

    The significance of side-arm connectivity for carbon dynamics of the River Danube, Austria

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Summary 1. Side-arms connected to the main stem of the river are key areas for biogeochemical cycling in fluvial landscapes, exhibiting high rates of carbon processing. 2. This work focused on quantifying autochthonous and allochthonous carbon pools and, thereby, on comparing transport and transformation processes in a restored side-arm system of the River Danube (Regelsbrunn). We established a carbon budget and quantified carbon processing from March to September 2003. In addition, data from previous studies during 1997 to 1999 were assessed. 3. Gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration were estimated by diel oxygen time curves and an oxygen mass balance. Plankton primary production was determined to estimate its contribution to GPP under different hydrological conditions. 4. Based on the degree of connectivity, three hydrological phases were differentiated. Most of the organic matter, dominated by allochthonous carbon, was transported in the main channel and through the side-arm during floods, while at intermediate and low flows (and thus connectivity), transformation processes became more important and autochthonous carbon dominated the carbon pool. The side-arm system functioned as a sink for particulate matter [total suspended solids and particulate organic carbon (POC)] and a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chlorophyll- a. 5. Autochthonous primary production of 4.2 t C day,1 in the side-arm was equivalent to about 20% of the allochthonous inputs of 20 t C day,1 (POC and DOC) entering the area at mean flow (1% of the discharge of the main channel). Pelagic photosynthesis was generally high at mean flow (1.3,3.8 g C m,2 day,1), and contributed up to 90% of system productivity. During long stagnant periods at low discharge, the side-arm was controlled by biological processes and a shift from planktonic to benthic activity occurred (benthic primary production of 0.4,14 g C m,2 day,1). 6. The transformation of the organic matter that passes through the side-arm under different hydrological conditions, points to the importance of these subsystems in contributing autochthonous carbon to the food web of the main channel. [source]

    CO2 uptake patterns depend on water current velocity and shoot morphology in submerged stream macrophytes

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
    Summary 1. The influence of current velocity on the pattern of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in three species of submerged stream macrophytes was described by analysing the grain density in autoradiographs of leaves exposed to 14CO2. 2. In Elodea canadensis, the CO2 uptake was approximately two-fold higher near the leaf periphery compared with the midrib section at high current velocity, whereas at low current velocity the area of relatively high CO2 uptake expanded from the leaf periphery towards the midrib and basal sections of the leaves. 3. In Potamogeton crispus and Callitriche stagnalis the CO2 uptake was uniform throughout the leaves at low current velocity, whereas at high current velocity the CO2 uptake appeared to increase randomly in some areas of the leaves. 4. The relationship between the photosynthetic CO2 uptake pattern and the dynamics of flow surrounding submerged shoots at low and high current velocity is discussed in relation to shoot morphology. In E. canadensis, thick diffusive boundary layers may develop between leaves because of screening effects at high current velocity. Increased diffusion path for CO2 may contribute to inhibitory effects on photosynthesis in this species. [source]